Definitions and acronyms

The following is a glossary of some key terms, concepts and acronyms used on this and other associated websites. The terms and definitions are drawn from a number of sources including legislation, standards, codes of practice, guides, reports and other documents.

A – B

Term or acronym


ABC Airway, Breathing, Circulation.
A-train An articulated vehicle towing a full trailer.
A-weighting The A-frequency weighting specified in the International Standard IEC 651:1979. (Note: A-frequency weighting is used because it approximates the response of the human ear.)
Abatement The removal or significant reduction of a source of hazard and intervention to reduce exposure to a hazard.
Abnormal result A deviation from normal. This may be related to adverse health effects but this is not necessarily so.
Abrasive Mineral or other substance used for grinding, sharpening etc., for example, aluminium oxide, silicon carbide, diamond dust.
Abrasive blasting The cleaning, smoothing, roughening, cutting, or removing of part of the surface of any article by the use as an abrasive of a jet of sand, metal shot, or grit or other material, propelled by a blast of compressed air or steam or by a wheel.
Abrasive wheel (a) A wheel, cylinder, disk or cone consisting wholly or partly of abrasive particles held together by mineral, metallic or organic bonds whether natural or artificial; (b) a mounted wheel or point and a wheel or disk having separate segments of abrasive materials; (c) a wheel or disk made of either metal, wood, cloth, felt, rubber, paper or any other material and having a surface consisting wholly or partly of abrasive particles; (d) a wheel or disk the surface of which has a rim or segments consisting of diamond abrasive particles; (e) and all of which are, or intended to be, power driven and used in any grinding operation. An abrasive wheel revolves at high speed, attached to a spindle, for the purpose of removing material from any workpiece against the grinding face. Operations vary in precision from cutting steel or concrete on construction sites to the surface finishing of machine parts or jewellery.
Abrasion A superficial injury where the skin is rubbed or torn; not a deep injury.
ABS American Bureau of Shipping.
ABS (anti-lock braking system) Brakes that are are designed to prevent wheel lock by automatically pumping at a rate of up to 18 times per second whenever a sensor detects the start of wheel lock.
Absorbed dose (radiation) The energy imparted to matter by ionization per unit mass of irradiated material at the place of interest. The derived unit of absorbed dose is the gray, being equal to 1 joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of material irradiated. 1 Gy = 1 J kg-1
Absorption Process by which chemicals can enter the body through pores in the skin.
Abuse (Drug, alcohol, chemical, substance, or psychoactive substance) Psychiatric substance abuse has been defined as 'a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by ... continued use despite psychological or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the use (or by) recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous'. Harmful use and hazardous use are the equivalent terms in WHO usage, although they usually relate only to the effects on health and not to social consequences. The WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence definition is: 'Persistent or sporadic excessive drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice'.
AC Alternating current. This is electric current which reverses direction periodically, usually many times a second.
ACAS Airborne collision avoidance system.
ACC Accident Compensation Corporation, the agency responsible for the administration of the Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2001.
ACC Area control centre.
Accessible Having features to permit use by people with disabilities.
Accessible route An access route usable by people with disabilities. It shall be a continuous route that can be negotiated unaided by a wheelchair user. The route shall extend from street boundary or car parking area to those spaces within the building required to be accessible to enable people with disabilities to carry out normal activities and processes within the building.
ACCT Association for Challenge Course Technology.
Acceptable risk The level of risk that is sufficiently low that society is prepared to accept it without wishing to spend time and money to reduce it.
Access authority See Written authority.
Access route A continuous route that permits people and goods to move between the apron or construction edge of the building to spaces within a building, and between spaces within a building.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) An enzyme in nervous tissue which inactivates a 'neurotransmitter', acetylcholine (AChol).
ACVM Act Agricultural Compounds and Veterinary Medicines Act 1997.
Acceptable daily exposure (ADE) The amount of a hazardous substance (mg/kg body weight/day) that, given a lifetime of daily exposure, would be unlikely to result in adverse health effects.
Access cover A panel covering an opening that is designed to permit access by a person to the interior of plant or equipment for the purpose of service or maintenance.
Accessible Having features to permit use by people with disabilities.
Accessible route An access route usable by people with disabilities. It shall be a continuous route that can be negotiated unaided by a wheelchair user. The route shall extend from street boundary or carparking area to those spaces within the building required to be accessible to enable people with disabilities to carry out normal activities and processes within the building.
Accident An event that (a) causes any person to be harmed; or (b) in different circumstances, might have caused any person to be harmed.
Accident (aircraft) An occurrence that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and such time as all such persons have disembarked and the engine or any propellers or rotors come to rest, being an occurrence in which: (1) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of: (i) being in the aircraft; or (ii) direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including any part that has become detached from the aircraft; or (iii) direct exposure to jet blast - except when the injuries are self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to passengers and crew; or (2) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure that- (i) adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft; and (ii) would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component - except engine failure or damage that is limited to the engine, its cowlings, or accessories, or damage limited to propellers, wing tips, rotors, antennas, tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents, or puncture holes in the aircraft skin; or (3) the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible:
Accident alert A 1-2 page information bulletin issued by OSH following a serious accident. The alert describes what happened in the accident, the circumstances of the accident, the result of the OSH investigation, and recommendations on how future accidents of this type could be prevented.
Accident prevention consultant A consultant who assists employers to develop safety and health management systems.
Accident prevention tag A miniature sign on card, paper, pasteboard or similar temporary or semi-permanent material, which can be attached to plant, equipment or other objects for the purpose of imposing a regulatory requirement or advising or informing users about some safety aspect of the item.
Accident register Book for recording serious and non-serious harm in the workplace.
Acclimatisation The physiological processes by which a person adapts themselves to work safely and comfortably in an environment of temperature extremes.
Accountability The acceptance of rights and responsibility for conduct or behaviour. It is an acceptance of responsibility to self, the profession, the client, employers, and to society as a whole.
Accredited inspection body An inspection body that holds current accreditation for the inspection work performed and that is recognised by the Secretary of Labour as provided for in the Health and Safety in Employment (PECPR) Regulations 1999. The inspection work may be all or any of: design verification, fabrication inspection or in-service inspection activities, relating to the equipment under the scope of the Regulations.
Accumulator (Hydraulic) A device or vessel used to store fluid at a constant pressure, and to even out pressure fluctuations.
Accused, or person accused of the offence In relation to a victim, means a person charged (whether as a principal or party or accessory after the fact or otherwise) with the commission of the offence that affected the victim.
AChE Acetyl cholinesterase (in RBC).
AChol Acetylcholine
ACOEM American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
ACOP Approved code of practice.
Acoustic calibrator A device for applying a sound pressure of known level to the microphone of a sound measuring system for the purpose of calibration.
Aquaculture diving Diving by those involved in fish, shellfish or plant aquatic farming; may include harvesting.
  • It involves minor or routine maintenance and repair work.
  • It does not include construction diving activities.
Actinic degradation In relation to rope, means its chemical breakdown by solar radiation.
Actinolite A type of asbestos.
Actuator Part of a switch which is moved by an outside force.
Active (Phase or Live) (Symbols A, P or L) Any wire used to conduct electricity that is maintained at a different voltage from the neutral or earth wires. Colours: brown or red.
Active conductor Any electrical conductor in which the electrical potential differs from that of a neutral conductor or earth.
Active control The control of vehicular or pedestrian traffic across a railway level crossing by devices such as flashing lights, bells, barrier arms or a combination of these. These control devices are activated prior to and during the time a train is passing.
Active medical device (a) Means a medical device that is intended by the manufacturer: (i) to depend for its operation on a source of electrical energy or other source of energy (other than a source of energy generated directly by a human being or gravity); and (ii) to act by converting that energy; but (b) does not include a medical device that is intended by the manufacturer to transmit energy, a substance, or any other element, between a medical device to which paragraph (a) applies and a human being without any significant change in the energy, substance, or other element being transmitted.
Active medical device for therapy An active medical device that is intended by the manufacturer to be used on a person, either alone or in combination with another medical device, to support, modify, replace, or restore biological functions or structures for the purpose of treating or alleviating an illness, injury, or handicap.
Activity In relation to any equipment, means any of the following: (a) adjustment; (b) alteration; (c) commissioning; (d) construction; (e) disposal; (f) design; (g) design verification; (h) equipment inspection; (i) installation; (j) investigation; (k) maintenance; (l) manufacture; (m) operation; (n) repair; (o) testing.
Activity (A) The number of nuclear transformations or disintegrations occurring in a quantity of radioactive material per unit time. The SI unit of radioactivity is the becquerel (Bq) (1 disintegration per second).
Acute aquatic ecotoxicity value The lowest value expressed in units of milligrams of a substance per litre of water from: (a) fish LC50 data after a 96-hour exposure period; or (b) crustacean EC50 data after a 48-hour exposure period; or (c) algal, or other aquatic plant, EC50 data after a 72-hour or 96-hour exposure period.
Acute exposure Exposure resulting from a single dose of a toxic substance with immediate effects on health.
Acute low back pain The short-term (less than three months) presence of pain in the low back, without leg symptoms or the presence of a serious back injury or those medical conditions called 'red flags' in the New Zealand Acute Low Back Pain Guide. Research has shown that the majority of back claims, taken across the entire population, fall into this category.
Acute toxicity Where a toxic effect occurs immediately or shortly after a single exposure.
ADAS Australian Diver Accreditation Scheme.
ADF Automatic direction-finder.
Additive A substance added to fuel in trace or small quantities in order to bring about specific benefits.
ADI Acceptable daily intake for pesticide residues in food, determined by toxicological data estimating safe consumption levels over a lifetime of daily exposure and incorporating a safety factor of at least 100.
Adjourned (ERS Employment Court, Tribunal or Authority) A scheduled hearing that was adjourned.
Adjourned part heard (ERS Employment Court, Tribunal or Authority) A hearing that took place where the hearing or investigation is not completed and will require a further hearing or investigation.
Adjourned sine die (ERS Employment Court, Tribunal or Authority) An adjournment without a further date being set for resumption.
Adjudication (ERS Tribunal) A process where an adjudicator after hearing both sides makes a decision for the parties.
Adjudicator (ERS Tribunal) A Tribunal member who holds an adjudicator's warrant.
Administratively withdrawn (ERS Employment Court, Tribunal or Authority) An application is withdrawn by the Registry in the absence of contact from the initiating party or applicant. Only initiating parties can legally withdraw an application.
Administrative controls Controls to reduce or eliminate an employee's exposure to a hazard by changing the duration, frequency, and/or severity of exposure. Examples of administrative controls include rotating employees to jobs free of the specific hazard, adjusting work schedules, and providing adequate staffing when the work output is increased. It does not include engineering controls or the use of personal protective equipment.
Adsorption The condensation of gases, liquids, or dissolved substances on the surfaces of solids.
Advanced scaffolding Includes: (a) basic scaffolding: (b) suspended scaffolding: (c) a barrow ramp: (d) a bracket scaffold for tank work and formwork: (e) a cantilevered scaffold: (f) a catch net: (g) a hoist that is cantilevered from a scaffold, has a load limit not exceeding 250 kilograms, and is used for no purpose other than the support of material: (h) hung scaffolding, including scaffolding hung from a chain, tube, or wire rope: (i) a load platform cantilevered from a scaffold: (j) a mast climber: (k) a safety net for public protection: (l) scaffolding associated with a perimeter safety screen or shutter: (m) a sloping platform: (n) a spurred scaffold: (o) tube and coupler scaffolding, including a covered way or gantry made of tube and coupler scaffolding.
Adventure education Education based on activities that create challenge and excitement by deliberately exposing participants to elements of risk. The purpose of adventure education is to enhance self-concept and improve social interaction. The risks could be physical (injury), social/emotional or material (gear/ equipment). In an educational setting, activities are usually promoted that have a substantial degree of learner-perceived risk, but a low degree of leader-perceived risk. Both natural environments such as mountains or rivers and constructed ones such as challenge ropes courses or climbing walls, can be used to achieve this.
Adverse effect A biochemical change, functional impairment or pathologic lesion that affects the performance of a whole organism, or reduces an organism's ability to respond to an additional environmental challenge.
Adverse findings A finding not in the person' s interest. This may be an abnormal result which exceeds occupational health limits or a health effect which reduces the capacity to work.
Advertisement Any words whether written, printed, or spoken, and any pictorial representation, design, or device used to explain the use, or notify the availability, or promote the sale, of any substance or preparation; and includes any trade circular, any label, and any advertisement in any trade journal.
A&E Accident and Emergency department.
AEE Assessment of Environmental Effects.
Aerial logging Extraction system using aerial means such as a balloon or helicopter.
Aerial operator A business or person engaged in topdressing for an agricultural operation.
Aerial ropeway A passenger ropeway which carries passengers in chairs, or cabins, which are lifted clear of the ground or snow surface and attached to a moving rope or cable.
Aerial shell A pyrotechnic article of class 1.1G, 1.2G, 1.3G, or 1.4G that: (a) is fired or designed to be fired from a mortar tube; and (b) contains a lift charge capable of lifting the article above the firing point before any pyrotechnic display is produced.
Aerodrome (1) Means any defined area of land or water intended or designed to be used either wholly or partly for the landing, departure, and surface movement of aircraft; and (2) Includes any buildings, installations, and equipment on or adjacent to any such area used in connection with the aerodrome or its administration:
Aerodrome control service An air traffic control service provided for the control of aerodrome traffic.
Aerodrome control tower A unit established to provide ATC service to aerodrome traffic.
Aerodrome flight information service A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights in the vicinity of an aerodrome.
Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit A ground-based VHF radio, which on receipt of a modulated VHF transmission from an aircraft on the appropriate frequency, automatically transmits either a voice or a tone response to confirm the pilot's radio frequency selection.
Aerodrome incident An incident involving an aircraft operation and: (1) an obstruction either on the aerodrome operational area or protruding into the aerodrome obstacle limitation surfaces; or (2) a defective visual aid; or (3) a defective surface of a manoeuvring area; or (4) any other defective aerodrome facility.
Aeronautical facility Means: (1) The various types of communication systems used for an aeronautical broadcasting service, or an aeronautical fixed service, that supports IFR flight or an air traffic service; or (2) The ground elements of the various types of communication systems used for an aeronautical mobile service; or (3) The various types of radio navigation aids used for the aeronautical radio navigation service; or (4) Any other type of ground-based telecommunication system that supports IFR flight or an air traffic service; or (5) The various types of ground based telecommunication systems that operate in the aeronautical mobile radio frequency bands and are used to provide basic weather information, local aerodrome information, or flight following services.
Aeronautical Information Circular A notice containing information that does not qualify for the origination of a NOTAM or for inclusion in the NZAIP, but which relates to flight safety, air navigation, technical, administrative or legislative matters.
Aeronautical information service Any of the following services that distribute aeronautical information essential for the safety, regularity and efficiency of air navigation: (1) AIP service; or (2) NOTAM service; or (3) Pre-flight information service.
Aeronautical mobile service A mobile service for communication between aeronautical stations and aircraft stations, or between aircraft stations, in which survival craft stations may participate, and emergency position-indicating radio beacon stations may also participate on designated distress and emergency frequencies.
Aeroplane A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight.
ACGIH American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, publishers of Threshold Limit Values.
Aerosol Liquid droplets or solid particles dispersed in the air that are of fine enough particle size (0.01-100um) to remain so dispersed for a period of time.
Aerosol A substance packed under pressure and designed to be released as solid or liquid particles in a suspension of gas, as a foam, paste or powder, or in a liquid or in a gaseous state.
Aerosol dispenser A compressed gas container that: (a) is not refillable; and (b) incorporates a valve designed to dispense the container's contents as an aerosol; and (c) contains a compressed gas.
AF Attributable fraction.
AFOM Australasian Faculty of Occupational Medicine.
After-care The provision of service to persons in the period after formal counselling, treatment and rehabilitation in order to assist them during the period of adjustment to independent functioning within the community.
AGA When followed by a number, an Australian Gas Association standard.
AFPHM Australasian Faculty of Public Health Medicine.
AFRM Australasian Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine.
Age-standardised rates Rates that have been adjusted to take account of differences in the age distribution of the population over time. Mainly used to compare different populations or groups.
Agent Orange A 1:1 mixture of the n-butyl esters of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D used as a defoliant in Vietnam. The mixture contained varying amounts of 2,3,7,8-TCDD as a contaminant, at concentrations as high as approximately 100 mg kg-1.
Aggregate data The sum total of individually collected data.
Aggregate water capacity The aggregate or cumulative total volume of one or more containers, calculated as the equivalent volume of water at 20°C and at 101.3kPa.
Agitator A device for stirring or shaking liquids, powders or mixtures.
AGL Above ground level.
Agrichemical Any chemical used in an agricultural context. This includes pesticides as defined under the Pesticides Act 1979, as well as fertilisers, plant growth regulators and spray additives, such as marker dyes and wetting agents.
Agricultural aircraft operation The operation of an aircraft, on a single flight, or on a series of flights, including transit flights to and from a treatment area that is within 5 nautical miles of the loading area, for the following purposes: (1) dispensing an agricultural chemical; (2) dispensing any other substance intended for plant nourishment, soil treatment, propagation of plant life, or pest control; (3) engaging in dispensing activities directly affecting agriculture, horticulture, or forest preservation; (4) dropping farm supplies on farms in rural areas or delivering farm materials to farms in rural areas; (5) surveying agricultural, forest, or water areas at a height of less than 500 feet above terrain; (6) feeding or transferring livestock on farms in rural areas; (7) the reconnaissance of the proposed treatment area for the above types of operation.
Agricultural compound Any substance, mixture of substances, or biological compound, used or intended for use in the direct management of plants and animals, or to be applied to the land, place, or water on or in which the plants and animals are managed, for the purposes of: (a) Managing or eradicating pests, including vertebrate pests; or (b) Maintaining, promoting, or regulating plant or animal productivity and performance or reproduction; or (c) Fulfilling special nutritional requirements; or (d) The manipulation, capture, or immobilisation of animals; or (e) Diagnosing the condition of animals; or (f) Preventing or treating conditions of animals; or (g) Enhancing the effectiveness of an agricultural compound used for the treatment of plants and animals; or (h) Marking animals; and includes any veterinary medicine, any substance, mixture of substances, or biological compound used for post-harvest pest control or disinfestation of raw primary produce, and any substance, mixture of substances, or biological compound declared to be an agricultural compound for the purposes of this Act [Agricultural Compounds and Veterinary Medicines Act] by Order in Council made under subsection (2).
Agricultural operation An operation carried out in the course of agricultural work, pastoral work or horticultural work of any kind.
Agricultural security The exclusion, eradication, and effective management of: (a) pests; and (b) unwanted organisms under the Biosecurity Act 1993.
Agricultural tractor A vehicle propelled by mechanical power, controlled by a driver, that is designed exclusively or principally for the purposes of traction and not for the carriage of passengers, used in an agricultural operation.
Agricultural work Work on any farm, being work directly related to the operation of the farm, including horticultural work and shearing work and cooking for any person carrying out horticultural work. Does not include work on any marine or freshwater farm.
Ah receptor A protein molecule expressed on the surface of many cells (both mammalian and non-mammalian). Its primary function in the body is uncertain, but it is structurally related to many other important cell proteins involved in, for instance, rhythmic functions and organ development. When TCDD or other dioxin-like compounds bind to this protein, it causes biochemical changes in the cell, including the stimulation of aryl hydrocarbons (the source of the term 'Ah').
AIC Aeronautical Information Circular.
AIP service A service for the publication of the NZAIP, AIP Amendments, AIP Supplements and aeronautical information circulars.
Aircraft incident Any incident, not otherwise classified, associated with the operation of an aircraft.
Air exchange rate Used in two ways: (1) the number of times that the outdoor air replaces the volume of air in a building per unit time, typically expressed as air changes per hour; (2) the number of times that the ventilation system replaces the air within a room or area within the building.
Air hose A rubber, plastic or cloth woven hose used to carry compressed air from its storage tank or compressor to be used for the operation of air tools (like sanders or spray guns) and/or breathing apparatus.
Air lift wells Geothermal wells which discharge with the continual or near continual aid of an air compressor.
Air quality The condition of the air we breathe.
Air toxics A number of airborne compounds which may have adverse effects on human health.
Air traffic All aircraft in flight or operating on any manoeuvring area of an aerodrome.
Air traffic control service A service provided for the purposes of: (1) preventing collisions: (i) between aircraft; and (ii) between aircraft and obstructions on any manoeuvring area; and (2) expediting and maintaining a safe and efficient flow of air traffic.
AIRAC Aeronautical information regulation and control, signifying a system aimed at advance notification based on common effective dates, of circumstances that require significant changes in operating practices. [The AIRAC system is based upon the international series of effective dates at intervals of 28 days including 10 January 1991]
Airborne contaminant A potentially harmful substance that is either naturally absent from air or is present in an unnaturally high concentration, and to which workers may be exposed in their working environment.
Air-conditioning The process of treating air to meet the requirements of a conditioned space by controlling its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution.
Aircraft Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air otherwise than by the reactions of the air against the surface of the earth.
Aircraft accident An occurrence that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and such time as all such persons have disembarked and the engine or any propellers or rotors come to rest, being an occurrence in which: (1) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of: (i) being in the aircraft; or (ii) direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including any part that has become detached from the aircraft; or (iii) direct exposure to jet blast except when the injuries are self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to passengers and crew; or (2) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure that: (i) adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft; and (ii) would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component except engine failure or damage that is limited to the engine, its cowlings, or accessories, or damage limited to propellers, wing tips, rotors, antennas, tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents, or puncture holes in the aircraft skin; or (3) the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.
Aircraft category Category of aircraft means any one of the following classes of aircraft: aeroplane, helicopter, glider, and balloon.
Airspace incident An incident involving deviation from, or shortcomings of, the procedures or rules for: (a) avoiding collisions between aircraft; or (b) avoiding collisions between aircraft and other obstacles when an aircraft is being provided with an Air Traffic Service.
Airstrip A defined area symmetrically including the runway that is intended: (a) to reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway; and (b) to protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or landing operations.
Airworthiness certificate Means: (1) for a New Zealand registered aircraft, an airworthiness certificate issued by the Director under Part 21, Subpart H; and (2) for a foreign registered aircraft, an airworthiness certificate issued by the competent authority of the State of registry.
Airworthy condition The condition of an aircraft, including its components, fuel, and other materials and substances essential to the manufacture and operation of the aircraft, that complies with all the requirements prescribed by the Civil Aviation Rules relating to design, manufacture, maintenance, modification, repair, and safety.
AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale.
Aid to navigation (AtoN) A device or system external to vessels that is designed and operated to enhance the safe and efficient navigation of vessels, or vessel traffic.
ALAC Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand.
ALARA An acronym for the optimisation principle: As Low As Reasonably Achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account.
ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable. A concept where the balance between risk, cost and safety margin is reasonably achieved.
Albuminuria Presence of serum albumin in the urine.
Alcohol and drug dependence As a general term, the state of needing or depending on something or someone for support or to function or survive. As applied to alcohol and other drugs, the term implies a need for repeated doses of the drug to feel good or to avoid feeling bad. Dependence has been defined as a 'cluster of cognitive, behavioural and physiological symptoms that indicate a person has impaired control of the psychoactive substance use and continues use of the substance despite adverse consequences'.
Alcohol- and drug-related problems The term 'alcohol- and drug-related problems' can be applied to any of the adverse accompaniments of drinking or drug-taking. 'Related' does not necessarily imply causality. The term can be used either of an individual drinker or at the level of society as a whole. It may be taken to include both dependence and abuse, but it also covers other problems.
ALDE Average lifetime daily exposure: the measure of exposure estimated from serum PCDD/F concentrations that reflect historic and current exposures from all routes. Under steady-state conditions, ALDE estimates represent a time-integrated lifetime exposure.
Alert (civil defence) Advisory notice that a hazard is approaching but is less imminent than implied by a 'warning' message.
Aliquot part Part of a whole that is to be analysed. NOTE: When analysing an aliquot part, i.e. a part of a whole sample which is homogenous, there is no need to use multiplication to obtain the concentration in the whole sample, because the concentration is the same in the sample and its part.
Alkanes Chemical classification relating to the structure of hydrocarbons: alkanes have carbon atoms arranged in chains and contain no double or triple bonds.
Alkenes Chemical classification relating to the structure of hydrocarbons: alkenes have carbon atoms arranged in chains and contain one or more double bonds.
Alkyl Chemical classification of hydrocarbon groups attached to compounds: alkyl groups have carbon atoms arranged in chains and contain no double or triple bonds.
Alkynes Chemical classification relating to the structure of hydrocarbons: alkynes have carbon atoms arranged in chains and contain one or more triple bonds.
All-round light In relation to a ship means a light showing an unbroken arc over the horizon of 360 degrees.
All practicable steps Doing what is reasonably able to be done to control hazards, taking into account a number of factors including the likelihood and severity of any harm that might occur, and the availability and cost of ways to prevent harm.
All terrain vehicle (ATV) A special-purpose vehicle (with or without motor cycle controls and equipment) that is principally designed for off-road use, and has three or more wheels, and has an engine capacity exceeding 50 ml and has a gross weight of less than 1,000 kg. See also Farm ATV.
Allergen A substance capable of inducing an allergy.
Allergy Reaction to a substance to which the body has become sensitised. It can take the form of a rash, asthma, breathing difficulties, running eyes and sneezing.
Alley lamp A work lamp designed primarily to provide a fixed or movable beam of light to the side of a vehicle to which it is fitted.
Allision See Contact.
Alopecia Loss of hair.
Alteration To change the design of, adding to or taking elements away from equipment and includes the relocation of non-mobile equipment. 'Alter' has a corresponding meaning. It does not include repairs, replacements or routine maintenance.
Alternative duties Tasks designed or identified to allow an early return to work by a person with a health or injury problem. Alternative duties should be: (a) identified beforehand as being within the capacity of people returning to work before they are fully recovered; and (b) matched to the particular capacity/problem of the person returning.
Altimeter setting (QNH) The aerodrome level pressure reduced to mean sea level in accordance with the ICAO Standard Atmosphere, which is specified by a mean sea level pressure of 1013.25 hectopascals, and temperature of 15.0 degrees Celsius with a lapse rate of 6.5 degrees Celsius per 1000 M and is the altimeter sub scale setting to obtain the elevation when on the ground.
Alveolus The terminal air sac of the lung.
Ambient air The air outside buildings and structures. This does not refer to indoor air, air in the workplace, or contaminated air discharged from a source.
Ambient air quality standard The standard for a contaminant as prescribed by regulation 13(1) of the Resource Management (National Environmental Standards Relating to Certain Air Pollutants, Dioxins, and Other Toxics) Regulations 2004. The contaminants concerned are:
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Nitrogen dioxide
  • Ozone
  • PM10
  • Sulphur dioxide.
Ambulance officer An ambulance officer registered to the grade of proficiency or higher with the New Zealand Ambulance Board.
Ambulance Any motor vehicle, aircraft, or vessel (a) designed and used principally for the transport of sick or injured persons; and (b) operated by an ambulance operator.
Ambulance operator A person who (a) has a contract or arrangement for the emergency transport of sick or injured persons; and (b) is a participant in Ambulance New Zealand.
AMC Accredited Medical Conclusion. [Aviation industry]
Amenity values Those natural or physical qualities and characteristics of an area that contribute to people's appreciation of its pleasantness, aesthetic coherence, and cultural and recreational attributes.
Amenity tree In relation to a tree, means the natural and physical qualities and characteristics of the tree that: (a) contribute to people's appreciation of the tree or the area in which that tree is situated; or (b) provide desired shelter or desired screening to a property adjoining the property on which the tree is situated.
Ammunition Any explosive of any of the foregoing classes enclosed in any case or contrivance so as to form a cartridge, charge, fuse, firing tube, percussion cap, detonator, fog signal, shell, torpedo, war rocket, or other like contrivance other than a firework, or any explosive so otherwise adapted or prepared as to form any contrivance other than a firework.
Amosite A type of asbestos. An iron-magnesium silicate, grey brown in colour.
AMPA Accident and Medical Practitioners Association.
Ampere One ampere is that constant current which, if present in each of two parallel conductors of infinite length and one metre apart in empty space, causes each conductor to experience a force of 2 x 10-7 newtons per metre of length.
Amphiboles One of the two main types of asbestos, comprising crocidolite and amosite.
Ampoule A glass container used to hold solutions or liquid chemicals which have to be hermetically sealed or kept sterile, but easily accessed when required.
AMSL Above mean sea level.
Amusement device In the Machinery Act 1950 defined as an appliance to which the motion of a prime mover is transmitted and which is used, or designed or intended to be used, for the amusement, recreation or entertainment of persons being carried, raised, lowered, or moved by the appliance, or any part thereof while it is in motion; and includes the prime mover, transmission machinery, supporting structure, and any equipment used or intended to be used in connection therewith. Examples of amusement devices are:
  • Bumper boats
  • Roller coasters
  • Ferris wheels and other fair rides like the octopus
  • ATV rides
  • Mini trains.
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System.
Ancestral lands Lands that have historical, cultural or spiritual value to Maori.
Anchor An instrument for the purpose of holding a ship when it is at sea: (a) in moderate sea conditions; and (b) where the depth of water and sea bed is suitable for the anchor and chain cable; and (c) where there are no other means of securing the ship.
Anchor A wire rope attached to a stump or deadman to prevent the hauler moving under load.
Anchorage A component cast or fixed into a building or structure for the purpose of attaching a scaffold or safety line. It can also mean the holding-down system for cantilevered, hanging or suspended scaffolding and platform.
Anergy Diminished reactivity to all antigens. This may take the form of diminished immediate hypersensitivity, or diminished delayed hypersensitivity to skin tests, or both.
ANFO Ammonium nitrate fuel oil.
Angle of repose The angle to the horizontal at which the material in the cut face of an excavation is stable and does not fall away.
Angle plate An accurate angle bracket with slotted faces used to hold a workpiece, for example, to a machine.
Animal Under the HSNO Act means any living stage of any member of the animal kingdom except human beings; and, in the case of any mammal, bird, fish, or reptile, includes the egg, or semen, or the carcass thereof.
Animal material Any live or dead animal, or any tissue or other material taken or derived from an animal.
Animal product Any animal material that has been processed (other than simply transported or stored in such a way as not to involve any alteration to its nature) for the purpose, or ultimate purpose, of consumption or other use by humans or animals.
Animal research work Any research, experimental, diagnostic, toxicity, or potency testing work involving the manipulation of a live animal, or teaching involving the manipulation of a live animal.
Anode The positive electrode in an electroplating or anodising solution.
Anodising A process related to electroplating. It involves the anodic oxidation of metals, usually aluminium. In this instance, the metal concerned is the anode and undergoes surface oxidation by the oxygen liberated there.
Anorexia Lack or loss of appetite for food.
Anoxia Severe hypoxia, that is, lack of oxygen to tissues.
ANSI American National Standards Institutes.
Anthropometry The study and measurement of human physical dimensions.
Antidote A treatment for chemical over-exposure which is specific (more or less) to the chemical or class of chemicals; in contrast to supportive treatment which maintains body functions.
Anti-fatigue mats Mats or padding on the floor designed to reduce musculoskeletal fatique associated with static standing. Cushioned insoles for shoes can be viewed as 'portable anti-fatigue mats', to some degree.
Anti-glare band overlay A tinted overlay that is transparent and that is applied along the top edge of the windscreen for the purpose of reducing glare from the sun.
Antineoplastic Anti-cancer.
Antisapstain chemicals Chemicals used to control the growth of fungi and moulds on timber.
Anti-two-block warning device A device that warns the crane operator that the hook block is about to hit the boom head.
Anti-two-block cutout A device that is activated as the crane hook block is about to hit the boom head and prevents any further upward movement of the hook block.
Antiviral A type of drug which blocks the replication of particular viruses.
Anuria Cessation of urine output by kidneys.
ANZSIC Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.
ANZSOM Australian and New Zealand Society of Occupational Medicine.
API American Petroleum Institute.
Aplastic anaemia Anaemia caused by the failure of the bone marrow to produce an adequate amount of blood cells.
Apnea Respiratory arrest.
Appeal (ERS Tribunal) If one of the parties was dissatisfied with the Tribunal's decision then they can appeal to the Employment Court to have the decision reconsidered.
Applicable collective agreement The collective agreement that is binding on the relevant union and employer, at the relevant point in time in relation to an employee of the employer who is a member of the union.
Applicant (ERS Tribunal, Authority) The person applying to the Tribunal/Authority. This can be any party to the employment relationship problem or, in some circumstances, a Labour Inspector.
Application (ERS Employment Court, Tribunal or Authority) An application to the Authority, Tribunal or Employment Court for that institution to resolve or determine/decide or hear an employment relationship problem.
Approved code of practice (ACOP) A statement of preferred work practice or arrangements which has been approved by the Minister of Labour under section 20 of the HSE Act. It may include m,easures to consider when deciding practicable steps. Its requirements are not mandatory or enforceable, but its observance is accepted in Court as evidence of good practice.
Approved handler A person who is competent and certified to handle certain hazardous substances. To become an approved handler, a person must meet the requirements of the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (Personnel Qualifications) Regulations 2001.
Approved operator (1) In relation to a specified controlled pesticide, a person who is licensed under section 178 of the HSNO Act to use that controlled pesticide. (2) In relation to any controlled pesticide that is applied from an aircraft, a pilot who holds a Chemical Rating pursuant to the Civil Aviation Regulation 1953.
Approved rim widths codes The only allowable rim widths for a specific size of tyre.
Apron A defined area on a land aerodrome intended to accommodate aircraft for the purpose of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refuelling, parking, or maintenance.
Arbor A shaft on which a cutter, wire brush, grindstone, etc. can be mounted. Usually removable from a machine.
Arboriculture The maintenance and care of trees in the general community.
Arch Structure on rear of skidder or tractor with a fairlead at its apex, for lifting log ends off the ground. Can be used as a pushing point in machine-assisted felling.
Area navigation A method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage of stationreferenced navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these.
Arm rest A height-adjustable cantilever mechanism device on an office chair that offers support to the underside of each forearm.
Armed Forces Means the Navy, the Army, and the Air Force collectively; and includes any branch, corps, command, formation, unit, or other part of the Armed Forces; but does not include any part of the cadet forces.
Arm's reach Means 2.5 m vertically upwards, and 1.25 m sideways or downwards, from any point on a surface where persons usually stand or move about.
Aromatics Chemical classification relating to the structure of hydrocarbons aromatic hydrocarbons have carbon atoms arranged in rings with some of the electrons shared over the whole ring, for example benzene and naphthalene.
ARPA Automatic Radar Plotting Aid.
Articles of Agreement An agreement between an employer and one or more seafarers setting out the terms and conditions of the seafarers' employment.
Articulated vehicle Any motor vehicle with a semi-trailer attached so that part of the trailer is superimposed upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of the weight of the trailer and of its load is borne by the motor vehicle.
Aryl Chemical classification of hydrocarbon groups attached to compounds: aryl groups have carbon atoms arranged in aromatic rings.
AS Australian Standard.
Aspect ratio In relation to a tyre, the ratio between the tyre section width and the height of the sidewall. Early tyre designs had an aspect ratio of 100%, which means that the section height and width are equal. With modern cars capable of much higher speeds, the tyre manufacturers have now designed tyres with decreased aspect ratios to complement the increased performance of vehicles. Today's modern sports cars are now fitted with 50%, 45%, 40%, or even 35% aspect ratios.
ASA Lead azide, lead styphnate and aluminium powder.
Assembly point With respect to evacuation, means a safe place clear of the building and clear of Fire Service operations.
AS/NZS A joint Australian and New Zealand Standard.
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials.
Asbestos A group of naturally occurring, fibrous minerals, hazardous to health. The term abestos includes actinolite, amosite, chrysolite, crocidolite, fibrous anthophyllite or tremolite, or any mixture containing these minerals.
Asbestos dust For the purposes of the regulations, means: Chrysotile: (a) An average concentration over any 4-hour period of 1 fibre per millilitre of air; and (b) An average concentration over any 10-minute period of 6 fibres per millilitre of air. Amosite, crocidolite, fibrous actinolite, fibrous anthophyllite, fibrous tremolite: (a) An average concentration over any 4-hour period of 0.1 fibres per millilitre of air; and (b) An average concentration over any 10-minute period of 0.6 fibres per millilitre of air.
Asbestos fibre A particle of asbestos that: (a) is not less than 5 micrometres and not more than 100 micrometres in length; and (b) is less than 3 micrometres in width; and (c) has a length to width ratio of not less than 3 to 1.
Asbestosis A diffuse interstitial fbrosis of the lung resulting from exposure to asbestos.
Ascent rate The rate of a diver moving towards shallower water. A major key to diver safety is the monitoring and adhering of acent rates to enure the recommended ascent rates of the dive table being used shall be adhered to. For any dive the slower the ascent rate, the better.
ASCEPT Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists.
Aseptic Sterile, free from germs.
Aspect Compass direction to which a slope faces.
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Asphyxiant A gas or vapour that causes suffocation.
Assessment The evaluation process used by ERMA to review the information provided by an applicant, relevant public authorities and other interested parties, and to weigh up the positive and adverse effects of the substance before deciding on whether to grant approval. (See also Reassessment)
Assault The act of intentionally applying or attempting to apply force to the person of another, directly or indirectly, or threatening by any act or gesture to apply such force to the person of another, if the person making the threat has, or causes the other person to believe on reasonable grounds that he has, present ability to effect his purpose; and 'to assault' has a corresponding meaning.
Asymmetric patterns An asymmetric tyre tread pattern generally consists of dissimilar tread pattern elements placed radially opposite each other in order to optimise pattern characteristics.
Asymmetrical earmuff An earmuff in which the shape of the front and back and/or the top and bottom of the earcup is different. If the earcups are not positioned correctly, the attenuation of the earmuff may be significantly reduced.
Asymmetrical posture A posture that requires the body to twist or bend to one side or to bear the weight unevenly on the feet.
Asystole Cardiac arrest.
Ataxia Uncoordination of voluntary muscular action, particularly of the muscle groups used in activities such as walking or reaching for objects; due to any interference with the peripheral or central nervous system pathways involved in balancing muscle movements.
ATC clearance Authorisation for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit.
ATCRBS Air traffic control radio beacon system.
Atmosphere Air and its contents. Pneumatic systems exhaust to atmosphere.
Atmosphere An atmosphere is a unit of pressure taken to be the standard pressure of the earth's atmosphere at sea level. An atmosphere is equal to the pressure of a column of mercury 760 mm high and expressed as 101.325 kilopascals (1.01325 Å~ 105 newtons per square meter), or about 14.7 pounds per square inch
Atmospheric monitoring The continous measurement of oxygen levels or selected atmospheric contaminants over an unlimited duration of time.
Atmospheric pollution Contamination of the atmosphere by large quantities of gases, solids and radiation produced by the burning of natural and artificial fuels, chemicals and other industrial processes and nuclear explosions.
Atmospheric testing The short-term listing, that is not continuous, of oxygen level and atmospheric contaminants.
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (USA).
Attendant care (a) Means: (i) personal care; and (ii) assistance with cognitive tasks of daily living, such as communication, orientation, planning, and task completion; and (iii) protection of the claimant from further injury in his or her ordinary environment; and (b) includes training a person to provide attendant care, if the Corporation agrees to fund the training; but (c) does not include child care, domestic activities, or home maintenance.
Attended boiler A boiler that is under the direct control of a qualified operator at all times when steam is being raised or is being taken from the boiler.
Attenuation A reduction in the level of sound.
Attributable fraction The maximum proportion by which the incidence or mortality of a specified disease or other health outcome in a specified population could theoretically be reduced if a given risk factor of the outcome of interest were eliminated.
ATV All terrain vehicle.
At work In relation to any person, means present, for gain or reward, in the person's place of work.
Audible range Frequency across which normal ears hear: approximately 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz.
Audiologist (1) A person qualified to carry out hearing tests and treat patients with impaired hearing. (2) A member of the New Zealand Audiological Society.
Audiometry The measurement of the hearing threshold level of a person by means of a bilateral pure tone air conduction threshold test.
Audit A systematic examination against defined criteria to determine whether activities and related results conform to planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve the organisation's policy and objectives.
Auditor (rail) A person accepted directly from the LTSA approved list, or nominated by a Rail Service Operator and appointed after approval by the LTSA, to conduct audits of the whole or part of a Rail Safety System. Auditors have a responsibility to the operator who appoints them, but a wider responsibility to act in the interests of safety by identifying and reporting to the LTSA areas of safety system noncompliance. They are required to report to the LTSA in a mandatory 10-point format and provide additional audit findings as necessary in the interests of operational safety.
Authorised explosive Any substance specified in the Explosives Authorisation Order 1994.
Authorised gunsmith In relation to powder-actuated fastening tools, means a person certified in writing by the master agent in New Zealand, or the maker of the tool, as competent to carry out repairs and overhauls to named models of the tool.
Authorised person A person authorised by the employer or a responsible person to undertake a specific task or tasks and possessing the necessary technical knowledge and experience.
Automatic safeload indicator A device fitted to a crane to provide the operator with automatic warning of approach to an overload situation.
Auto recloser Protective switch gear which automatically relivens power lines after tripping out on a transient fault.
Auto populate The software completes one or more fields of data based on what the user has entered.
Autoignition The minimum temperature required to start or cause self-sustained combustion temperature in any substance in the absence of a high-temperature ignition source, such as a spark or flame. This is not applicable to many substances.
Automatic change-over regulator A combination valve/gas pressure regulator, fitted to a LPG multiple-cylinder installation which will automatically change over from a cylinder(s) in use to a reserve cylinder at a predetermined pressure.
Auxiliary headlamp A forward-facing lamp used under certain conditions to replace the headlamps; and includes a fog-lamp, being a vehicle-lamp providing illumination in conditions of fog, snow, cloud, or other atmospheric conditions which reduce visibility.
Avian Influenza A (Bird flu) (H5N1) An illness affecting mainly poultry (for example, chickens, geese) in a number of Asian countries. The virus responsible for the current outbreak is H5N1. Small numbers of people have become infected with the H5N1 virus, causing serious illness and/or death.
AWIB service An automatic broadcast of aerodrome and weather information provided specifically for the facilitation of aviation, and for the avoidance of doubt, an AWIB service is not an air traffic service.
Awkward posture Any fixed or constrained body position that overloads muscles and tendons or loads joints in an uneven or asymmetrical manner.
Axle A transverse shaft or housing on which a vehicle's wheels are mounted.
B&D Bondage and discipline.
B-train A motor vehicle comprising of a towing vehicle and two semi-trailers connected at two points of articulation where the forward distance of the longer trailer divided by the forward distance of the shorter trailer does not exceed 1.3.
Back-pressure regulator A device used to maintain a selected pressure in a system from which gas is being vented to a lower pressure (commonly atmospheric pressure). It maintains constant upstream pressure regardless of flowrate or variations in downstream pressure, provided that this does not exceed the selected pressure.
Backburn A counterfire commenced from within continuous fuel for the purpose of fighting a fire.
Back cut The final saw cut in felling a tree, opposite the scarf and the intended direction of fall.
Back guy A wire rope attached to the spar and anchored opposite the line of pull and designed to take the strain when hauling logs.
Back injuries (serious) Serious back injuries are fractures of the spine, medical co-morbidity where a back problem makes a medical problem worse (for example, osteo-arthritis), intervertebral disc problems with serious complications or conditions that produce persistent severe pain that require a long time off work.
Background exposure The exposure a person might be expected to have if they are not exposed to any particular identifiable source, such as living near a point source or working in an occupational setting where exposures may occur.
Backline (1) Boundary line marked by blazed or painted trees indicating the cutting area. (2) That portion of the tailrope from the hauler to the first corner block.
Backpulling Method of using a rope from a machine or winch to pull a tree to enable it to be felled against its natural lean.
Baffle Device used to deflect or control the flow of oil, paint or gas.
Bailey bridge A type of semi-trailer used to transport short logs.
Baldrige principles Used internationally to measure and improve business performance based on what is commonly found in high-performance companies.
Baling press A machine, usually hydraulic, for compressing loose materials, for example,  wool, waste papers, into bales.
Ball bearing A bearing comprising two steel rings or races, one usually pressed onto a shaft, the other supported in a housing, separated by hardened steel balls running in grooves in the races.
Ball joint A connection between two links in which the end of one member is partly spherical and fits into a corresponding cavity in the other member, thus allowing angular movement between them.
Ball mill A rotating vessel containing balls of stone or steel, used to crush material placed inside it.
Ballrace turntable A device incorporating a low-friction ball bearing fitted between two substantial structural components of a vehicle to enable rotational motion between those components about a vertical axis.
Balling Mechanical demolition by the controlled swinging or dropping of a demolition ball suspended from a suitable lifting device.
Baluster A post providing the support for the top and bottom rails of a barrier.
Balustrade The infill parts of a barrier (typically between floor and top rail).
Band re-saw A woodworking machine that is used to re-cut flitches or timber, and is equipped with automatic feed rollers, and is fitted with a blade in the form of a continuous band or strap, the cutting portion of which moves in a vertical or horizontal plane; but does not mean a log band breakdown saw or a narrow blade band saw.
Bar (of chainsaw) (Synonym: Cutter bar, guide bar) Grooved flat steel bar around which the saw chain travels.
Barber chair A result of poor felling technique which causes a vertical split in a tree stem, leaving a portion of the stem attached to the stump.
Bardon hook A type of choker hook used with wire rope strops for gripping trees or logs to be skidded.
Bargaining In relation to bargaining for a collective agreement: (a) means all the interactions between the parties to the bargaining that relate to the bargaining; and (b) includes: (i) negotiations that relate to the bargaining; and (ii) communications or correspondence (between or on behalf of the parties before, during, or after negotiations) that relate to the bargaining.
Barge Any barge, lighter, or like vessel that does not have any means of self-propulsion.
Barotrauma Any disease or injury due to unequal pressures between a space inside the body and the ambient pressure, or between two spaces within the body; examples include arterial gas embolism, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax, eye, middle ear and sinuses and the lung.
Barrel The central portion of a winch drum on which rope is spooled.
Barrel swivel A swivelling device used in hauler butt rigging.
Barring Turning of a shaft or flywheel by hand, using a steel bar (tommy bar).
Base plate A metal plate with a spigot for distributing the load from a scaffold standard or raker or other load-bearing tube.
Base support points The parts of an office chair that touch the floor and support the weight of the chair.
Base-line hearing test The test used to assess the level of hearing of a person.
Basel Convention Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Restricts and controls the movement of hazardous wastes between countries.
Basic scaffolding Includes: (a) a fall arrest system; (b) a free-standing modular scaffolding system; (c) a gin wheel; (d) a rope; (e) a static line.
Basic weather report A verbal comment, in support of aviation, describing any of the following current weather conditions observed at a particular place or airspace: (1) wind direction and strength: (2) mean sea level air pressure: (3) air temperature: (4) weather conditions and cloud cover.
Batter The inclination of a slope, expressed as (a) vertical units on (b) horizontal units.
Bay The portion of a scaffold situated between two adjacent pairs of standards measured longitudinally and extending the full height of the scaffold.
BCGA British Compressed Gas Association.
BCITO Building and Construction Industry Training Organisation.
Beacon A warning lamp comprising one or more light sources designed to emit a flashing light or a revolving beam of light.
Bead That part of a pneumatic tyre which fits and holds the tyre securely onto the wheel rim. It consists of a coil of high-tensile steel wire, treated to give good adhesion with rubber, and encased in a 'matrix' of hard rubber.
Beam (1) A structural member, usually horizontal, supported at the ends and loaded vertically. (2) A focused transmission of light or other energy. (3) The main moving member of a down-stroking press brake. The tool is attached to its lower edge.
Bearer Larger section timber used to support packets or stacks of timber.
Bearing A device to support a shaft in its correct position and allow it to rotate with as little friction as possible. (See ball-bearing, bush, roller bearing.)
Bearing metals Metal alloys, used for the surface of plain bearings which are in 'contact' with the shaft, selected for long life and low friction, for example, bronze, white-metal.
Becquerel (Bq) The SI derived unit of activity being one radioactive disintegration per second of time. The relationship to the traditional special unit, the curie (Ci) is 1 Bq = 2.70 x 10-11 Ci.
BEI Biological Exposure Indices, as described in the Workplace Exposure Standards booklet.
Bell crank lever A two-armed lever with the arms usually set at right angles to each other, pivoted at the meeting point.
Bell logger A versatile three-wheel logging machine that can fell, bunch, extract, sort and load logs and roundwood. Different accessories can be fitted to perform the functions required.
Bell mouth An open-ended vessel or pipe, with the end shaped in the form of a bell, or trumpet.
Bell prover A device used for testing the accuracy of gas meters, consisting of a sealed 'bell' to or from which a measurable amount of a test gas (usually air) may be passed.
Belly chain The wire rope or chain that is placed around the load at any position(s) in a complete circle and is attached to it and tensioned using a 'load binder'.
Belly hook A helicopter's load hook directly attached to its frame.
Belt An endless strip of leather, reinforced rubber or other material used to transmit rotary motion from one shaft to another by running over pulleys having flat or grooved rims.
Belt conveyor A moving, continuous, flexible carrier of goods.
Belt creep A gradual movement of a belt relative to the face of the pulley on which it runs, caused by the change in the stretch of the belt as it passes from the tight to the loose side of the belt.
Belt dressing Substance used to prolong the life and improve the frictional grip of belts on their pulleys.
Belt fasteners Connecting devices used to join the ends of a strip of belting to form a 'loop' or endless belt.
Belt slip The slipping of a driving belt on the face of a pulley due to insufficient frictional grip to overcome the resistance to motion offered by the pulley.
Belt stricker (shifter) A device for shifting a flat belt from a fast pulley to a loose pulley of the same diameter, mounted beside it.
Benching Excavation of a sloping ground in horizontal steps.
Benchmark dose (BMD) Usually defined as the lower confidence limit on the dose that produces a specified magnitude of changes in a specified adverse response. For example, a BMD10 would be the dose at the 95% lower confidence limit on a 10% response, and the benchmark response would be 10%. The BMD is determined by modeling the dose-response curve in the region of the dose-response relationship where biologically observable data are feasible.
Benchmarking To improve one's own performance by measuring it against competitors' performance according to specified standards.
Benign Not malignant, not recurrent, favourable for recovery.
Best practicable option In relation to a discharge of a contaminant or an emission of noise, means the best method for preventing or minimising the adverse effects on the environment having regard, among other things, to: (a) the nature of the discharge or emission and the sensitivity of the receiving environment to adverse effects; and (b) the financial implications, and the effects on the environment, of that option when compared with other options; and (c) the current state of technical knowledge and the likelihood that the option can be successfully applied. [RMA]
Best practice guideline A document developed with through industry groups and OSH agreement, to be used as a basis for safe workplace practices. It could also be further developed into an approved code of practice.
Beta radiation Electrons emitted during the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Bias The systematic difference between the expectation of the measurement results and an accepted reference value.
Bight The included angle of a rope running round a block or obstruction. 'In the bight' is a dangerous position.
Billet An intermediate product in the rolling of steel, larger smaller than a bloom. Also applied to certain ingots.
Billet pierced cylinder A gas cylinder in which the base and walls are made in one hot forming process.
Bind Term used to describe an operating rope being held out of line by an obstacle such as a stump, log, or standing tree that causes considerable friction and eventual deformation of the rope.
Binder In a paint, the solid ingredients in a coating holding the pigment particles. Binders are based on oil, alkyd, acrylic, latex and epoxy. The nature and amount determines the coating's performance.
Binder Wires or straps tensioned around packets of timber.
Binder chain Any chain used for holding a load on a truck. Various types include throw-over chains, belly chain, or longitudinal chain.
Binder fillet Fillets placed at set intervals to give stability to block-stacked timber.
Bioaccumulation Accumulation of substances in the tissues of organisms.
Bioaccumulative In relation to a substance, means the substance has a BCF greater than or equal to 500 or, if BCF data is not available, a log Kow greater than or equal to 4; and, for the purposes of this definition, measured log Kow values take precedent over estimated values.
Bioassay Exposing test organisms to samples (of water, sediment etc) and comparing their response with organisms exposed to control or reference treatment.
Biochemical preparation Includes: (a) an antigen; and (b) an antitoxin; and (c) a toxin; and (d) a blood fractionation preparation; and (e) an insulin; and (f) a preparation from a mammalian gland; and (g) a serum;and (h) a vaccine; and (i) any other substance or preparation that is similar in nature to any of those specified in paragraphs (a) to (h) of this definition, whether natural or synthetic, that is intended for diagnostic, prophylactic or therapeutic purposes.
Bioconcentrate To become more concentrated in the tissues of plants and animals.
Bioconcentration factor (BCF) The steady state concentration of a substance in an aquatic organism divided by the concentration of the substance in the surrounding water.
Biocidal action In relation to a substance, means the substance causes mortality, inhibited growth or inhibited reproduction in an organism.
Biodegradable Able to be broken down into basic compounds by micro-organisms.
Biodegradation Breakdown of chemical structure by biological process.
Biogas The mixture of gases that is produced by anaerobic microbial decomposition of organic matter and that principally comprises methane and carbon dioxide together with lesser amounts of hydrogen sulphide, water vapour, or other gases.
Biogenic emissions Emissions from natural sources including vegetation and soil.
Biological compound Any agricultural compound that is: (a) a preparation of animal origin; or (b) a bacterial or viral vaccine, whether living or not; or (c) a virus, mycoplasma, or other micro-organism, whether living or not; or (d) a product of a virus, mycoplasma, or other micro-organism, or any substance manufactured for the purpose of having the same action as a product of a virus, mycoplasma, or other micro-organism.
Biological (air) contaminants Agents derived from, or that are, living organisms (for example, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens) that can be inhaled and can cause many types of health effects including allergic reactions, respiratory disorders, hypersensitivity diseases, and infectious diseases. Also referred to as 'microbiologicals' or 'microbials.'
Biological diversity The variability among living organisms, and the ecological complexes of which they are a part, including diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems.
Biological Exposure Index The index provides a warning level of biological response to a substance or agent, or warning levels of the substance or agent or its metabolite(s) in the tissues, fluids or exhaled air of an exposed worker. This index is to be used only in conjunction with designated exposure standards or codes of practice and not as a sole method for exposure control.
Biological hazard Hazards in the workplace that include viruses, fungi, spores and bacteria, all of which can cause illnesses or disease.
Biological monitoring The measurement and evaluation of hazardous substances or their metabolites in the body tissues, fluids or exhaled air of an exposed person.
Biological product Any product derived from living organisms that is used for prevention, treatment or diagnosis of disease in animals or humans or for purposes of development, experiment or investigation of disease and includes, but is not limited to, finished or unfinished products such as vaccines and diagnostic products.
Biomarker A measurement, typically a chemical, biochemical or other biological parameter, that reflects an interaction between a living organism and an environmental agent, which could be biological, chemical or physical.
Biomechanics Biomechanics uses laws of physics and engineering concepts to describe the motion undergone by the various body segments and the forces acting on these body parts during activities.
Biomedical research Means: (a) research in the biomedical sciences relevant to human health; and (b) research into the causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of human illness.
Bioremediation With reference to a marine oil spill is the process of using living organisms to break down the molecular structure of oil into less complex substances that are not hazardous or regulated. This is often undertaken by introducing large numbers of hydrocarbon-eating microbes to a contaminated site. Nutrients are often added to speed up the organisms' digestion of the oil, and reproduction.
Biosecurity clearance A clearance under section 26 of the Biosecurity Act 1993 for the entry of goods into New Zealand.
Bird incident An incident where: (a) there is a collision between an aircraft and one or more birds; or (b) when one or more birds pass sufficiently close to an aircraft in flight to cause alarm to the pilot.
Birdsnest A tangle of loose or damaged rope.
Bladder cancer A malignant disease of urothelial tissue lining the urinary tract. Occupational exposures strongly implicated as causing bladder cancer are aromatic amines and PAHs. Other exposures associated with an increased risk are paints, dyes, chlorinated hydrocarbons and other solvents, metals and industrial oils/cutting.
Blank A piece of metal, roughly shaped, ready for further machining.
Blanking The process of forming blanks, usually by punching from strip or plate in a press.
Blasting enclosure A chamber, barrel, cabinet, or other similar enclosure designed for the performance of abrasive blasting.
Blasting chamber A blasting enclosure into which persons enter.
Blast mat An absorbent and protective covering of sufficient strength and weight and of fine enough mesh to contain flyrock during blasting operations.
Blasting powder A low VOD explosive initiated by safety fuse.
Blind hole A hole drilled only part-way through a component - one that has a solid bottom.
Blind lead In logging, a haul path where the line of sight from the tailblock to the spar is obstructed by an intermediate ridge or convex slope.
Block Metal case enclosing one or more sheaves to facilitate a change of direction of a rope, or to gain mechanical advantage in transmission of power through a rope.
Block straps A short length of rope with an eye on each end used for hanging a block on a spar.
Blood/body fluid precautions Includes: (a) avoidance of contact with infected blood and body fluids; (b) hand washing after contact with the case or potentially contaminated articles; (c) barrier protection, such as protective clothing, masks.
Bloodborne pathogen Harmful micro-organisms which are present in human blood and which can cause disease in humans.
Blood lead Blood lead level in micrograms of lead per decilitre of blood, µg/dl. Alternative units are µmol/l. 10 µg/dl = 0.48 µmol/l.
Blood lead test A test to measure the level of lead in a person's blood.
Blood protoporphyrin levels Two biochemical tests that measure the effect of lead on the blood-forming system, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP). It may be used to indirectly estimate a persons's exposure to lead.
Blowout An uncontrolled flow of steam, water, gas or rock material at the ground surface either inside the geothermal well or escaping from the well at depth.
BLS (United States) Bureau of Labour Statistics.
BMD Benchmark dose.
BMI Body mass index, an indicator of body fatness. It is calculated from the formula weight/height2 where weight is in kilograms and height in metres.
BMU Building maintenance unit.
Board A governing or advisory body comprised of directors, which may include committees of management.
Boatswain's chair A suspended chair used for work at heights, such as painting a building or window cleaning.
BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand.
BOD5 The five-day biochemical oxygen demand, being the consumed by micro-organisms during oxidation of the water over a period of five days, expressed in units of oxygen consumed per milligrams of the substance.
Body The part of the vehicle that is designed for the use and accommodation of the occupants or to hold any goods.
Body belt That part of a safety harness which is fastened around the waist.
Body burden The total amount of a chemical in the body. Often expressed as an amount per mass of body weight (for example, ng/kg bw). Some chemicals build up in the body because they are stored in body organs like fat or bone or are eliminated very slowly.
Body fluids Human body fluids apart from blood that are considered potentially infectious from blood-borne diseases. These are: urine; faecal discharges; semen; cerebrospinal fluid; amniotic fluid; menstrual discharge; pleural, peritoneal, or pericardial fluid; inflammatory exudates; any other body fluid or tissue.
Boiler (a) Means a device: (i) most of which is an arrangement of pressure containment parts; and (ii) the purpose of which is to generate steam by the use of a directly applied combustion process; or by the application of heated gases; and (b) includes any of the following: (i) boiler piping: (ii) combustion equipment: (iii) combustion management systems: (iv) controls: (v) economisers: (vi) fans: (vii) feed and circulating pumps: (viii) pressure fittings: (ix) reheaters: (x) superheaters: (xi) supports: (xii) water level management systems; but (c) does not include a hot water boiler.
Boiler management system (BMS) A system that controls the entire boiler function including the energy input management system, the water level management system, the alarm system, the pressure controls, trip devices, all instruments, and circuitry.
Bollard A short post installed in the road, especially as part of a traffic island.
Bolster (1) The main support for a die on a press. (2) On a logging truck, the frame member that is mounted on the bolster bed and which supports the log load.
Bonded Conductors and/or fittings connected together in such a manner as to ensure that they are at the same electrical potential.
Boom (1) Projecting pole or metal beam, hinged at one end and capable of lifting a weight at the other. Normally part of a log loader. (2) A raft of logs, or a string of logs chained together end to end and used to hold floating logs.
Boom angle indicator A device which shows the angle of inclination of a luffing (derricking) boom.
Boom arrestors (Also referred to as safety ropes.) Ties fitted between the underside of the boom to a fixed part of the crane to prevent whip back. Safety ropes may also be fitted between the underside of a fly jib and boom.
Boom back stops A device fitted to the crane to prevent whipback.
Bore cutting Means of relieving the internal tension in a tree by means of a saw cut.
Boring The operation of making large round holes in a workpiece with an offset single-point tool (as opposed to drilling a hole) either on a lathe or in a boring machine.
Boring In tree felling, using the tip of the guide bar to cut into a tree or log.
Boss A projection, usually cylindrical, on a machine part, in which a pin or shaft is to be supported.
Bottoming When a reciprocating part, such as a press tool, touches a solid object at the extreme end of its stroke.
BPD Boiling point for depth. Representing a column of pure water at its boiling (saturation) temperature corresponding to the pressure at every depth. Note: The values may be interpolated from published tables of the thermodynamic properties of water, i.e. steam tables.
Brace A member placed diagonally to the vertical or horizontal members of a scaffold and fixed to afford stability.
Bracketing Method consisting in principle in reducing the interval over which the linearity of the calibration function is assumed as much as possible. NOTE: This leads to surrounding the value of the unknown quantity by two values of reference materials (RMs) as tightly as possible (or bracketing).
Bradycardia Slow heart beat and consequent slow pulse rate of less than 60 beats per minute.
Brake (1) A device for slowing or stopping a moving part, usually a rotating component. (2) A system to reduce the speed of a vehicle, to stop the vehicle or to keep the vehicle stationary.
Brake drum A cylindrical drum against which brake shoes are forced, or a brake band is tensioned, to slow the shaft or component on which the drum is mounted.
Brake friction material A brake component having a friction surface that is designed to be preferentially sacrificed.
Brake shoe A member lined with friction material which is forced against the brake drum to cause friction and slow it down.
Branch collar A swelling where the branch leaves the tree stem.
Breach Violation or contravention of statute requirements.
Breakaway brake A service brake or parking brake fitted to a trailer that ensures, under all conditions of use, that, if the trailer is unintentionally disconnected from its towing vehicle, the brake will automatically and immediately apply and will remain applied for at least 15 minutes.
Breaker A strip of rubber-coated cord fabric, or steel cord, fitted between the tread and casing of a radial ply tyre, running on a bias circumferentially around the tyre.
Breaker-out Worker at the felling site responsible for connecting trees or logs to a hauling rope, tractor, skidder, etc. for transport to a landing.
Breaking-out Operation of a breaker-out; or initial movement of tree(s) from the felled position.
Breaking Opening an electric circuit.
Breaking load In relation to cargo gear, means the minimum load that, when applied under test to a representative sample of the gear, will cause the sample to fail.
Breaking strength (Synonyms: Ultimate load, ultimate yield, ultimate strength.) (Not to be confused with Safe Working Load.) The greatest loading that a wire rope (or material) can withstand without breaking.
Breast bench A machine that is: (a) fitted with a circular saw; and (b) used to reduce flitches from the log breakdown to smaller dimension timber when the flitches are fed manually past the saw with or without assistance of horizontal live feed and return rollers.
Breast height The standard height of 1.4 metres above the highest point of the ground at stump at which tree diameter is measured.
Breather vent An orifice or opening designed to permit atmospheric pressure to act on one side of the diaphragm of a regulator or similar device.
Breathing zone The worker's breathing zone is described by a hemisphere of 300 mm radius extending in front of their face and measured from the midpoint of an imaginary line joining the ears.
Bridge-plate/Dock board A steel plate designed and engineered specifically for the travel of a loaded forklift from a loading dock onto a road vehicle deck or trailer.
Bridling In logging, putting up a tailrope on a skyline setting so as to make the butt rigging move away from the skyline when it is hauled back.
Brittle roofing Any type of roofing material such as asbestos cement, plastic or glass that will not safely support a person.
Brodifacoum A widely used rodenticide. In New Zealand has been used to control possums since the early 1990s. An anticoagulant poison with empirical formula: C31 H23 BrO3. Talon® and PESTOFF® are trade names.
Bronchitis Inflammation of the linings of the bronchial tubes. These are the main forks of the large airways in the respiratory system.
Broncho-constriction Narrowing or constriction of the air passages of the lungs, for example, in asthma.
Bronchus An air passage in the lung.
Brothel Defined by the Prostitution Reform Act as any premises kept or habitually used for the purposes of prostitution. It does not include premises at which accommodation is normally provided on a commercial basis if the prostitution occurs under an arrangement initiated elsewhere.
Brucellosis A zoonotic infection caused by the Brucella abortusbacteria. The main symptoms are fever, chills, sweating, fatigue, myalgia and headache. The main occupational sources of infection are reproductive tract tissues of cattle, accidental exposures to Brucella vaccine, and exposure to the organism in laboratories.
BS British Standard.
BTPS Body temperature and pressure standard.
Bucking spikes Spikes attached to the body of a chainsaw which enables the bar to be levered into a cut, giving more pressure on the saw chain.
Buckle guy Rope attached near the middle of a spar to stop it bending.
Buff A 'wheel' made of layers of cloth or similar material used for polishing.
Buffing Polishing, by applying polish to a buff and running it over the surface to be polished.
Building Any temporary or permanent movable or immovable structure (including any structure intended for occupation by people, animals, machinery, or chattels); and includes any mechanical, electrical, or other system, and any utility systems, attached to and forming part of the structure whose proper operation is necessary for compliance with the building code.
Building element Any structural or non-structural component and assembly incorporated into or associated with a building. Included are fixtures, services, drains, permanent mechanical installations for access, glazing, partitions, ceilings and temporary supports.
Building envelope Elements of the building, including all external building materials, windows, and walls, that enclose the internal space.
Building maintenance unit (BMU) A permanent working platform suspended on wire ropes from an overhead structure on a building, to provide access to parts of the building.
Building performance index In relation to a building, means the energy from a network utility operator or a depletable resource (measured in kilowatt-hours per square metre of floor area and per degree-day, and calculated using the Building Research Association of New Zealand's Annual Loss Factor Design Manual 1990 or some other method that can be correlated with that manual) needed to maintain the building at a constant internal temperature for the period from 1 May to the close of 31 August under the following standard conditions: (a) a continuous temperature of 20°C throughout the building: (b) an air change rate of 1 change per hour or the actual air leakage rate, whichever is the greater: (c) a heat emission contribution arising from internal heat sources for that period of 1000 kWh for the first 50 m2 of floor area, and 10 kWh for every additional square metre of floor area: (d) no allowance for (i) carpets; or (ii) blinds, curtains, or drapes, on windows: (e) windows to have a shading coefficient of 0.6 (made up of 0.8 for windows and recesses and 0.75 for site shading.
Building-related illness (BRI) Diagnosable illness whose symptoms can be identified and whose cause can be directly attributed to airborne building pollutants (for example, Legionnaire's disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis). Also: A discrete, identifiable disease or illness that can be traced to a specific pollutant or source within a building. (Contrast with 'Sick building syndrome')
Bulk In relation to the transport of dangerous goods, means: (a) dangerous goods in the form of a gas, in a container in an undivided quantity exceeding 250 litres; or (b) dangerous goods in the form of a liquid, in a container in an undivided quantity exceeding 450 litres; or (c) dangerous goods in the form of solids, in a container in an undivided quantity exceeding 400 kg.
Bulk carrier A ship which is constructed generally with single deck, top-side tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces, and is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk; and includes such types as ore carriers and combination carriers.
Bulk Chemical Code (BCH Code) The Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulkadopted by the International Maritime Organization by Assembly Resolution A.212(VII), as amended by that organisation from time to time:
Bulk density The weight of a unit volume of powder, usually expressed in grams per cubic centimetre (g/cm3). It is defined by a specific method. Apparent density is an alternate, but less commonly used, term for bulk density.
Bulkhead deck On a ship, the uppermost deck up to which the transverse watertight bulkheads are carried.
Bull block Large block having a throat of sufficient width to allow butt rigging to pass through it.
Bump rail A rail or rope barrier around a work area, to prevent access to a hazard.
Bunch To assemble logs together to form a load for subsequent extraction.
Burden of disease A measure of the social impact of a disease (or injury) on a population, including both fatal and non-fatal outcomes of the disease (or injury).
Burn Injury to tissues caused by excesses of heat, cold, sun, chemical agents such as acids or alkalis, radiation exposure, electrical current or friction.
Burnout A counterfire commenced from a natural or previously constructed firebreak for the purpose of fighting a fire.
Burr (1) A rough or sharp edge left on a workpiece by a cutting tool. (2) To deform the end or edge of a component by hammering, usually to help it grip another component.
Bush A plain bearing in the form of a cylindrical sleeve, inside which the shaft rotates.
Business of prostitution In terms of the PRA, a business of providing, or arranging the provision of, commercial sexual services.
Butt Bottom (stump) end of a felled tree, or the larger end of a log.
Butt hook A hook or other device to which strops are attached for hauling.
Butt log The first or bottom log severed from a felled tree.
Butt pulling Hauling with strops attached to the large end of the log.
Butt rigging A system of swivels, shackles and chain which connects the tailrope to the mainrope and to which strops are attached.
BW Bodyweight.
By-product Incidental or secondary product made in the manufacture of another product.

C – D

Term or acronym


°C Degrees Celsius.
CAA Civil Aviation Authority.
Cab-guard A structure attached to a vehicle that provides protection to the cab occupants from the effects of load impact; and may include a headboard.
Cabin Operator Protective Structure (COPS) A structure designed to be attached to or form part of, a mobile plant for the purpose of reducing the possibility that an operator wearing a seatbelt in the driving position from being harmed should the plant roll, receive a blow from a falling object, or tip over, or where there is the possibility of an object entering the cabin. In some cases, the falling object protective structure (FOPS), roll over protective structure (ROPS), cabin operator protective structure (COPS) or tip over protective structure (TOPS) could be the same structure.
Cable car A vehicle: (i) that carries people or goods on or along an inclined plane or a suspended cable; and (ii) that operates wholly or partly outside of a building; and (iii) the traction for which is supplied by a cable or any other means; but does not include a lift that carries people or goods between the floors of a building.
Cable clamp A clamp designed for joining two sections of light wire rope. Most often used to form an eye, or loop around a stump.
Cable logging Any hauling employing a stationary machine with powered drum(s), spars, blocks, wire rope and butt rigging to haul logs from the felling site to an assembly point or landing.
Cable hauler Principal machine in a cable logging operation, consisting of winches and spar.
Calibration A set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, or values represented by a material measure or a reference material, and the corresponding values obtained using working standards.
Calibration Interval period of time during which the analytical system would normally be used between calibrations.
Calorific value The amount of heat, expressed in megajoules, that is generated by the complete combustion in air of one cubic metre of gas free from water vapour, with the gas, air and products of combustion all being measured at standard condition, and with all of the water formed by combustion being condensed.
Cam A specially shaped plate or drum, or a plate or drum having a specially shaped grove, used to cause a desired linear motion to a 'cam follower'. May be mounted on a shaft, i.e. rotary cam, or on a sliding member, i.e. linear cam. May be used to operate limit switches or hydraulic and pneumatic valves in interlock mechanisms.
Cancelled (ERS Employment Court, Tribunal or Authority) A scheduled hearing or investigation meeting that was cancelled prior to the hearing taking place.
Cancer A malignant tumour which can spread to other organs of the body, as distinct from a benign tumour which cannot. (Although leukaemia and some other malignant diseases are not solid tumours, they meet other criteria for cancer and can be, and often are, included under this definition.)
Cancer of the lung A malignant tumour of the bronchus.
Cannabis Cannabis Sativa is the botanical name of the hemp plant.
Cannabis dependence syndrome Refers to the continued use of cannabis despite adverse personal and social consequences. The cannabis user behaves as though the effects of the drug are needed for their continued wellbeing. Dependency exists in varying degrees. It is similar to other drug dependence syndromes.
Cant A log that is ripped length-wise so that the resulting thick pieces have two opposing, parallel flat sides and in some cases a third side that is sawn flat.
Cant hook A hand tool consisting of a lever or bar with a hinged steel hook used for rolling stems or logs.
Cantilever Beam or member supported firmly at one end and unsupported at the other, carrying a 'sideways' load.
CANZ Composites Association of New Zealand Incorporated.
Cap and base A pneumatic tyre tread formed from two separate strips of compound having different physical characteristics; the upper strip or cap forming tread pattern and the lower strip of base forming the undertread.
Capacitor Device for storing electric charge on metal plates separated by an insulating medium.
Capacity The amount of physical or mental work that an individual is capable of doing at any particular time. An individual's capacity for work or for a particular task will decline with fatigue and when the demands of the task exceed the available capacity, performance declines. So it refers to just how much you can do. An example of capacity: an individual can do 6 hours work in front of a computer, before he or she is too tired to continue without performance dropping below preset standards.
Capacity (of a tank or cylinder) The total volume of the space enclosed within the tank or cylinder, expressed in kilolitres or litres respectively. NOTE: This is often referred to as 'water capacity'.
Capacity (of a regulator) The maximum volumetric throughput at a given inlet and outlet pressure under specific gas conditions for which a regulator is designed with the valve(s) maintaining control of the flow.
Capstan A powered spool designed to pull a rope by means of friction, for example, for an endless rope hauling system.
CAR Civil Aviation Rules.
Car body The undercarriage of a swing yarder capable of propelling and swinging the main body and tower.
Carcinogen An agent which is responsible for the formation of a cancer.
Carcinogenic Causing a statistically significant increase in the incidence of tumours - see HSNO Regulations.
Cargo Includes: (a) ship's stores, provisions, equipment and fuel: (b) mail: (c) material for the repair of the ship or for the fitting of a cargo space: (d) containers, shipborne barges and any other unit of a permanent character that facilitates the transport of an aggregation of cargo as a single unit, but does not include cargo gear.
Cargo area That part of the ship that contains: (a) cargo tanks, slop tanks and cargo pump-rooms, including pump- -rooms, cofferdams, ballast and void spaces adjacent to cargo tanks; and (b) deck areas throughout the entire length and breadth of the part of the ship over the above-mentioned spaces.
Cargo gear Means: (a) a ship's derrick, a ship's standing or running rigging, a ship's crane, or a ship's winch; and (b) a chain, rope, or attachment of any description for working cargo; and (c) a tray, tub, or box (other than a CSC cargo container), equipped with permanent fittings for lowering or lifting; and (d) any other appliance or article for working cargo that is for the time being declared by the Chief Surveyor of Ships, by notice in writing served on the owner, to be cargo gear for the purposes of these regulations [General Harbour (Safe Working Load) Regulations 1982] but does not include a lifting appliance that is used in a ship's machinery spaces or a lifting appliance that is used exclusively in respect of a ship's stores or equipment.
Cargo spaces All spaces used for cargo (including cargo oil tanks) and trunks to such spaces:
CARM Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring. A national centre that collects and evaluates spontaneous reports of adverse reactions to medicines, vaccines, herbal products and dietary supplements from health professionals in New Zealand.
Carpet boom A ram or boom attachment which can be inserted into hollow objects for lifting purposes for example, carpets, coils.
Carriage A load carrying device which travels freely on sheaves running on a wire rope for hauling or loading logs.
Carriage On a forklift, a support structure for forks or attachments, generally roller-mounted, travelling vertically within the mast of a cantilever truck.
Carrier Includes every person engaged in carrying goods for hire or reward by any mode of transport, whether by land, water or air.
Carrier In relation to any infectious disease, means any person having in his blood, or in his nose or throat, or in his excretions, or in his discharges, the specific infectious agent of that disease, though he may exhibit no other sign or symptom of that disease.
Carrier gas Pure gas introduced so as to transport a sample through the separation unit of a gas chromatograph for analytical purposes. NOTE: Typical carrier gases are hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and argon.
Cartridge A container for propane, butane, or LPG which is filled during manufacture and not intended to be re-filled. Known also as a one-trip or disposable container.
CAS Number See Chemical Abstracts Service Service Registry Number.
Casing (Sleeve) A pipe or duct through which runs a smaller pipe carrying gas; the duct protects the smaller pipe.
Casting (1) The production of metal components by pouring molten metal into moulds and allowing it to solidify. (2) A metal component produced by casting.
Castor A swivelling wheel secured to the base of a vertical member of a scaffold for the purpose of mobilising it.
Casualty/ies The human impact in terms of numbers of people killed, injured, sick, missing or homeless. In maritime emergencies, it is also used to refer to a vessel in distress.
Catch screen A protective structure made of suitable materials such as scaffold tubes and planking, and fixed to the face of the building or to the perimeter fencing, to contain falling debris during demolition.
Cathode The negative electrode in an electroplating or anodising solution.
Cathodic protection The use of an impressed current or sacrificial anodes or, where applicable, drainage bonding to prevent or reduce the rate of corrosion in a metal pipeline in soil by making the pipeline cathodic to soil.
CBIP Certification Board for Inspection Personnel.
CC Case control.
CCA mixture The most common type of timber preservative used in New Zealand, a copper-chrome-arsenic mixture.
CCOHS Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.
CCP Critical Control Point.
CDC Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.
Cellar An excavation around the top of a geothermal well to accommodate part of the wellhead.
Central nervous system (CNS) The part of the nervous system that includes the brain and the spinal cord.
Central tyre inflation system A type of tyre pressure control system that adjusts tyre pressure for the purpose of inflating and deflating tyres to improve tyre adhesion and reduce road surface damage and which is under the central control of the driver or an automated system, or a combination of both the driver and an automated system. (Commonly known as 'CTI'.)
Centre (machine tools) A tapered device which is fitted to the headstock or tailstock of a lathe or other machine tool, to support and centralise a component whose ends have been centre drilled.
Centre drill A drill which drills a tapered hole in a workpiece, usually in the centre, subsequently used to mount the workpiece in a lathe, between 'centres', or as an accurate starting point for a drill.
Centre line A marked line on a workpiece about which dimensions can be equally divided.
Centre of gravity The point at which the object's entire weight may be considered as concentrated.
Centre punch (centre pop) A hardened steel punch, tapering to a point at one end, used for marking the centres of holes to be drilled.
Centrifuge A device used for separating heavier from lighter parts of a mixture, for example, solids from liquids, by rotating a container at high speeds. The centrifugal force is greater on the heavier parts, so they move to the 'outside' of the container furthest from the axis.
Ceramic fibres Amorphous, glassy, predominantly alumino-silicate materials which are created from molten masses of either alumina and silica or naturally occurring kaolin clays.
Certificate of competence A certificate of one of the kinds referred to in regulation 27 of the HSE Regulations, a diver, construction blaster, powder-actuated tool operator, and scaffolder.
Certificate of loading (COL) A certificate issued to a vehicle that requires verification of its loading and weight limits.
Certification Body An organisation carrying out certification assessments of other organisations to the AS/NZS ISO 9000 series Quality Management Standards and which is accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand.
CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons.
CGA Compressed Gas Association (of America).
CH4 Methane.
Chafer A strip of rubberised cross-woven fabric fitted around the part of the tyre bead which comes into contact with the rim.
Chain A series of interconnected metal links, producing a 'flexible cable' used for supporting loads in tension or for transmission of power between shafts, by running over sprockets (chain wheels).
Chain and board A graphic method of calculating skyline load path and deflection by hanging a length of light chain to a drawing board covered with graph paper.
Chainbrake A safety device on a chainsaw designed to stop the chain in the event of kickback.
Chain catcher A pin or stud behind the bar, designed to prevent the chain from lashing back if it breaks. Sometimes referred to as peg.
Chain conveyor A conveyor built up in the form of a chain, usually overhead, supporting the components being conveyed on hooks below.
Chainsaw A powered saw in which the cutting action is performed by a series of linked teeth, which travel around a guide bar.
Chainsaw chaps A form of protective leg wear. Chaps cover the lower leg, front, and inside of the thigh. They are secured at the back with straps.
Chainsaw-resistant footwear Any footwear that meets the requirements of the Australian/New Zealand Standard 2210 Occupational protective equipment Part 1 or any other Standard embodying the same or more stringent criteria.
Chainsaw trousers A form of protective leg wear. These are worn like ordinary trousers but are made with chainsaw-resistant material such as balistic nylon with the inside thigh padded, for example, with KEVLAR.
Chalking Photo-oxidation of paint binders causing powder on the film surface.
Challenge A party may challenge the determination of the Authority to the Employment Court, if that party is dissatisfied with that determination.
Challenging behaviours Behaviours that put caregivers, clients or others at risk due to the inability of a client to protect themselves from harm, or to control behaviours that are likely to cause serious offence or injury or damage.
Chambers (ERS Employment Court, Tribunal or Authority) A hearing that is conducted outside of a hearing room often in the Judge or Tribunal Member's office (or 'chambers').
Chamfer cut Angled cut to remove a large limb or fork from a stem.
Channel steel Steel bar rolled into the form of a flat bottomed 'U'.
Charge A cased cartridge or a caseless pellet of explosive, designed specifically for a powder-actuated, hand-held fastening tool.
Chaser An employee who removes chokers from logs at the log landing.
Chassis The structural lower part of a vehicle to which the running gear and, as applicable, engine, transmission, steering system and body may be attached.
Chassis assembly A chassis with running gear attached and, as applicable, engine, transmission and steering system attached.
Chassis rating Means: (a) for a vehicle first registered before 1 February 1989 that has not been modified on or after 1 April 2005, a set of data, containing the gross vehicle mass, gross combination (if applicable) and maximum towed mass (if applicable), approved or determined by the Director or a person appointed by the Director; (b) for a vehicle first registered on or after 1 February 1989 or a vehicle that has been modified on or after 1 April 2005, a set of data, containing the permitted maximum axle and/or axle-set masses, gross vehicle mass, gross combination mass (if applicable) and maximum towed mass (if applicable), approved or determined by the Director or a person appointed by the Director.
Check plate The outer shell of a logging block which holds the sheave in place and through which the pin is inserted.
Cheater bar A safety extension device for using on the twitch when tensioning the load. It differs from a pipe extension because it locks on to the end of the twitch and cannot fly loose.
ChemCall© A 24-hour, 365 day emergency response service provided by the New Zealand Chemical Industry Council (NZCIC).
Chemical Abstracts Registry Service Number (CAS No.) A number assigned to a single chemical by the Chemical Abstracts Service, Columbus Ohio, a US-based chemical reference service.
Chemical hazard Any chemical in the workplace that can affect health, including agrichemicals, for example, organophosphate pesticides; chemical fumes, for example, ammonia; corrosive chemicals, for example, sulphuric acid.
Chemical tanker A non-passenger ship constructed or adapted and used for the carriage in bulk of any liquid product listed in Chapter 17 of the International Bulk Chemical Code.
Chemiluminescence detector (CD) Detector that uses a reducing reaction in which molecules give rise to characteristic luminous emissions which are measured by a photomultiplier and the associated electronic devices. NOTE: Chemiluminescence detector is used in gas chromatography mainly to detect components which contain particular elements, for example, nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfur (S).
Chequer plate Steel plate with the surface roughened in a diamond pattern, used for 'non-slip' flooring.
Chest attachment Lanyard attachment point on a full-body harness at the wearer's centre front and at chest level.
Chicane A device that channels traffic by means of a series of alternating turns designed to reduce traffic speed.
Child A boy or girl under the age of 14. [Childrens, Young Persons and their Families Act 1989]
Child resistant In relation to packaging of hazardous substances, means that: (a) 80% of children aged between 42 and 51 months would be unable to gain access to the contents of the packaging, or would be unlikely to obtain a toxic dose from packaging that is or contains a dispensing device within a period of 5 minutes; and (b) 90% of adults aged between 50 and 70 years would be able to open and re-close any child-resistant closure in the packaging.
Chloracne A particular type of acne on the face, neck, chest, back and extremities, which is often prolonged (it may last for decades) and may recur after remission. It is associated with chlorinated chemicals, particularly the PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs.
Chocked Secured from movement by mechanical stops.
Choke To wrap a strop around a log and pull it tight prior to hauling it.
Choker hook Connector on a strop which enables a noose to be formed around the end of a log.
Choker/strop A steel cable, or rope, used to choke or cinch logs for transport.
Cholinesterase An enzyme that plays a part in the transmission of nerve impulses.
Chopped-strand spraying The propulsion through a chopping mechanism and onto a mould, by means of a jet of compressed air, of glass-fibre rovings, resins, and catalysts.
Chord Straight line between points of support of the skyline.
Chronic aquatic ecotoxicity value The lowest value expressed in units of milligrams of a substance per litre of water from chronic fish, crustacean, algal, or other aquatic plant NOEC data.
Chronic exposure The result of long-term exposure to a harmful agent.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis Lung diseases characterised by a widespread reduction in the diameter of the airways that cannot be reversed by treatment, and bronchial mucous hypersecretion. Tobacco smoking is the most important risk factor, but work-related exposures such as coal, silica, cotton dust and grain dusts are strongly associated with with the development of these conditions.
Chronic renal failure A disorder of the kidney characterised by permanent damage to the filtration tissues. In the occupational setting, the nephritic syndrome is probably the most important type of chronic renal failure. The strongest connection between occupational exposures and chronic renal failure is with metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper and mercury, including via welding fumes.
Chronic solvent-induced toxic encephalopathy (Also known as chronic solvent neurotoxicity) A disorder of the nervous system arising from exposure to certain organic solvents. Causative occupational exposures occur in processes that require the use of organic solvents. These include processes using degreasing agents, paints and glues, as well as in the manufacture of textiles, plastics, polymers and pharmaceuticals, and in the use of fibreglass, as occurs in boat building.
Chronic toxicity Harmful effects of a chemical which occur after repeated or prolonged exposure. Chronic effects may also occur some time after exposure has ceased.
Chrysotile A type of asbestos. A magnesium silicate, white in colour.
Chuck A device attached to the spindle of machine tools used for gripping revolving workpieces, cutting tools, twist drills, etc.
CI Confidence interval.
CIG Commonwealth Industrial Gases (Australia).
CIMS Co-ordinated Incident Management System.
CIMS Client Information Management System (Employment Relations Computer System). The ERS case management application.
Circadian rhythms Cyclic changes in physiological variables, or biological rhythms, can vary in terms of their period (time to complete one cycle). A large number of biological rhythms have a period that is close to 24h, and these are referred to as Circadian rhythms. Literally, circadian means 'about a day'.
Circuit Wires arranged for the purpose of carrying an electric current.
Circuit-breaker A device designed to automatically disconnect the power supply in the event of an overload or fault. This can also be manually operated as a switch to disconnect a circuit. Circuit-breakers are different to residual current devices in that they will not protect you from receiving an electric shock.
Civil Aviation Rules Rules made under the Act.
Civil defence declaration See Declaration.
Civil defence emergency A situation that causes or may cause loss of life, injury or disaster or in any way endanger the safety of the public and cannot be dealt with by the Police, NZ Fire Service or otherwise without the adoption of civil defence measures.
Civil defence emergency management (a) The application of knowledge, measures, and practices that (i) are necessary or desirable for the safety of the public or property; and (ii) are designed to guard against, prevent, reduce, or overcome any hazard or harm or loss that may be associated with any emergency; and (b) includes, without limitation, the planning, organisation, co-ordination, and implementation of those measures, knowledge, and practices.
Claimant The injured person who receives rehabilitation and compensation from ACC.
Class (dangerous goods) The groupings, numbered from 1 to 9, into which dangerous goods are assigned on the basis of a common single or most significant hazard, as specified in the following documents: (a) New Zealand Standard 5433:1999, Transport of Dangerous Goods on Land; or (b) United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; or (c) International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; or (d) Technical Instructions for Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air of the International Civil Aviation Organisation; or (e) Dangerous Goods Regulations of the International Air Transport Association; and reference to a class includes all divisions of that class.
Class I appliance An appliance in which protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only, but which includes an additional safety precaution in that accessible conductive parts are connected to the protective earthing conductor in the fixed wiring of the installation so that accessible conductive parts cannot become live in the event of a failure of the basic insulation.
Class II appliance An appliance in which protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only, but in which additional safety precautions such as double insulation or reinforced insulation is provided, there being no provision for protective earthing or reliance upon installation conditions.
Class III appliance An appliance in which protection against electric shock relies on supply at safety extra-low voltage and in which voltages higher than those of safety extra-low voltage are not generated.
Claw hook Double-finger hook formed to the shape of the chain link, used for connecting chains.
Cleaned In relation to the transport of dangerous goods means: (a) for gases and volatile liquids, an atmosphere in the receptacle containing a concentration of the gas or liquid vapour less than the concentration listed in Workplace Exposure Standards, of Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Labour; or (b) for all dangerous goods, the container is free of dangerous residue of the substance to the satisfaction of the relevant regulatory authority.
Cleaner production The use of techniques to reduce the need for raw materials and/or energy and the amount of wastes generated. These techniques may include the use of recyclable materials, the use of less hazardous substances or the reduction in their quantity, and the use of renewable resources.
Cleanfill (a) A landfill that accepts only material that, when buried or placed, will not have an adverse effect on the environment; but (b) does not include a landfill that contains 5% or more (by weight) putrescible matter.
Clearance limit The point to which an aircraft is granted an ATC clearance.
Clearfell To fell all trees in an area, as opposed to thinning which removes selected stems from the stand.
Clearway A defined rectangular area on the ground or water, at the departure end of the runway: (1) under the control of the aerodrome operator; or (2) with the agreement of the authority controlling the clearway - selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.
Clearwood Wood that is free of knots.
Cleat A small block of timber or other substantial material fixed across a member to provide strength and support and to prevent the movement of abutting timbers.
Client Party for which work is being carried out.
Climbing equipment Playground equipment or equipment parts that have no areas on which it is possible to stand unsupported and which, therefore, require the user to hold on with both hands.
Climbing rope Used to secure the climber so that if the climber falls the fall distance is limited or broken by the rope. The rope is connected to the harness or belt and at a point on the tree.
Climbing spurs (Synonym: Rigging spurs) Strap-on metal spikes which enable a rigger to climb a standing tree.
Clinch The area of the sidewall of a pneumatic tyre immediately flange where severe stress occurs in service.
Close supervision Direct and constant one-on-one supervision.
Closed cup test A test for determining the flashpoint of a flammable liquid as prescribed in Australian Standard AS 2106:1980 Methods for the determination of the flashpoint of flammable liquids (closed cup.
Closing Completing the current path of an electric circuit.
Closing rope Powered rope which closes a grapple.
Clutch A device used to connect or disconnect (engage or disengage) two rotatable parts so they revolve as one unit or separately, as required. Generally one of two types: (1) Friction clutch: A clutch which relies on friction to transmit movement from one part to another: thus it may be partially engaged if required to transmit only some of the available torque (rotary force), or engaged progressively to provide smooth engagement as in the clutch of a car. (2) Positive clutch: A clutch in which the movement is transmitted between the members by a positive mechanical action. It is either fully engaged or fully disengaged and cannot be ,slipped, or engaged smoothly like a friction clutch.
Clutch extractor Part of the mechanism of a positive clutch found on presses and similar machines used for disengaging the clutch at the end of a stroke, and holding it disengaged until the next stroke is initiated.
CNG Natural gas which has been compressed, or contained under pressure, in a small volume. Mainly used as a transport fuel.
CNG station A CNG gas installation supplying CNG for use in vehicle cylinders, transportable cylinders, or both types of cylinder.
CO Carbon monoxide.
CO2 Carbon dioxide.
Coach A person responsible for leding, training or instructing, who could be a fitness instructor, outdoor recreation guide, group leader, mentor or team coach.
Coal (a) Anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite, oil shale, peat, and sub-bituminous coal; and (b) includes every other substance worked or normally worked with coal.
Coal mine A place where a person works below ground for the purpose of (a) extracting coal from the earth; or (b) processing coal extracted from the earth at that place; and includes a place in which coal so extracted or processed is washed, crushed, or screened.
Coastal cargo In relation to any ship, means: (a) passengers embarked by the ship at any port in New Zealand for carriage to and disembarking at any other port in New Zealand; (b) goods loaded on the ship at any port in New Zealand for carriage to and unloading at any other port in New Zealand.
Coathangers Stubs left by not cutting branches close to the log.
Coating Material applied to the external surface of a pipe or fitting to protect it against corrosion.
COD The chemical oxygen demand, being the equivalent mass of oxygen from an oxidising agent, of a strength at least equal to the oxidising strength of potassium permanganate or potassium dichromate, that is consumed during oxidation of the substance in water, expressed in units of milligrams of oxygen consumed per milligram of the substance.
Code of practice, approved code of practice A statement of preferred work practices or arrangements for the purpose of ensuring the health and safety of persons to whom the code applies and persons who may be affected by the activities covered by the code. Under the HSE Act the Minister of Labour may, after consulting all persons affected or likely to be affected by the code, and considering all written comments, approve the code of practice under section 20 of the Act. When a code is approved, a Court may have regard to it in relation to compliance with the relevant sections of the HSE Act. This means that if an employer in an industry or using a process to which an approved code applies can show compliance with that code in all matters it covers, a Court may consider this to be compliance with the provisions of the Act to which the code relates.
Cog A tooth on a gear wheel (more properly - a wooden tooth on a wooden wheel).
Cogeneration The simultaneous or sequential production of two or more forms of useful energy from a single primary energy source. for example, an electricity generating facility that produces electricity and a form of useful thermal energy (such as heat or steam for industrial or commercial heating or cooling purposes). In the energy balances, only the electrical output is accounted for.
Cognitive impairment Impairment indicated by the following type of symptoms: forgetting, able to be easily distracted, problems in paying attention, and in concentrating as well as with memory, problems in putting together complex information, problems in focusing attention and ignoring irrelevant information.
COHFE Centre for Human Factors and Ergonomics. A research centre dedicated to improving worker safety, health and performance within the New Zealand forest industry.
Cohort A group of individuals having a statistical factor (such as age) in common.
Cohort study A study in which a group of people with a past exposure to chemicals or other risk factors are followed over time and their disease experience compared to that of a group of people without the exposure.
Coil Insulated wire wound about a former to carry current and produce an electric field.
Cold deck Logging in which logs are accumulated and stacked to await later transportation.
Cold injuries Injuries that occur when the body reduces blood supply to the extremities in order to conserve heat around the vital organs. The main cold injuries are frostnip, frostbite, immersion foot and trench foot
Cold store protection Modifications made to standard forklifts to enable them to work in low temperature situations for example, cold stores, chillers etc.
Cold strain The short- or long-term consequences of exposure to cold on a person's mind and body.
Collar A raised ring on the surface of a shaft. May be an integral part of the shaft or fixed to it in some way, often used to locate a component on the shaft.
Collective agreement An agreement that is binding on: (a) 1 or more unions; and (b) 1 or more employers; and (c) 2 or more employees.
Collision Regulations The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea as set forth in the Schedule to the Collision Regulations Order 1976.
Combination carrier A ship designed to carry either oil or solid cargoes in bulk.
Combination packaging In relation to dangerous goods means a combination of packaging for transport purposes consisting of one or more inner packagings secured in an outer packaging.
Combination sign In relation to a safety sign is a sign which comprises both words and a symbol.
Combination vehicle A towing vehicle in combination with one or more trailers or other motor vehicle that is being towed.
Combustible A substance capable of undergoing combustion. NOTE: AS 1530.1 provides a test method for and criterion of combustibility for building materials.
Combustible liquid A combustible liquid as defined in AS 1940/NZ Dangerous Goods Regulations.
Combustible material A material which will ignite and burn and includes material which has been flame-proofed.
Combustible surface Any material or object adjacent to, or in contact with heat-producing gas appliances, and made of, or surfaced with, materials that are capable of being ignited and burned.
Combustion The process of burning.
Combustion appliance A slow combustion stove, a free standing metal cone fireplace, a cast iron pot belly stove, an oil burning space heater, or a vented gas burning heater.
Combustion products Constituents resulting from the combustion of a fuel with air, oxygen or mixture of the two, including the inert gases associated with the fuel and the air but excluding any other diluent or contaminant.
Commercial purpose In relation to the transport of dangerous goods, means the transport of dangerous goods as part of a commercial operation but not as tools-of-trade or by a licensed transport service operator.
Commercial sexual services In terms of the Prostitution Reform Act, means sexual services that: (a) involve physical participation by a person in sexual acts with, and for the gratification of, another person; and (b) are provided for payment or other reward (irrespective of whether the reward is given to the person providing the services or another person).
Commercial ship A ship that is not: (a) a pleasure craft; or (b) solely powered manually; or (c) solely powered by sail.
Commercial transport operation An operation for the carriage of passengers or goods by air for hire or reward: (1) where (i) each passenger is performing, or undergoing training to perform, a task or duty on the operation; or (ii) the passengers or goods are carried to or from a remote aerodrome - (2) except those operations in paragraph (1) that are: (i) a sightseeing flight or joyride under VFR by day in:    - a hot air balloon in accordance with Part 91; or    - a microlight aircraft in accordance with Part 103; or    - a glider in accordance with Part 104; or    - a hang glider or paraglider in accordance with Part 106; or (ii) a helicopter external load operation in accordance with Part 133; or (iii) an agricultural operation in accordance with Part 137; or (iv) a parachute operation in accordance with Part 105. [Civil Aviation Rules]
Commercial user (poisons) A person who: (a) regularly uses land (i) for the purpose of any agricultural, horticultural, pastoral, or recreational undertaking carried on for profit; or (ii) for the keeping for profit of animals or bees and requires a poison in connection with such use; or (b) requires a poison for use in any scientific, educational, or commercial laboratory; or (c) requires a poison for use in any process of manufacture or in any trade or business; or (d) requires a poison for use in any public reserve, within the meaning of the Reserves Act 1977, or in any public recreational area that the person is responsible for maintaining.
Commissioning In relation to plant, means performing the necessary adjustments, test and inspections before the plant commences normal operation for the first time. This is done to ensure that the plant is in full working order in accordance with the requirements specified in the design, and includes re-commissioning.
Common flue A flue system designed to carry combustion products from two or more flue outlets.
Communicable disease (Synonym: Infectious disease) An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal or reservoir to a susceptible host. It may be transmitted directly or indirectly, or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector or the inanimate environment. Under the Health Act, it includes any infectious disease, tuberculosis, venereal disease, and any other disease declared by the Governor-General, by Order in Council, to be a communicable disease.
Co-morbidity (co-disability) Co-existence of more than one disease (disability) in the same individual at a given time.
Compactor-container A specially designed container, compatible with a stationary compactor, used to load, store, and transport the compacted refuse to the unloading site. Such containers do not include disposable containers made of paper, plastic, or cardboard.
Compactor operating cycles single cycle is the operation of a mechanism to perform one complete operation having a definite beginning and end. An interrupted cycle is one in which the operation of a mechanism stops automatically before completion of the cycle. A multiple cycle is one in which the operation of the mechanism will complete a predetermined number of cycles or run for a predetermined time period and then stop.
Company name Includes any corporate name, firm name, or business name, whether or not it is registered or registrable under the Companies Act 1955 [or the Companies Act 1993] or any other enactment.
Compartment Forest management subdivision or block of land, usually of continuous land ownership.
Compatible substances or toxicity Substances, which, when mixed together, do not react to give substantially increased danger of explosion, fire, or chemical reaction.
Compatibility group A grouping of types of dangerous goods of Class 1 that are deemed to be compatible. Compatibility groups are identified by a letter from A to S following the division number.
Compensation levy The levy payable by self-employed persons and shareholder-employees to purchase and maintain weekly compensation under section 208 of the Act, calculated by the Accident Compensation Corporation under regulation 13.
Competent person Any person who has: (a) the relevant knowledge, experience, and skill to carry out the task required; and (b) either (i) a relevant qualification evidencing the person's possession of that knowledge, experience, and skill; or (ii) if the person is an employee, a certificate issued by the person's employer evidencing the person's possession of that knowledge, experience, and skill.
Completed hearing (ERS Tribunal, Court) A hearing that has taken place where the user has changed the status of the hearing to complete and thereby reviewed the expected duration and hearing participants.
Compliance label An attachment to a vehicle in the form of a label that confirms compliance of the vehicle or a specific aspect of the vehicle with requirements in the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance 2002.
Compliance (1) In accordance with the requirements of legislation and regulations. (2) Achieving the desired defined and assessable outcome through documented and demonstrable procedures and records.
Compliance order An order made under section 137 of the Employment Relations Act 2000.
Composite packaging Packaging consisting of an inner receptacle and an outer packaging, constructed so that the inner receptacle and the outer packaging form an integral packaging, and that once assembled remains an integrated unit and is filled, stored, transported and emptied as such.
Composite sign In relation to a safety sign is a combination sign in which the words qualify or augment the symbol.
Compound Any chemical combination of chemical elements.
Compound Natural or synthetic rubber, or a blend of both, treated with various chemicals and other materials to give specific properties required for various commercial rubber products.
Compound An area bounded by natural ground contours or by a bund, and intended to retain spillage or leakage. NOTE: A pit or tank may be used to provide the same function.
Compound In relation to the storage of liquid dangerous goods, means a basin, pit, excavation, hollow, or enclosure constructed of concrete, brick, clay, earth, or similar incombustible material, and which is of such a nature and construction that it will effectively retain the liquid dangerous goods in the event of their leakage outflow from their container under the action of fire or from any other cause; and 'to compound' has a corresponding meaning.
Compressed gas A gas that is held in a compressed gas container: (a) in gaseous form at pressure of greater than 101.3 kPa absolute; or (b) dissolved in a liquid solvent at a pressure of greater than 101.3 kPa absolute; or (c) at a sufficient pressure to keep the gas in its liquid or partially liquid form; or (d) at a sufficiently low temperature to keep the gas in its liquid or partially liquid form.
Compressed gas container (a) Means a container in which compressed gas is held with fittings or equipment designed to retain the gas in its compressed form; and (b)includes any aerosol dispenser, fire extinguisher, cryogenic container, cylinder, tank, or compressed gas stationary tank; but (c) does not include: (i) a pressure vessel that is a pipeline under the Health and Safety in Employment (Pipelines) Regulations 1999; or (ii) an air receiver used in connection with the starting of an internal combustion engine; or (iii) a receiver that forms part of a compression plant; or (iv) a container that forms an integral part of a refrigerating unit; or (v) a pressurised container that forms an integral part of the motive or control system of a vehicle, aircraft, or ship; or (vi) an aerosol container with a water capacity less than 50 millilitres or for which the absolute pressure developed at 20°C is less than 170 kPa; or (vii) a cartridge with a water capacity less than [170 millilitres]; or (viii) a non-refillable container with a water capacity of less than 100 millilitres; or (ix) a cylinder with a water capacity of less than 120 millilitres, if the contents are a liquefied gas with flammable properties; or (x) a cylinder with a water capacity of less than 500 millilitres, if the contents are not a liquefied gas with flammable properties; or (xi) a cylinder with a water capacity of greater than 500 litres, except that this subparagraph does not apply in relation to regulation 7, Part 8, or Part 9; or (xii) carbonated beverages or their containers.
Compressed gas stationary tank A tank that is (a) used or intended to be used for storage or supply of one or more compressed gases; and (b) normally located at a specific place.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Natural gas used as a fuel for vehicles, typically compressed up to 20 000 kPa in the gaseous state
Compression factor Quotient of the actual (real) volume of an arbitrary mass of gas, at a specified pressure and temperature, and the volume of the same gas, under the same conditions, as calculated from the ideal gas law.
Compression joint A joint sealed by the compression of a gland packing by a gland ring.
Compression wood Where a tree or log bends inwards. Can result in jamming of the chainsaw in the closing cut.
Compressive stress A stress that tends to shorten a material.
Compressor A device for compressing (pressurising) a gas.
Concealed space Any part of the space within a building that cannot be seen from an occupied space.
Concentric Two parts are concentric if they rotate about the same axis, or if they are mounted so that their centre lines coincide.
Concussion Injury to the brain, usually caused by a blow, leading to immediate loss of consciousness.
Condensate The liquid that separates from a gas (including flue gas) due to a reduction in temperature.
Condensate A light crude oil which is present in natural gas deposits.
Condition monitoring Continuous or periodic inspection, assessment, measurement and interpretation of resulting data, to indicate the condition of specific asset components so as to determine the need for preventative or remedial action.
Condition monitored maintenance A maintenance process that monitors maintenance trends, and relies upon analysis of the operating experience of the whole population of specified items to indicate nascent failures requiring corrective action.
Conductor Any overhead or underground electrical device, including communications wires and cables, power lines and other such facilities.
Confidence interval A range of values for a variable that has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Confidential information Includes: (a) trade secrets; and (b) information that has commercial value that would be, or would be likely to be, diminished by disclosure.
Confined space An enclosed or partially enclosed space that is at atmospheric pressure during occupancy and is not intended or designed primarily as a place of work. In addition, the space: (a) is liable at any time to (i) have an atmosphere which contains potentially harmful levels of contaminant; (ii) not have a safe oxygen range; or (iii) cause engulfment; and (b) could have restricted means for entry amd exit.
Confirmed (ERS Authority, Tribunal, Court) A confirmed hearing, for example, a confirmed investigation meeting.
Conformity assessment The methods used to demonstrate that equipment complies with specified requirements.
Confounding A situation in which a measure of the effect of an exposure on risk is distorted because of the association of the exposure with other factor(s) that influence the outcome.
Connecting rod A rigid rod connecting a crank pin to a piston, crosshead or slider. One end describes a circular path, travelling with the crank pin, and the other end travels in a straight line with the piston or slider.
Consequence The outcome of an event expressed qualitatively or quantitatively, being a loss, injury, disadvantage or gain. There may be a range of possible outcomes associated with an event.
Consideration of Papers (ERS Authority, Tribunal, Court) A hearing before a Judge, Tribunal or Authority Member where the issue is determined on the papers. The papers can include the pleadings, submissions and affidavits but parties do not attend.
Consignor (dangerous goods) Any person who: (a) transports their own dangerous goods; or (b) engages a prime contractor, either directly or through an agent, to transport dangerous goods; or (c) has possession of, or control over, dangerous goods immediately before the goods are transported; or (d) for the first land journey after dangerous goods are imported into New Zealand, is the importer of those goods; or (e) agrees to be named on dangerous goods documentation as the consignor for the transport of the goods covered by that documentation.
Consolidator A person who packs or supervises packing of cargo for various shippers into a container or vehicle for transport by sea.
Construct In relation to a building, includes to build, erect, prefabricate, and relocate; and construction has a corresponding meaning.
Construction work (a) Means any work in connection with the alteration, cleaning construction, demolition, dismantling, erection, installation, maintenance, painting, removal, renewal, or repair, of: (i) Any building, chimney, edifice, erection, fence, structure, or wall, whether constructed wholly above or below, or partly above and partly below, ground level: (ii) Any aerodrome, cableway, canal, harbour works, motorway, railway, road, or tramway: (iii) Any thing having the purpose of drainage, flood control, irrigation, or river control: (iv) Any distribution system or network having the purpose of carrying electricity, gas, telecommunications, or water: (v) Any aqueduct, bridge, culvert, dam, earthwork, pipeline, reclamation, reservoir, or viaduct: (vi) Any scaffolding; and (b) Includes any work in connection with any excavation, preparatory work, or site preparation carried out for the purposes of any work referred to in paragraph (a) of this definition; and (c) Includes any work referred to in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of this definition carried out underwater, including work on buoys, obstructions to navigation, rafts, ships, and wrecks; and (d) Includes the use of any materials or plant for the purposes of any work referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (c) of this definition; and (e) Includes any inspection or other work carried out for the purposes of ascertaining whether any work referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (c) of this definition should be carried out; but (f) Does not include any work in any mine, quarry, or tunnel.
Construction blaster A person who holds a certificate of competency as a construction blaster.
Consultation Sharing of information and opinions on a particular issue or series of issues, between two or more interested parties. The outcome of consultation may not necessarily be agreement.
Consumer commodities P roducts that are packaged as Dangerous Goods in Limited Quantities and are in a form intended, or suitable, for retail sale for the purposes of personal care or recreational or domestic use.
Contact A person or animal who has been in association with an infected person or animal or a contaminated environment which might provide an opportunity to acquire the infective agent.
Contact An event where a vessel or craft strikes something fixed, such as a navigation aid or a heavy landing on a berth, or a bridge structure or deck. Contact is known as Allision in the United States of America and some other parts of the world.
Contact See Direct or Indirect contact.
Contacts Parts of a switch which open and close to control the flow of current.
Contact tracing Identifying and seeking out those people who have been in contact with a person with an infectious disease, with a view to controlling spread of that disease by either diagnosing and treating further cases or providing protections such as preventative treatment or immunisation, or advice and information.
Container Any barrel, case, cylinder, drum, tank, tin or other receptacle; and includes every package in or by which goods may be cased, covered, enclosed, contained or packed.
Container, or freight container An article of transport equipment that is: (a) of permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use; and (b) specially designed to facilitate the transport of goods, by one or more modes of transport, without intermediate reloading; and (c) designed to be secured or readily handled or both, having fittings for these purposes. The term 'container' or 'freight container' does not include a vehicle or packaging; but does include a container that is carried on a chassis.
Containment Relates to an approval granted for a hazardous substance or new organism in containment. Containment means restricting organisms or hazardous substances to a secure location or facility to prevent escape. In respect of genetically modified organisms, includes field testing and large-scale fermentation. Controls on containment for both hazardous substances and new organisms are derived from the Third Schedule of the HSNO Act.
Containment facility A place approved in accordance with section 39 [Biosecurity Act] for holding organisms that should not, whether for the time being or ever, become established in New Zealand:
Containment structure A containment facility that is a vehicle, room, building, or other structure, set aside and equipped for the development of genetically modified organisms.
Contaminant Any substance (including gases, liquids, solids and micro-organisms) energy (excluding noise) or heat, that either by itself or in combination with the same, similar or other substances, energy or heat may adversely affect health either directly because of hazardous properties, or indirectly through contamination of the air, water, soil or food.
Contaminated Means that a contaminant on any product, byproduct, piece of equipment or article, including protective clothing, has exceeded any standard or, in the absence of a standard, the tolerated level for that contaminant on the product or byproduct being produced at the time.
Contingency plan A plan for action prepared in anticipation of an incident.
Continual improvement Process of enhancing the OHSMS to achieve improvements in overall OHS performances, in line with the organisation's OHS policy. Note: The process need not take place in all areas of activity simultaneously.
Contour tracking Skidding tracks which roughly parallel the contour of the land.
Contractor A person engaged by any person (other than as an employee) to do any work for gain or reward.
Contrast The name given to the difference in brightness between the subject (for example, text, control knob, sign etc.) and the background against which it must be seen and interpreted. It has an even greater effect on legibility than lighting.
Contributory factors (manual handling) The factors of load, environment, people, task and management that can contribute to the incidence and severity of manual handling hazards.
Control A physical entity that provides the means for an operator to interact with the machine or task. An example of a control is a computer mouse, or keyboard, with which the operator communicates with the computer software and hardware. Another example of a control would be a light switch.
Control of hazards/risks In Australia, the term 'control of risks' is used, to mean the process of elimination or minimisation of risks. In New Zealand, the term 'control of hazards' is used to mean the process of elimination, isolation or minimisation of significant hazards.
Control stations Those spaces in which the ship's radio or main navigation equipment or the emergency source of power is located, or where the fire recording or fire control equipment is centralised.
Controls (HSNO) Controls encompass any obligations or restrictions imposed on any hazardous substance or new organism, or on any person involved with any hazardous substance or new organism, by the HSNO Act (and other legislation). Controls also encompass any regulation, rule, code or other document made in accordance with the provisions of the HSNO Act (or any other legislation) for the purpose of controlling the effects of hazardous substances or new organisms on people, property and the environment.
Controlled airspace An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights, and to VFR flights, in accordance with the airspace classification.
Controlled drug Any substance, preparation, mixture, or article specified or described in Schedule 1, Schedule 2, or Schedule 3 to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975; and includes any controlled drug analogue.
Controlled drug analogue Any substance, such as the substances specified or described in Part 7 of Schedule 3 to the Misue of Drugs Act, that has a structure substantially similar to that of any controlled drug; but does not include (a) any substance specified or described in Schedule 1 or Schedule 2 or Parts 1 to 6 of Schedule 3 to this Act; or (b) any pharmacy-only medicine or prescription medicine or restricted medicine within the meaning of the Medicines Act 1981.
Controlled flight Any flight that is subject to an ATC clearance.
Controlled pesticide A pesticide specified in Part A of Schedule 7 to the HSNO Act. It includes sodium fluoroacetate (1080) and cyanide.
Controlled zone An area abutting a hazardous substance location that is regulated so that: (a) within the zone, the adverse effects of a hazardous substance are reduced or prevented; and (b) beyond the zone, members of the public are provided with reasonable protection from those adverse effects.
Controller In relation to an item of equipment operated, or intended to be operated, in a place of work means a person who is the owner, lessee,sublessee, or bailee, of that equipment.
Contusion A closed wound caused by a blow from a blunt object. There is usually bleeding into the affected tissue. A bruise.
Converter dolly An individual trailer unit with a fifth wheel coupling used to convert a semi-trailer to a full trailer. A dolly must have either: (a) a rigid drawbar associated with an oscillating fifth wheel and a single axle or a tandem axle set; or (b) a tandem axle set with a hinged drawbar with a fixed fifth wheel.
Conveyor A device for moving materials or objects from one place to another by means of a moving belt, chain, etc.
Cool location A location in New Zealand where the degree-day total is 920 or more.
COP Code of practice.
Co-pilot A licensed pilot, serving in any piloting capacity other than as pilot-in-command; but does not include a pilot receiving flight instruction from a pilot on board the aircraft.
COPS See Cabin operator protective structure.
CORD Chronic obstructive respiratory disease.
Cord extension set (extension lead) An assembly of a cord intended for connection to a mains outlet socket, a sheathed flexible cord and a cord extension socket.
Core The centre section of wire rope.
Core body temperature The temperature found in the brain, heart and abdominal organs. It varies little from 37°C and is vital for the normal functioning of these organs.
Corner block Tailrope block(s) at the back of a setting which changes direction of the tailrope.
Cornering lamp A lamp designed to emit light at the front of the vehicle to supplement a vehicle's headlamps by illuminating the road ahead in the direction of the turn.
Corridor A straight cleared extraction strip, usually for cable hauler thinning.
Corrosion damage In relation to a vehicle is where the metal has been eaten away, which is evident by pitting. The outward signs of such corrosion damage is typically displayed by the lifting or bubbling of paint. In extreme cases, the area affected by the corrosion damage will fall out and leave a hole.
Corrosive A substance that either produces destruction of tissue (for example, skin or eye) or corrodes metal surfaces.
Corrosive substances (Class 8 Dangerous Goods) Substances that, by chemical action, will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue or will damage or destroy other goods or the vehicle in which they are transported if they leak from their packaging. Dangerous goods of Class 8 are assigned to a packing group according to the degree of danger they present: Packing Group I (high danger); Packing Group II (medium danger); Packing Group III (low danger).
Corrosives tank A vessel exceeding 250 litres water capacity used for the transport or storage of corrosive substances in bulk. Tanks may be of the following types: (a) fixed tank - a tank which is permanently mounted on a vehicle chassis. Includes pipework, pumps, etc; (b) demountable tank (multi-modal tank) - a tank designed to convey corrosive substances by road or rail. Generally approved for bulk service only (nominally full or empty); (c) skid tank - a tank designed for temporary storage of corrosive substances, and suitable for transportation from one location to another; (d) intermediate bulk container (IBC) - a container designed, constructed and tested to United Nations Recommendations, Chapter 16.
Corrosives tank wagon Any vehicle used for the carriage of corrosives in bulk in a fixed tank or tanks. Tank wagons may be of one of the following types: (a) tank truck - a single vehicle having its own means of propulsion; (b) tank semi-trailer - a vehicle including a prime mover constructed so that when drawn through a fifth wheel or turntable connection, part of the load rests on the towing vehicle; (c) tank trailer - a vehicle which does not have its own means of propulsion, but does not include a tank semi-trailer.
Cospas-Sarsat A satellite Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) system.
Cotter pin A tapered pin or wedge, used to locate and connect a pulley etc. shaft.
Counterbore (1) A parallel enlargement of the mouth of a hole. (2) Tool to produce this parallel enlargement.
Countersink (1) A tapered enlargement of the mouth of a hole. (2) Tool to produce this tapered enlargement.
Countershaft A short, intermediate shaft in a drive, usually fitted with gears, pulleys or sprockets.
Counterweight A weight used to balance part or all of the weight of an object which must be lifted, to ease the job of lifting it.
Coupler A fitting used to fix scaffold tubes together.
Coupling A semi-permanent connection between two shafts to transmit rotary motion between them. May be solid, or may allow a small amount of misalignment view between the shafts by incorporating flexible members.
Court (ERS Employment Court) A formal hearing conducted in a Courtroom before a judge.
Coverage clause (a) In relation to a collective agreement (i) means a provision in the agreement that specifies the work that the agreement covers, whether by reference to the work or type of work or employees or types of employees; and (ii) includes a provision in the agreement that refers to named employees, or to the work or type of work done by named employees, to whom the collective agreement applies.
CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
CPU Central Processing Unit.
Cradle or removable cradle An assembly on to which logs may be loaded for later cartage.
Craft Includes any aircraft, ship, boat, or other machine or vessel used or able to be used for the transportation of people or goods, or both, by air or sea.
Crane A powered device that is equipped with mechanical means for raising or lowering loads suspended by means of a hook or other load-handling device; and that can, by the movement of the whole device or of its boom, jib, trolley or other such part, reposition or move suspended loads both vertically and horizontally. It includes all parts of the crane down to and including the hook or load-handling device, and all ropes, wires, chains or other devices used to move the hook, or device.
Crane boom, crane jib A forklift attachment having a raised cantilevered boom to which one or more crane hooks may be fitted.
Crane-lifted work platform That portion of equipment from which employees carry out their work that is either attached to the cranes's hook or block.
Crane rating chart A notice fitted on or attached to a crane stating the maximum SWL for the crane in specified operating conditions.
Crank A lever attached to a shaft, carrying a pin whose axis is offset from but parallel to, the axis of the shaft. In general, the radius of the crankpin is smaller than the offset between the axes (throw).
Crankshaft A shaft to which a crank and crankpin are fitted and about which they rotate.
Crawler A machine mounted on, and travelling on, tracks.
Crew In relation to an aircraft or ship, includes its pilot in command, captain or master but does not include any person employed or engaged solely to maintain it while it is not in flight or at sea or to load it, unload it or both.
Crew accommodation Includes such sleeping rooms, mess rooms, sanitary accommodation, changing rooms, hospital accommodation, store rooms, catering accommodation, offices, and recreational accommodation as are provided for the seafarers on board a ship.
Critical control point A step at which control can be applied that is essential to prevent or eliminate a hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Critical incident A situation faced by emergency services that causes them to experience unusually strong emotional reactions which have the potential to interfere with their ability to function reliably.
Critical performance parameter A performance parameter that has a direct effect on the operational integrity of an aeronautical facility.
Critical temperature The temperature of a gas in its critical state, above which it cannot be liquefied by pressure alone.
Critical time The time required for unignited fuel to accumulate in such quantity and proportions that, if ignited, the pressure of the resultant explosion would constitute a hazard (see AS1735 for methods of determination).
Critical weld A weld positioned where failure could affect the soundness of the structure and result in injury to the user.
Crocidolite Blue asbestos. An iron-sodium silicate, blue in colour. Fibres are straight and rigid and may split longitudinally to produce fine fibrils. The most hazardous form of asbestos.
Cross-country flight A flight which extends more than 25 nautical miles in a straight line distance from the centre of the aerodrome of departure.
Crosscut or Buck To cut wood across the grain, hence, to cut trees into logs.
Crosscutter One who cuts felled trees into logs.
Crossover In tree pruning, when the pruner hook and cutter cross over each other. Severe damage occurs to the working edges due to a loose centre bolt or to the worker twisting the handles while cutting the branch (incorrect technique).
Cross-ply A pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords in the tyre carcass extend to the beads and are laid at alternate angles, which are substantially less than 90 degrees, to the centre-line of the tread. This tyre structure is also referred to as 'bias ply' or 'diagonal ply'.
Cross section The shape of a part seen when 'cut' or 'sectioned' in a specified place, usually at right angles to the axis.
Cross-sectional study A descriptive epidemiological study design where the status of individuals is assessed at the same point in time.
Crow bar (Pinch bar) A steel bar, flattened at one end, used for levering or prizing.
Crown Upper foliage of a tree.
Crown entity A body or statutory officer named or described in the Fourth Schedule of the Public Finance Act 1989.
Crown funding agreement An agreement that the Crown enters into with any person, under which the Crown agrees to provide money in return for the person providing, or arranging for the provision of, services specified in the agreement.
Crown organisation A Crown entity, government department, or government-related organisation.
Crowned The rounding of a load to allow binder chains to contact as much of the upper surface as possible.
Crude rate The frequency with which an event occurs relative to the number of people in a defined population.
Cruising level A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight.
Crushing point Place where parts of equipment can move against each other or a fixed area so that persons, or parts of their body, can be crushed.
Crutch The point at which a tree stem forks.
Cryogenic Of or relating to the behavior of matter at very low temperatures.
Cryogenic container A closed pressure container designed to maintain an internal temperature low enough to cause the gas inside it to revert to its liquid or partially liquid state.
Cryogenic liquid A gas that has been cooled to below -150 degrees Centigrade and liquefied which can cause severe body burns or embrittlement of metals and other materials.
CSA When followed by a number, means the Canadian Standards Association.
CSC cargo container A container that has been inspected and tested in accordance with the requirements of the International Convention for Safe Containers 1972, and any amendments of, and regulations appended to, that Convention that are for the time being in force.
CSF Cerebral spinal fluid.
CT Computerised axial tomography (CAT scan).
CTC Canadian Transport Commission.
Cubic metre References to gas volumes are at base conditions, free of water vapour, at a temperature of 15°C and an absolute pressure of 101.325 kPa.
Cull (1) A tree or log of utilisable size which is of no commercial value because of defects. (2) To reject defective or unmerchantable trees or logs.
Culturally appropriate services Services responsive to, and respectful of, the history, traditions and cultural values of the different ethnic groups in our society.
Cumulative risk The risk posed by a hazardous facility added to or multiplied by risks from other facilities.
Current Flow of energy through an electrical conductor.
Current accepted good practice The provision of services to achieve quality outcomes for the client, in line with the normally accepted range of practice within the relevant service group, and reflective of current guidelines for that service provision where these exist. This may include codes of practice, research/evidence/experience-based practice, professional standards, guidelines, benchmarking.
Cut or trim notice A notice given under regulation 9 of the Electricity (Hazards from Trees) Regulations 2003.
Cutaneous Pertaining to the skin.
Cutaneous hazard A chemical which may cause harm to the skin, such as defatting, irritation, skin rashes or dermatitis.
Cut-out A condition in which the device or system under consideration has been turned off and can automatically restart after the fault has been corrected. The associated audible and visible alarms still remain activated and require manual operator resetting.
Cutover Clear felled area of forest.
Cutter In relation to woodworking machinery includes all kinds of cutting tools, circular saws, milling cutters, routers, spindle moulders, planing and tenoning machines, hand saw blades, rotary knives, disc blades, water jet cutting or edges of moving sheet material.
Cutter bar (guide bar) Bar which supports chain on chainsaw.
Cutter tooth On a chainsaw, the sections of chain which cut.
Cutting fluid Oil or other liquid applied to a cutting tool to cool and lubricate it.
Cutting plan Operating plan for felling trees in a given area.
Cut-up tree A tree that has been scarfed and backcut but has not fallen.
CVD Cardiovascular disease.
CVST Commercial Vehicle Safety Team (of the Police).
Cyanosis Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membrane due to reduced level of oxygen in the blood. May be peripheral due to poor circulation or central due to failure of oxygenation.
Cycle One of a repeating series of events or sequence of operations performed by a machine, from start to finish.
Cylinder (gas) (a) A refillable or non-refillable compressed gas container that is commonly used for storing and transporting compressed gases; and (b) includes a cryogenic container and a fire extinguisher; but (c) does not include an aerosol dispenser.
Cylinder A container which falls within the scope of AS 2030.1 or, in New Zealand, an approved container as relevant to LP gas.
Cylinder regulator A gas pressure regulator on a cylinder installation that is subjected to the gas pressure directly from the cylinder.
Cyclone A large conical container used to separate dust or powder from an airflow.
Cystine Amino acid found in plants, egg albumin and keratin.
Cytogenetics The study of the structure and functions of the cells of the body, with particular reference to the chromosomes.
Cytotoxic Destructive to living cells.
Cytotoxic drugs A category of drugs which have the ability to kill or arrest the growth of living cells. They play an important part in the treatment of cancer, and as immunosuppressive agents in transplantation and various diseases with an immunological basis. Also known as anti-neoplastic drugs or cancer chemotherapy drugs.
Dam A very thin, rectangular latex barrier utilised during oral/ vaginal and oral/anal sex to prevent transmission of sexually transmissible infections (STIs).
Damage classification Evaluation and recording of damage to structures, facilities, resources or objects according to categories: 'severe damage', which precludes further use of the structure, facility or object for its intended purpose. 'moderate damage', or the degree of damage to principal members, which precludes effective use of the structure, facility or object for its intended purpose, unless major repairs are made short of complete reconstruction. 'light damage', such as broken windows, slight damage to roofing and walls, interior partitions blown down and cracked walls; the damage is not severe enough to preclude the use of the installation for the purpose for which it was intended.
Damp location A place where moisture is present (either permanently or intermittently) to the extent that it might decrease the effectiveness or safety of an electrical installation.
Damp-proof course (DPC) A narrow strip (generally up to 300 mm wide) of durable vapour barrier placed between building elements to prevent the passage of moisture from one element to another.
Damp-proof membrane (DPM) A sheet material, coating or vapour barrier, having a low water vapour transmission, and used to prevent water and water vapour movement through concrete in contact with the ground. (Also known as a concrete underlay.)
Damping Limitation of movement or the dissipation of energy.
DAN O2 International Oxygen Therapy Certificate, equivalent to St. John Oxygen Therapy Certificate.
Danger Applied in the context of safety signs to a situation which is likely to be life-threatening if the message is ignored.
Danger signs See Hazard signs.
Dangerous goods Any of the following five categories of substance: 1. Explosives 2. Gases: compressed, dissolved or liquefied 3. Flammable liquids 4. Flammable solids/substances 5. Oxidising substances.
Dangerous goods documentation Those documents required to be carried on vehicles carrying dangerous goods that describe the nature, quantity, packaging and loading details of the dangerous goods being transported.
Dangerous goods endorsement A notation on a driver licence indicating that the holder has, within the past five years, completed a driver licence endorsement course for dangerous goods or hazardous substances approved by the Director of the Land Transport Safety Authority.
Dangerous goods enforcement officer A person appointed by warrant under section 208 of the Land Transport Act 1998.
Dangerous goods in limited quantities Dangerous goods packaged so that the maximum quantities in individual inner packaging meet the requirements for Dangerous Goods in Limited Quantities in any of the following: (a) Schedule 2 [Land Transport Act 1998]; or (b) United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; or (c) International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; or (d) Technical Instructions for Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air of the International Civil Aviation Organisation; or (e) Dangerous Goods Regulations of the International Air Transport Association.
Dangerous goods incident (DGD) An incident associated with and related to the carriage of dangerous goods by air after acceptance by the operator, that: (1) results in injury to a person, property damage, fire, breakage, spillage, leakage of fluid or radiation, or other evidence that the integrity of the packaging has not been maintained; or (2) involves dangerous goods incorrectly declared, packaged, labelled, marked, or documented.
Dangerous goods workroom A room reserved primarily for the use of dangerous goods of Class 3(a) or Class 3(b) (i.e. flammable liquids).
Data Includes values that are directly measured, calculated, or estimated for any of the measures given.
Data logger An automatic device which gives a printout of all safety-related events and functions, together with the times that they occur and details of the corrective actions applied. The printout may also include regular details of critical or essential operational data.
Day The hours between: (1) the beginning of morning civil twilight, which is when the centre of the rising sun's disc is 6 degrees below the horizon; and (2) the end of evening civil twilight, which is when the centre of the setting sun's disc is 6 degrees below the horizon.
Daylight The distance between the bottom of the tool and the top of the die in a press when they are furthest apart. (Note: Daylight may not equal the stroke of the machine.)
Deadweight The difference in tonnes between the displacement of a ship in water of a specific gravity of 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the lightweight of the ship.
Decibel (dB) A dimensionless unit used to compare the magnitudes of sound pressure squared. It is used as a measure of the level of sound above a reference value being approximately the quietest sound that a person can hear.
dB(A) A-weighted decibel. The A-weighting is that specified in the International Standard IEC 60651. A-frequency weighting is used because it approximates the response of the human ear.
dB(C) C-weighted decibel. The C-weighting is that specified in the International Standard IEC 60651.
DBH Department of Building and Housing (formerly Building Industry Industry Authority - BIA).
DBH Diameter at breast height, 1.4 m from the ground.
DC An electric current which flows in one direction only, as opposed to alternating current.
DCIEM Canadian dive table, Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine.
DDD Designated Diving Doctor.
DDT 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane. An insecticide previously used in New Zealand.
Dead end In hauler logging, to anchor a rope from a drum to a fixed object, for example, a skyline.
Deadman A solid object, usually a log, buried in the ground to form an anchor for guys, blocks or hauler tieback.
Deadman control A control where movement can only occur while the control is held by a person, and which causes all movemen of the mechanical parts of the machine or plant to stop when it is released. The controls must not be overridden by any other mechanism.
Decanting A procedure in which the liquid phase of LP gas is transferred from one container to another by utilising the difference in pressure between the two containers.
Decilitre One tenth of a litre or 100 millilitres.
Decision (ERS Tribunal) If the case was adjudicated in the Tribunal, a written decision is issued at the conclusion of the hearing(s), i.e. a verdict, a conclusion on the matter before the Tribunal.
Declaration Or 'civil defence declaration'. Official issuing of a state of emergency by an authorised person at a district, regional or national level when it is apparent that the individual emergency services, TLAs or government departments are unable to cope without co-ordination or support.
Decomposition temperature In relation to a class 5 hazardous substance, means the temperature at which the class 5 substance will spontaneously decompose, possibly with explosive force, releasing heat and usually combustible by-products.
Decontamination The process of removing or neutralising hazardous substances on personnel and equipment.
Dedicated groundsprayer A self-propelled or trailing machine whose sole function is the application of chemicals or liquid fertiliser to crops or to the ground.
Dedicated smoking room An internal area in a hospital care institution, a residential disability care institution, or a rest home that is used solely to enable patients or residents who smoke to smoke, or to socialise with each other in a place where smoking is permitted.
Dee A 'D' shaped groove cut in the end of a log to allow a hauling rope or chain to be attached in such a way that the pull is exerted at the centre of the log.
De-energised Disconnected from all sources of supply but not necessarily isolated, tested and earthed.
De-escalation A complex interactive process in which a highly aroused individual is redirected from an unsafe course of action towards a supported and calmer emotional state through appropriate and effective communication.
Defect incident (DEF) An incident that involves failure or malfunction of an aircraft or aircraft component, whether found in flight or on the ground.
Defence Force The New Zealand Defence Force comprises the Armed Forces of New Zealand ( i.e. Naval Forces, Army and Royal NZ Air Force) and the Civil Staff.
Deflagrate In relation to a substance that is initiated or ignited, means the production in that substance of a chemical reaction that proceeds through, or along the surface of, the substance at subsonic velocity, where that chemical reaction: (a) results in the steady production of hot gases at high pressures; and (b) if the substance is sufficiently confined, results in an increase in pressure, rate of reaction, and temperature that may produce a detonation of the substance.
Deflection The degree to which the section of an inflated tyre distorts or deflects under load. The ratio of the loaded section height to the unloaded section height of a tyre, expressed as a percentage.
Deflection-limiting volume An orthogonal approximation of a large, seated, male operator (on a mobile plant) wearing normal clothing and a hard hat.
Degree-day In relation to any location on any day (a) if a base temperature of 15°C is greater than the mean of the maximum and minimum outdoor temperatures at that location on that day, means the number of degrees Celsius by which that base temperature is greater than that mean: (b) if a base temperature of 15°C is not greater than the mean of the maximum and minimum outdoor temperatures at that location on that day, means 0.
Degree-day total In relation to any location, means the sum of the degree-days for that location for the period of 1 May to 31 August, as derived from Average Degree-day Tables - Selected NZ Stations (Miscellaneous Publication 159, 1978 of the New Zealand Meteorological Service).
Degree of protection/ Ingress protection (IP) rating The extent of protection provided by an enclosure against contact with hazardous parts or against the entrance of solid foreign objects, water or dust. Enclosures need to be marked with an IP rating, for example, IP67; the last two digits will vary depending on the type of enclosure.
Dehydration Loss of fluids from the body through sweat while a person is working in a hot environment. Dehydration will lead to a loss of energy and concentration and possible loss of balance.
Delimb or trim To remove limbs or branches from a tree or log.
Delimber A machine designed to remove limbs from trees.
Delimber-feller buncher A self-propelled machine designed to delimb, fell and bunch trees for subsequent extraction.
Delimbing knives Fixed or movable, single or double-edged knives on the delimbing machine designed to hold the tree stem and perform the delimbing action.
Delineator A traffic control device including a guide post, chevron board, bollard, barrel or barrier, that is placed on or beside a roadway to guide road users.
Demise charter In relation to a ship, means the demise, letting, hire, or delivery of the ship to the charterer, by virtue of which the charterer has whole possession and control of the ship, including the right to appoint its master and crew.
Demolition The dismantling, wrecking, pulling down or knocking down of any building or structure or part thereof; but does not include such work of a minor nature which does not involve structural alterations.
Demolition ball A cast steel weight with eyes and fixings, suspended from a lifting appliance and used to demolish a structure.
Departmental medical practitioner (DMP) Medical staff with qualifications in occupational medicine, employed by the Occupational Safety and Health Service of the Department of Labour (OSH) to carry out a range of occupational health functions.
Dependent Being in a state of periodic or chronic intoxication, produced by the repeated consumption, smoking, or other use of a controlled drug detrimental to the person in relation to whom the word is used, and involving a compulsive desire to continue consuming, smoking, or otherwise using the drug or a tendency to increase the dose of the drug; and 'dependency' has a corresponding meaning.
Depot (dangerous goods) In relation to dangerous goods, means such building, place, or vessel as may be approved by the Authority as a depot for the storage of dangerous goods.
Depth gauge Metal projection incorporated in front of a cutter (cutting tooth) of saw chain to govern the depth of cut.
Deratting certificate In relation to a ship, means a certificate stating that the ship has been fumigated so as to destroy rodents on board the ship.
Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin. There are two types: (1) Irritant contact dermatitis: direct damage to the skin caused by contact with irritant substances, for example, acids, alkalis, organic solvents; and (2) Allergic contact dermatitis: reaction caused by substances to which the skin has become sensitised. Exposure to minute amounts of such a substance will trigger an allergic reaction.
Derricking or luffing Angular movement of a crane boom in a vertical plane.
DES NZ Divers' Emergency Services.
Designated Diving Doctor (DDD) A medical practitioner holding a current registration with the Medical Council of NZ who has undertaken a recognised training course in underwater hyperbaric medicine, and is competent to carry out medical examinations for occupational divers.
Designer A designer of equipment that could reasonably be expected to be operated in a place of work.
Design life The theoretical life of an asset assumed in its design.
Design pressure The pressure used in the equations for designing a gas cylinder. This may be: (a) service pressure; (b) working pressure; (c) developed pressure; (d) test pressure; (e) burst pressure; depending on the specification.
Design standard Any standard of generally accepted industry practice, recognised by the Secretary of Labour, for the design, alteration or repair of equipment.
Design verification Means verification that the following comply, in every respect related to safety, with the requirements of the appropriate design standards and contain every safety feature that is relevant, whether or not referred to in those standards: (a) Design of equipment; and (b) Alterations to designs, affecting the structural strength or safety of equipment, made in the course of manufacture; and (c) Designs of any repair or alteration affecting the operational safety of the equipment repaired or altered or any other equipment; and (d) The fabrication inspection requirements specified by the designer.
Design verifier A person who: (a) is employed or engaged by an accredited inspection body to carry out the functions referred to in the PECPR Regulations; and (b) is the holder of a relevant certificate of competence.
Desorption Removal of a sorbed substance by the reverse process of adsorption or absorption.
Detailed inspection In respect of a progressive inspection, means a thorough examination of an aircraft and its components, systems and equipment with such disassembly as is necessary and includes the overhaul of a component or system.
Determinant A social, cultural, economic, technological, demographic or environmental variable causally associated with exposure to a risk factor or incidence of a disease or other health condition.
Determination (ERS Authority) If the case was held in the Authority, a written determination is issued at the conclusion of the investigation meeting(s), i.e. a determination, a conclusion on the matter before the Authority.
Detonate In relation to a substance that is initiated, means the production in that substance of a chemical reaction that proceeds through that substance at supersonic velocity, resulting in the production of heat and a supersonic shock wave through the surrounding medium.
Detonator A capsule or case which contains such a quantity of an explosive of the fifth (fulminate) class that the explosion of one capsule or case will communicate itself to other like capsules or cases.
Detoxification The process by which an individual is withdrawn from the effects of a psychoactive substance.
Develop In relation to organisms, means genetic modification of any organism; but does not include field testing.
Developed pressure The pressure developed in a gas cylinder at the reference temperature, particularly when the cylinder has been filled in accordance with the approved filling pressure.
Deviation Movement of a body part towards the extreme in its range of motion. for example,, ulnar deviation of the wrist describes the movement of the wrist away from a straight position towards the ulna bone in the forearm.
DGLQ Dangerous Goods in Limited Quantities
DHB District Health Board. The 21 DHBs are the current health funding bodies, introduced on 1 January 2001.
DHMS Diving Hyperbaric Medical Service (located at Devonoport Naval Base).
Diagnostic specimen Any human or animal material including, but not limited to, excreta, secreta, blood and its components, tissue and tissue fluids being transported for diagnostic or investigation purposes; but excludes live infected animals.
Diaphoresis Perspiration.
Diameter (or bore) The nominal internal diameter.
Die A specially shaped steel device which when used with a matching die, tool or punch in a press will form, punch or bend a workpiece. On other machines, the die is that component which gives the workpiece its shape (for example, extrusion dies, injection moulding dies, etc.).
Die casting A process in which molten metal is forced into a metal die, which gives the final shape of the product, and allowed to cool and solidify.
Die nut A tool, resembling a nut, used to cut a screw thread on a bar or shaft.
Diesel A refined petroleum distillate having a viscosity and distillation range that is intermediate between those of kerosene and light lubricating oil, whether or not it contains additives, and that is intended for use as fuel in internal combustion engines ignited by compression.
Diffuse emissions Emissions of wastes from sources other than point sources.
Digitiser tablet An input device, with effects similar to a mouse, often used with CAD systems.
DIH Diploma in Industrial Health.
DIN Deutsche Industrie Norm (German Standard Specification).
Dioxin A generic term used to describe, collectively, the PCDDs and PCDFs. Sometimes also used for specific reference to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which is considered to be the reference congener for the PCDD and PCDF family of compounds.
Dioxin-like compounds A generic term used to describe the PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs (i.e. it includes the 'dioxins').
Dioxin-like PCBs The non-ortho and mono-ortho PCB congeners that elicit dioxinspecific biochemical and toxic responses by interaction with the Ah receptor.
Dip HSM Diploma in Health and Safety Management.
Direct chromatographic measurement of components Individual components or groups of components determined by comparison with identical components in the working reference gas mixture (WRM). NOTE: Main and associated components are determined using direct measurement.
Direct contact (electrical) Occurs when direct body contact is made with a live conductor or some other live apparatus.
Direct sampling Sampling in situations where there is a direct connection between the medium to be sampled and the analytical unit (i.e. in-line or on-line instrument).
Direction-indicator A lamp on a vehicle, used for signalling an intention to change direction to the right or to the left.
Directional felling Felling trees according to a predetermined pattern to reduce breakage or to facilitate breaking out and delimbing.
Directional tread A tyre tread formed with 'Chevron' grooves used on tyres providing good traction combined with self-cleaning properties. Tyres with directional treads must be fitted with the point of the chevron pointing in the direction of travel, otherwise traction will be lost.
Directions Conference (ERS Authority) A discussion between the Authority and parties to an employment relationship problem lodged with the Authority, usually for the purpose of case management. Usually conducted by way of telephone conference.
Director A person, usually a member of board of director, responsible for the governance of an organisation.
Disability Incapacity caused by a congenital state, injury or age-related condition expected to last six months or more. A disability may or may not be associated with the need for assistance.
Disability adjusted life expectancy (DALE) The average number of years an individual of a given age is expected to live, with the years of life weighted on a 0-1 scale according to the social preferences for the different states of disability into which the population is distributed, if current mortality and disability rates, and current disability state valuations, continue to apply.
Disability adjusted life year (DALY) A health gap measure derived by adding YLD to YLL. One DALY thus represents the loss of one year of healthy life.
Disability support services Includes goods, services, and facilities: (a) provided to people with disabilities for their care or support or to promote their inclusion and participation in society, and independence; or (b) provided for purposes related or incidental to the care or support of people with disabilities or to the promotion of the inclusion and participation in society, and independence of such people
Discharge into the environment (a) Includes release from a treatment facility, incinerator, landfill, or sewage facility; but (b) does not include depositing or discharge into a treatment facility, incinerator, landfill, or sewage facility.
Discomfort A subjective personal experience of physical or mental distress, which is more diffuse than pain.
Disease Any injury, ailment, deformity, disorder, or adverse condition, whether of body or mind.
Disease latency The period between first exposure and the onset of detectable disease.
Disposal In relation to hazardous substances, means treating the substance in such a way that it is no longer hazardous; discharging the substance into environment as waste; or exporting the substance as a waste from New Zealand. In relation to a new organism, means rendering the organism biologically inactive in such a manner as to prevent the occurrence of any future biological activity; or exporting the organism from New Zealand.
Disposable earplug An earplug designed to be worn once.
Distress Means that a vessel or a person is in grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.
District Health Board A District Health Board established under section 19 of the New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act 2000.
Dive supervisor A dive supervisor shall be a diver who is not necessarily fit to dive provided that a level of fitness required for the responsibilities undertaken is maintained. The dive supervisor will betrained and experienced in the dive techniques and equipment being used in the dive operation. He or she will be appointed in writing by the employer, will be on site at all times and will also hold appropriate first aid qualifications in the management of diving-related medical problems relevant to the level of diving operation being carried out.
Diverter A geothermal well control device consisting of sealing elements compressed in a cylindrical body mounted on a well and operated by hydraulically or air-activated cylinders, with piping to direct the discharge from a well at a safe distance during drilling operations.
Diving Diving under water where the diver breathes gases at greater than atmospheric pressure; and 'diver' has a corresponding meaning.
Diving Medical Consultant (DMC) The person in charge of the Diving Hyperbaric Medicine Unit. The issuer of occupational diving medicals.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. The hereditary material of living organisms.
Dock board See bridge-plate.
Document of Compliance Means: (a) in relation to an owner of a New Zealand ship, a maritime document issued under Part V of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 in accordance with rules 21.7(1) and 21.7(2); (b) in relation to an owner of a foreign ship, the document of compliance or equivalent referred to under rule 21.8.
Dog (a) A short heavy piece of steel with a head and a pointed end which is driven into wood to hold a rope or rail. (b) A pawl or ratchett, to prevent a drum slipping.
Dogman A person qualified to sling loads and direct the lifting and placing operations of a crane.
DoL Department of Labour.
Domestic assistance Help with housework, domestic duties, for example, vacuuming, cleaning, cooking.
DOS Diameter over stubs. The whorl with the largest diameter within the lift will be the DOS whorl. DOS measures the defect core of the tree.
Dose The concentration of a substance and the time period during which the exposure occurs. The dose received links hazard and toxicity.
Dose equivalent (radiation) The product of the absorbed dose at a point in time and a quality factor which takes into account the relative effectiveness of different types of radiation for causing damage. The unit is the sievert (Sv).
Dose-response assessment A determination of the degree of health effects at different doses of a hazard.
Dose-response relationship The quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a toxicant and the incidence of the adverse effects.
DOT Department of Transportation (USA) On a tyre sidewall of a passenger tyre, refers to a tyre manufactured to DOT Standards.
Double insulated electrical appliance An appliance that has no earth connection. This will have the symbol of a square box within a square box or the words 'double insulated' marked on the nameplate of the appliance. Known as a Class II electrical appliance.
Double leader A tree with two more or less equal stems above a crutch.
Downhole heat exchanger A U-tube or two concentric tubes immersed in a geothermal well for the recovery of heat.
Dozer A machine consisting of a wheeled tractor or crawler tractor with a blade mounted on the front.
DPH Diploma in Public Health.
DPV Diver Propulsion Vehicle.
Dracone A large flexible cylindrical container, towed by a vessel, used for transporting liquids.
Drag A log or number of logs skidded or hauled from stump to skid in a cycle.
Drain A passage, channel, or pipe on, over, or under the ground for the reception and discharge of stormwater or pollutants, whether continuously or intermittently.
Drawbar An assembly of components, that includes: the trailer coupling that connects the trailer to the coupling of the towed vehicle; hinges (where applicable); and the structural and other related components between the trailer coupling and trailer bogie or chassis.
Drawbeam The part of the towing vehicle to which a coupling is fitted to enable a heavy trailer to be connected; and includes the attached coupling.
Drawing A process where metal is stretched and formed into cup-like shapes by drawing dies in a press.
Draw-wood Slivers of wood pulled from the butt of a falling tree and remaining attached to the stump.
Dredger A vessel fitted with plant or apparatus for dredging, excavating, or rock breaking, or for eroding and disposing of sand and other detritus from the sea bed.
Drill A revolving tool used for cutting (twist drill) cylindrical holes in the workpiece. It has cutting edges at one end, helical grooves to allow the cut material to escape, and the other end is formed for holding in a drill chuck or the tapered bore of a machine spindle.
Drill chuck A small self-centering chuck having three jaws which grip a drill shank. The chuck is mounted on the spindle of a drill press, hand drill, etc.
Drill press A machine tool for drilling holes, generally consists of a vertical pillar, carrying an adjustable table to support the workpiece and a 'head' at the top containing the motor, transmission, and the spindle on which the drill or chuck is mounted. The side under tension, running from the driven pulley to the driving pulley.
Drilling rig (petroleum) Plant or equipment on the well site necessary to make, maintain, suspend, or abandon the well.
Drive Felling a tree so that it falls against another cut-up tree in order to fell it.
Driver and driven (gears, etc) A pair of gears, one driving the other. The term is also used for other transmission types.
Driving side (belt or chain) The side of a transmission belt or chain which transmits the power.
Dropline Wire rope which can be lowered from a carriage, to which loads of logs are attached by means of strops.
Drop start Unsafe and illegal method of starting a chainsaw by holding the start cord and dropping the saw.
Dropper(s) Short lengths of rope at the end of a main rope on a skidding machine to which strops are attached.
Drowning The process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid.
Drug A term of varied usage. In medicine, it refers to any substance with the potential to prevent or cure disease or enhance physical or mental welfare, and in pharmacology to any chemical agent that alters the biochemical or physiological processes of tissues or organisms. Hence, a drug is a substance that is, or could be, listed in pharmacopoeia. In common usage, the term often refers specifically to psychoactive drugs, and often, even more specifically, to illicit drugs, of which there is non-medical use in addition to any medical use. Professional formulations (for example, 'alcohol and other drugs') often seek to make the point that caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other substances in common non-medical use are also drugs in the sense of being taken at least in part for their psychoactive effects.
Drug(s) In the context of the Government's National Drugs Policy, 'drug' or 'drugs' refers to tobacco, alcohol, illegal drugs, volatile substances (such as petrol, solvents and inhalants), and other substances used for psychoactive effects, recreation or enhancement, as well as prescription and pharmacy-only drugs used outside medical or pharmaceutical advice. 'Drugs' should be read as synonymous with 'tobacco, alcohol and other drugs'.
Drug-related harm In terms of the Government's National Drugs Policy, 'drug-related harm' refers to all harms that are direct or indirect consequences of drug use. These consequences may affect those who use drugs as well as others. 'Harm' includes all adverse effects or outcomes, including harm to health as well as detrimental effects on social and family relationships, loss of actual or potential enjoyment or livelihood, and economic or financial costs.
Drug resistance Resistance to the action of drugs; said of micro-organisms.
Drum A spool on which a rope is wound.
Drunken saw A circular saw blade mounted not exactly at right angles to its spindle, consequently cutting a wide kerf (groove).
Dry gas A gas having a dew point of less than -40°C at a pressure of 101.3 kPa absolute.
DSC Digital Selective Calling, being a technique using digital codes, which enables a radio station to establish contact with another station or group of stations.
DT50 The half-life in water, which is the time required to reduce the concentration of the original substance in water by 50%.
DTH Delayed-type hypersensitivity.
Dual steering In relation to a vehicle, means the vehicle is able to be steered from both the left-hand and right-hand side of the vehicle.
Dunnage Timber (normally) material stowed under or between precast concrete elements to prevent damage or instability during storage and transportation.
Duration The continuous time a task is performed without a rest period.
Dusts Solid particles suspended in air as the result of the disintegration of matter. Dust may be generated by mechanical means. (a) Respirable dusts: These are dusts with particles fine enough to penetrate the smallest airways in the lungs. (b) Non-respirable dusts: The particles in these dusts are larger and are removed in the nose and upper airways of the lungs.
Dust control equipment (asbestos) Equipment that, when used in satisfactory working order, suppresses the release of asbestos fibres into the air by any means, including the conveying of water or any other wetting agent to the asbestos that would otherwise generate asbestos dust.
Dust explosion Explosion that occurs when a fine dust in suspension in air is ignited, resulting in a very rapid burning, and the release of large quantities of gaseous products. The explosive force is capable of damaging plant and buildings and injuring people.
Duty What an individual or party is required to do under the HSE Act and Regulations, or other legislation.
Duty holders All individuals or parties who exercise control over all or part of the workplace activity at any stage between concept and completion, including clients through to contractors, subcontractors and employees.
Duty of care Responsibility to refrain from causing other people injury or loss.
Dwellinghouse (a) Means any building or any part of a building to the extent that it is occupied as a residence; and (b) in relation to a homeworker who works in a building that is not wholly occupied as a residence, excludes any part of the building not occupied as a residence.
Dyform rope A compacted strand rope in which the strands, initially of oversized diameter, are run through a die to reduce the diameter of the finished rope.
Dynamic testing Analysis of the response of structures under simulated loads of the type imposed by natural hazards.
Dyspnoea Difficult or laboured breathing. Shortness of breath.
Dystonia Disordered muscle tone.

E – G

Term or acronym


E&DG Explosives and Dangerous Goods.
EAP Employee Assistance Programme.
Ear canal cap A hearing protector that covers the ear canal entrance and is held in place by a headband.
Ear muff A hearing protector that covers the entire ear and is held in place by a suspension system.
EARP Environmental Assessment Review Panel.
Ear plug A hearing protector that inserted into the ear canal.
Early reporting Reporting of early symptoms often associated with OOS using a self-report of pain or discomfort form.
Earners' levy The levy payable to fund the Earners' Account under section 219(1) of the Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Compensation Act 2001.
Earth The electro-conductive connection between an object and the ground to prevent shocks, or sparks from electric currents.
Earth electrode A metal rod or rods, or other conducting objects, that provide an effective connection to the earth.
Earthed Effectively connected to the general mass of earth.
Earthed electrical appliance An appliance that has exposed metal connected to earth. Known as a Class I electrical appliance.
Earthing device As defined in Safety Manual - Electricity Industry (SM-EI) - is an approved device for temporarily earthing isolated equipment for work access. Note: Such devices include earth switches, earthing trucks and approved portable earths.
Earthing wire A wire that connects any portion of the earthing system: (a) to another portion of the earthing system; or (b) to a portion of the installation; or (c) to electrical equipment that is required to be earthed.
Easily accessible Capable of being reached quickly and easily without obstructions, and without having to use a movable ladder. Not more than 2 m above the ground, floor or platform.
EBDC Ethylene-bis-di-thiocarbamate fungicides, including maneb and mancozeb.
EC50 The median effect concentration, being a statistically-derived concentration of a substance hat can be expected to cause: (a) an adverse reaction in 50% of organisms; or (b) a 50% reduction in growth or in the growth rate of organisms.
Eccentric (1) Displaced with respect to a centre, not concentric. (2) A crank in which the pin diameter is so much greater than the offset (throw) that the result is a drum or disc mounted eccentrically on the shaft.
Ecchymoses Discolouration due to bleeding under the skin.
Ecosystem Basic ecological unit formed by the living environment of the animal and vegetable organisms interacting as a single functional unit.
ECP (New Zealand) Electrical Code of Practice.
Economic life The period from the acquisition of the asset to the time when the asset, while physically able to provide a service, ceases to be the lowest cost alternative to satisfy a particular level of service. The economic life is at the maximum when equal to the physical life. However, obsolescence or high maintenance cost may mean that the economic life is less than the physical life.
Ecotoxic/ecotoxicity Capable/capability of causing ill-health, injury or death to any living organism.
Edger A wood working machine that is used for ripping sawn timber or sawing the edges of timber, and fitted with two or more circular ripsaws mounted on a common arbor or mounted separately at fixed spacing, and also fitted with a device or devices to vary the width between the saws; but does not mean a multiple circular saw that is used for trimming panels and fitted with riving knives and hood guards.
Edge protection A guardrail or restraint to prevent a person reaching over or falling over an exposed edge.
Education outside the classroom (EOTC) A generic term used extensively in New Zealand schools to describe curriculum-based learning that extends beyond the four walls of the classroom. This ranges from a museum or marae visit to a sports trip, outdoor education camp or a rocky shore field trip.
EECA Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority.
EEO Equal Employment Opportunities. An EEO programme is defined in the State Sector Act 'as a programme that is aimed at the identification and elimination of all aspects of policies, procedures and other institutional barriers that cause or perpetuate inequality in respect to the employment of any person or group of persons'.
EET Estimated elapsed time.
Effect Includes:any potential or probable effect; any positive or adverse effects; any temporary or permanent effects; any past, present or future effect; any acute or chronic effect; any cumulative effects which arise over time and in combination with other effects.
Effect types The effects generated when a hazardous substance is released or reacts:
  • fire/explosion effects concerned with damage to property, the built environment and people by substances with explosive, flammable or oxidising properties;
  • human health effects concerned with adverse effects to the wellbeing and health of people by substances with toxic or corrosive properties;
  • environmental effects concerned with damage to ecosystems or natural resources by substances with ecotoxic or corrosive properties.
Effective dose (ED) The dose that corresponds to an increase, expressed as a percent response, in relation to expected levels of an adverse effect and can be defined as a percent increase over background rates or a percent increase between background and maximal rates. ED01 is the dose corresponding to a 1% increase in an adverse effect.
Effective dose (radiation) The sum of the equivalent doses in all tissues of the body from a particular exposure, each weighted according to the risk associated with that tissue. It represents the uniform whole body dose that would have the same radiation detriment as the actual dose distribution arising from a given irradiation. The units are sieverts (Sv). (See ICRP publication no. 603.)
Effective protective feature A device incorporated into an explosive article that will prevent accidental functioning during normal conditions of transport, storage or handling.
EGC Enhanced Group Calling, and in relation to enhanced group calling equipment, means equipment used to store a nd print out information received by the ship via the INMARSAT system.
Elastic limit The limiting value of deforming stress applied to a material beyond which it will not return to its original shape, i.e. permanent deformation occurs.
Elective surgery (a) Any surgery required in respect of a personal injury; but (b) does not include (i) an acute treatment; or (ii) a public health acute service; or (iii) treatment.
Electric line All conductors (including fittings supporting, or connected to, those conductors), whether above or below ground, that are used, or intended to be used, in, or in connection with, the supply of electricity from the outgoing terminals of a generating station, a building, enclosure, or other structure to: (a) the incoming terminals of another building, enclosure, or other structure; or (b) an electrical appliance, in any case where the electrical appliance is supplied with electricity other than from a terminal in a building, enclosure, or other structure.
Electrical appliance Any appliance that uses, or is designed or intended to use, electricity, whether or not it also uses, or is designed or intended to use, any other form of energy source.
Electrical equipment Includes anything used, designed to be used, or installed for use, to conduct, control, convert, distribute, generate, measure, provide, rectify, store, transform, or transmit electrical energy.
Electrical installation (a) Means all fittings: (i) that form part of a system for conveying electricity; and (ii) that form part of such a system at any point from the point of supply to a consumer to any point from which electricity conveyed through that system may be consumed; and (b) includes any fittings that are used, or designed or intended for use, by any person, in or in connection with the generation of electricity for that person's use and not for supply to any other person; but (c) does not include any electrical appliance.
Electrical inspector A person who meets the criteria set out under the Electricity Act 1992 and the Electricity Regulations 1997, and who has obtained registration as an inspector from the Electrical Workers Registration Board.
Electrical wiring work Prescribed electrical work that consists of any of the following work: (a) the installation or maintenance of electrical wiring: (b) the connection or disconnection of fittings to or from electrical wiring.
Electricity Phenomena caused by electric charge, which causes bodies carrying like charges to repel each other, while bodies carrying opposite charges attract each other. Electric charge is caused by an excess of electrons for negative charge, or a deficit of electrons for positive charge.
Electrode Conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an electrolyte, gas, vacuum or other medium.
Electrodepositing process Any process of applying a metallic deposit on objects by means of electricity, and includes every process carried on in connection therewith.
Electro-explosive device A device designed to initiate a detonation or deflagration with an electrical impulse; and includes an electrical detonator, an electric initiator, and an electric blasting initiator.
Electroforming The electrode deposition of a metallic coating within a mould.
Electrofusion joint A joint made in polyethylene pipe using fittings having integral electrical heating coils.
Electroless plating The deposition of a metal from a solution of its salts by a reduction/oxidation reaction rather than by electrical power.
Electrolyte A substance that dissociates into ions in a solution or when fused, thereby becoming able to conduct electric current, especially in an electric cell or battery.
Electrolytic chromium process The electrolytic plating or oxidation of metal articles by the use of an electrolyte containing chromic acid or other chromium compounds.
Electronic Circuit where small amounts of current are used to control much larger currents.
Electronic monitoring The situation where work output is measured automatically. For example, the number of keystrokes made each hour on a word processor can be measured.
Electroplating A process in which a metallic salt is dissolved in water, where it dissociates to form electrically charged ions. By passing a DC electric current through the solution, positive ions migrate to, and are deposited on, the negative electrode, causing the article to be plated.
Electrostatic powder coating A process whereby particles are charged electrostatically to a high voltage and then deposited upon the surface of an earthed object.
Elevating platform vehicle (EPV) A vehicle with an elevating platform or aerial lift where the height is adjustable by powered means.
Elevator (1) A cage or platform which can be raised and lowered, carrying people or goods, usually vertically between floors in a multi-storey building. (2) A type of conveyor for lifting loose material in buckets or scoops.
ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
ELT Emergency locator transmitter.
ELT(S) Emergency locator transmitter (survival).
Embossing Stamping words, letters (for example, manufacturer's name), or ornamentation onto the surface of a workpiece, either in a press with specially made dies, or in a specially built machine.
Emergency (HSNO) Actual or imminent danger from hazardous substances or new organisms to human health or safety; or a danger to the environment or chattels so significant that immediate action is needed to remove the danger.
Emergency (Civil Defence) A situation that: (a) is the result of any happening, whether natural or otherwise, including, without limitation, any explosion, earthquake, eruption, tsunami, land movement, flood, storm, tornado, cyclone, serious fire, leakage or spillage of any dangerous gas or substance, technological failure, infestation, plague, epidemic, failure of or disruption to an emergency service or a lifeline utility, or actual or imminent attack or warlike act; and (b) causes or may cause loss of life or injury or illness or distress or in any way endangers the safety of the public or property in New Zealand or any part of New Zealand; and (c) cannot be dealt with by emergency services, or otherwise requires a significant and coordinated response under this Act.
Emergency brake In relation to any vehicle or combination of vehicles, means the system that makes it possible to undertake a controlled stop of the vehicle or combination in the event of the failure of the service brake.
Emergency exit Exit to be used in the event of an emergency such as fire.
Emergency eyewash Face shower for washing particles, dusts or chemical splashes from the eyes.
Emergency information panel A rectangular placard stating at least the following about the dangerous goods on a vehicle: (a) the UN Number; (b) the Hazchem action code; (c) a 24-hour emergency telephone number.
Emergency information signs Signs indicating the location of, or directions to, emergency-related facilities such as exits, safety equipment or first aid facilities.
Emergency overseas transport Means transport that: (a) starts within 24 hours of a claimant suffering a work-related personal injury or being found after suffering a work-related personal injury, whichever is the later; and (b) is necessary for the purpose of obtaining overseas treatment urgently for the claimant's work-related personal injury; and (c) is provided at the request of a person equivalent to (i) a member of the New Zealand Police; or (ii) an ambulance operator; and (d) occurs wholly outside New Zealand.
Emergency plan A regularly updated document serving as an emergency response guide by identifying and cataloguing the elements required to respond to an emergency, and defining responsibilities and specific tasks in an emergency.
Emergency procedures Procedures to be followed in the event of an accident, fire, earthquake or other natural or man-made disaster.
Emergency response information in relation to dangerous goods transport means information concerning the identification and the hazards specific to the dangerous goods, and the recommended procedures to use in the event of an emergency.
Emergency response plans (HSNO) A plan setting out the steps required to isolate or contain an emergency and, as far as possible, to remedy harmful effects where those effects are able to extend to large numbers of people and/or significant parts of the environment.
Emergency services The New Zealand Police, New Zealand Fire Service, National Rural Fire Authority, rural fire authorities, and hospital and health services.
Emergency vehicle A vehicle equipped for attendance at fires, or for ambulance duty or a Police vehicle.
Emesis The act of vomiting.
Emetic Medicine that causes vomiting.
Emission The discharge of contaminants into the air.
Emphysema Chronic disease of the lungs in which there is distension and breakdown of the alveoli.
Employee A person of any age employed by an employer to do any work (other than residential work) for hire or reward under a contract of service and, in relation to any employer, means an employee of the employer.
Employee Assistance Programme (EAP A programme, either operated by the employer and a workers' organisation jointly or the employer alone or a workers' organisation alone, that offers assistance to workers, and frequently also to their family members, who have problems that affect - or that eventually could affect - job performance. An EAP can provide assistance with other problems liable to cause personal distress including marital or family difficulties, depression, on-the-job stress, financial problems, or legal difficulties.
Employee participation system Any arrangement between an employer and employees (and employee organisations where appropriate) that allows the participation of employees in processes relating to health and safety in the place of work, so that: (a) all persons with relevant knowledge and expertise can help make the place of work healthy and safe; and (b) when making decisions that affect employees and their work, an employer has information from employees who face the health and safety issues in practice.
Employer A person who employs another person to do any work for hire or reward.
Employer levy The levy payable by an employer under section 168 of the IPRC Act.
Employment (a) Means work engaged in or carried out for the purposes of pecuniary gain or profit; and (b) in the case of an employee, includes a period of paid leave, other than paid leave on the termination of employment.
Employment agreement (a) Means a contract of service; and (b) includes a contract for services between an employer and a homeworker; and (c) includes an employee's terms and conditions of employment in (i) a collective agreement; or (ii) a collective agreement together with any additional terms and conditions of employment; or (iii) an individual employment agreement.
Employment Relations Act 2000 The Employment Relations Act 2000 introduced a number of changes to how employers, employees and unions conduct their relationships. The Employment Relations Act had effect from 2 October 2000. It replaced the Employment Contracts Act 1991. The Employment Relations Act created the mediation Service and Employment Relations Authority.
Employment relationship problem Includes a personal grievance, a dispute, and any other problem relating to or arising out of an employment relationship, but does not include any problem with the fixing of new terms and conditions of employment.
Empty weight In relation to a cylinder, means the weight of the cylinder complete with its valve and any other fittings or appurtenances that are normally on the cylinder when it is being filled.
Enclosed spaces On a ship means all those spaces, except excluded spaces, which are bounded by the ship's hull, by fixed or portable partitions or bulkheads, by decks or coverings other than permanent or movable awnings. No break in a deck, nor any opening in the ship's hull, in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the absence of a partition or bulkhead, precludes a space from being included in the enclosed space.
End-outline marker lamp A position lamp designed to be fitted near the outer extremity of a vehicle in addition to forward-facing and rearward-facing position lamps; and includes a cab roof lamp.
Endemic (1) The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent in a given population group or geographic area. (2) Refers to species of plants and animals that are unique to an area or animals that may migrate but breed only in the area.
Endless system A cable logging system in which an endless operating rope is driven by a capstan.
Endpoint In relation to a toxicity study, this means a particular toxic effect, such as cancer in a particular organ.
Energised Electrically livened, or connected to or containing some other source of energy, for example, steam, compressed air, hydraulic energy, etc.
Energy work Means: (a) gasfitting; (b) prescribed electrical work.
Enforcement In relation to HSNO enforcement is used to encompass:
  • inspections to establish whether compliance with HSNO Act has been achieved;
  • investigation of instances of potential non-compliance;
  • responses to emergency situations and incidents;
  • follow-up action in the event of non-compliance, including prosecutions, issuing compliance orders or other formal or informal responses;
  • recording and reporting related to above.
Enforcement action (a) In relation to an HSE inspector: (i) the paying of an information under the HSE Act; or (ii) the issuing of an infringement notice under the HSE Act; or (iii) the making of an application for a compliance order; and (b) in relation to a person other than an inspector (i) the laying of information under the HSE Act; or (ii) the making of an application for a compliance order.
Enforcement Officer (HSNO) An enforcement officer appointed under section 98 of HSNO and with the minimum qualifications as specified in the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (Personnel Qualifications) Regulations 2001 and amendments.
Engine brake A modification to a diesel engine used to increase the retardation force provided by the engine on deceleration.
Engineering controls Any engineering procedure that reduces a hazard (for example, noise, fumes) at the source, but does not include the use of personal protective equipment.
Enteric precautions Includes hand washing after contact with the case or potentially contaminated article; and disposal of faeces to the sewerage system.
Enthalpy of transition, Enthalpy of transformation Amount of heat released accompanying the transition of a substance from one state to another NOTE By convention, positive heat release is numerically equal to an increment of negative enthalpy (for a heat releasing transition, _H _ 0). The quantities, enthalpy of combustion and enthalpy of vaporization, should have meanings that are evident. The term enthalpic correction refers to the (molar) difference in enthalpy for the transition of a gas from an ideal state to a real state.
Entitlements (ACC) All the services ACC can provide to an injured person to assist their recovery.
Entity (1) A corporate body or legal person. (2) A single chemical substance and includes discrete chemical elements, compounds and complexes which may exist in pure or technical grade, or as components in a physical mixture of substances.
Entrapment Hazard presented by the situation in which a body, or part of a body, or clothing can become trapped. Note: The user is not able to free him/herself and injury is caused by the entrapment.
Entry permit See Written authority.
Entry (to a confined space) When a person's head, i.e. the breathing zone or upper body, is within the boundary of the confined space. Note: Inserting an arm for the purpose of atmospheric testing is not considered an entry to a confined space.
Environment Environment includes: ecosystems and their constituent parts, including people and communities; all natural and physical resources; amenity values; the social, economic, aesthetic and cultural conditions that affect or are affected by the matters stated above.
Environment (work) The physical surroundings and conditions of lighting, heating, ventilation and noise.
Environmental education Defined by the Ministry of Education (1999) and Ministry for the Environment (1998) as a multidisciplinary approach to learning that develops the knowledge, awareness, attitudes, values and skills that will enable individuals and the community to contribute towards maintaining and improving the quality of the environment.
Environmental effect Any change to the environment regardless of scale, intensity, duration or frequency, in relation to the use, development, or protection of natural and physical resources (based on the RMA).
Environmental exposure limit (EEL) The (maximum) concentration of an ecotoxic substance (or ecotoxic component of a substance) in an environmental medium that will present a low risk of adverse environmental effects to organisms in non-target areas.
Environmental health A subcategory of public health which focuses on environmental conditions and hazards which affect, or have the potential to affect, human health, either by direct or indirect means. It is the art and science of the protection of good health; the promotion of aesthetic, social, economic, cultural, and amenity values; and the prevention of illness and injury through the fostering of positive environmental factors and the reduction of potential hazards - physical, biological and chemical.
Environmental management system Part of the overall management system that includes organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy (ISO/DIS 14050).
Environmental media Media present in our environment. Includes abiotic media such as soil, water, sediment and air, and biotic media.
Environmental medium In relation to a class 6 substance, means air, water, soil or a surface that a hazardous substance may be deposited onto. In relation to a class 9 substance, means water, soil or sediment where these are in the natural environment, or a surface that a hazardous substance may be deposited onto.
Environmental tobacco smoke Smoke exhaled by another person or side stream smoke arising from another person's cigarette. Environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace is associated with a range of work-related disorders. The main ones are ischaemic heart disease, lung cancer and pneumococcal disease, with some evidence also for asthma, other respiratory symptoms, cerebrovascular disease and low-birth-weight babies.
Environmentally damaging substances Substances which are not intrinsically hazardous but may cause adverse effects if discharged into the environment in large quantities (for example, milk and other organic liquids).
Environmentally sensitive areas Areas that, in the judgement of the local community and/or regulatory authority, should not be subject to more than a specified low risk, or where additional safeguards are required when undertaking activities exceeding the specified low risk. Environmentally sensitive areas may include aquifers, waterways, wetlands, coastal environments, special ecosystems or species habitats.
Environmentally sound disposal In relation to a substance that is a persistent organic pollutant, means disposal in accordance with directions given by the Authority by notice in the Gazette, being directions that are not inconsistent with Article 6 of the Stockholm Convention.
Epicormics Small branch-like shoots that grow on the stem of a tree and if not removed will cause defects in clearwood.
Epidemic An unusual increase in the number, or the appearance of a significant number, of cases of an infectious disease introduced in a region or population that is normally free from that disease.
Epidemiology The investigation of factors that determine the frequency, distribution and spread of disease or other health-related conditions within human populations.
Epidermis Outer or horny layer of the skin.
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons, used to facilitate search and rescue operations, operating on 121.5 MHz, 243 MHz, 406 MHz and/or 1.6 GHz.
EpiSurv A disease surveillance software application managed by ESR for the surveillance of communicable diseases in New Zealand.
Epistaxis Nose bleed.
EPMU New Zealand Amalgamated Engineering, Printing and Manufacturing Union.
EPV An elevating platform vehicle or aerial lift where the height is adjustable by powered means.
Equalising block Block used to distribute the load evenly between anchor points.
Equipment inspection An inspection carried out by an equipment inspector that: (a) is carried out to determine whether equipment is safe and is likely to remain safe; and (b) takes place in one or more of the following periods: (i) the period in which the equipment, or its component parts, is manufactured (ii) the period after the manufacture and before the commissioning of the equipment (iii) the period after the commissioning of the equipment; (iv) the period after a repair or alteration to which the Regulations apply; or (v) the period after maintenance, or an adjustment, alteration, or repair to which the PECPR Regulations apply.
Equipment inspector Under the PECPR Regulations means a person who: (a) is employed or engaged by an inspection body to carry out the functions referred to in regulation 27; and (b) is the holder of a relevant certificate of competence.
Equipotential bonding The electrical connection of exposed metal parts so that they are at substantially the same voltage.
Equivalent dose (radiation) The product of the absorbed dose with a radiation weighting factor to allow for the biological effectiveness of the type of radiation. The radiation weighting factors for X and gamma radiation are equal to 1.0. In this case the equivalent dose is numerically equal to the absorbed dose. The units are sieverts (Sv). (See ICRP publication no. 603.)
ERA Employment Relations Authority, established in October 2000 under the Employment Relations Act 2000.
Erection Means, in relation to any type of equipment, the assembly and construction, and includes installation.
Ergonomics The study of the relationship between people and their work. Sometimes defined as: 'Fitting the task to the person' and 'Design for human use'. From the Greek: Ergo - work, Nomos - natural law.
Ergonomics hazards Workplace conditions that pose a biomechanical stress to the worker.
Ergonomic principles Information about human behaviour, abilities, limitations and other characteristics which can be applied to the design of tools, machines, tasks, jobs and environments in order to increase productivity, comfort, and health and safety.
ERMA New Zealand The crown entity, established under the HSNO Act which incorporates the Authority, the Agency (the Chief Executive and Staff of ERMA New Zealand), and the Statutory Advisory Committee, Nga Kaihautu Tikanga Taiao.
Error The deviation of a measured or applied value from a true value (usually expressed as a percentage of the true value).
ERS Employment Relations Service of the Department of Labour.
Erythema Reddening (inflammation) of the skin.
Erythrocyte Red blood cell.
Escape route A path, clear of obstructions and overhead hazards, used by ground workers to move to a predetermined safe position.
Escape route (building) A continuous unobstructed route from any occupied space in a building to a final exit to enable occupants to reach a safe place, and shall comprise one or more of the following: open paths, protected paths and safe paths.
ESR Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited. The ESR provides scientific services related to public health, environmental health and forensic science.
ESS Energy Safety Service, part of the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, an operating division of the Ministry of Economic Development.
Essential service (electrical) In the context of an electrical installation means emergency lighting, firemen's lifts, alarms, water pumps, sprinklers, detectors, ventilation systems and public address systems necessary for the safety of people in buildings.
ETA Estimated time of arrival.
Ethics Advisory Panel A body established by the Environmental Risk Management Authority to assist its consideration of ethical and spiritual matters in decision-making.
ETU Ethylenethiourea, an impurity and degradation product of EBDC fungicides.
Evacuation scheme, operative evacuation scheme A fire safety evacuation scheme required to be provided for pursuant to section 21A of the Fire Service Act which has been approved in accordance with regulation 17 of the Fire Safety and Evacuation of Buildings Regulations 1992.
Evacuation time The time specified in the evacuation scheme within which persons in the building should reach an evacuation point following an evacuation alarm.
Evaporation The change of a substance from a solid or a liquid into the gaseous phase.
Evaporation rate The ratio of time taken to evaporate a measured volume of a liquid compared against the time taken for a similar volume of a standard liquid to evaporate (usually ethyl ether or butyl acetate).
Event The 'stuff' that is recorded against each file that happens during the life-time of the application, for example, phone calls made, hearings or meetings held, letters sent, etc. - a record of the process.
Event (public) Any planned activity where any structure, open area, roadway or other area will contain more people than normally found in that location at one time.
Event An incident or situation, which occurs in a particular place during a particular interval of time (AS/NZS 4360:1999).
Event tree analysis Technique that describes the possible range and sequence of the outcomes which may arise from a single initiating event (AS/NZS 4360:1999).
Ewe A female sheep that is greater than 15 months of age.
EWRB Electrical Workers Registration Board.
Excavator yarder An excavator-based machine fitted with a drum set for cable extraction.
Excess-flow valve A normally open valve which closes automatically when a predetermined flow rate in a particular direction has been exceeded.
Excessive noise Defined in the RMA as any noise that is under human control and of such a nature as to unreasonably interfere with the peace, comfort, and convenience of any person (other than a person in or at the place from which the noise is being emitted), but does not include any noise emitted by an aircraft, vehicle or train. It may include noise emitted by a musical instrument, an electrical appliance, a machine, a person or persons, or an explosion or vibration.
Excreta Any waste matter eliminated from the body.
Exitway All parts of an escape route protected by fire or smoke separations, or by distance when exposed to open air, and terminating at a final exit.
Exothermic A chemical reaction in which energy is released in the form of heat.
Exotic Not native to a particular country, ecosystem or ecoarea (applied to organisms intentionally or accidentally introduced as a result of human activities).
Exotic disease A disease affecting humans or animals which does not presently exist in New Zealand.
Expanded metal Metal sheet which has been pierced then stretched, resulting in a larger sheet with 'diamond' shaped openings, resembling mesh. May be used for machine guarding.
Expected loss The expected number of lives lost, people injured, damage to property and disruption to essential services and economic activity due to the impact of a natural or man-made hazard. It includes physical, social and economic effects.
Expert (a) A member of a scientific committee set up by an international, national, or professional scientific body to review scientific data; or (b) a person considered by his or her scientific peers to be an expert in the relevant field of scientific study.
Exploder A device that when activated produces an electric firing current.
Exploration (petroleum) Any well-drilling or associated activity undertaken for the purpose of identifying petroleum, or petroleum-bearing or petroleum-generating strata, where the depth of the well is 10 m or greater.
Explosive Capable of exploding (generating violent shock) or producing pyrotechnic effects such as heat, light, sound or smoke.
Explosives (Class 1 Dangerous Goods) Any substance that, when triggered by a small amount of energy, reacts by combustion, using its own source of oxygen to produce gas at such temperature, pressure and speed that it is capable of damaging the surroundings. Pyrotechnic substances that produce an effect by heat, light, sound, gas, smoke or a combination of these are included as explosives.
Exposed metal A conductive part of electrical equipemnt which: (a) can be touched with the jointed finger test specified in AS 1939; and (b) is not a live part but can become live if basic insulation fails.
Exposure Conditions likely to result in a person absorbing a hazardous substance by ingestion, inhalation or absorption through the skin or mucous membranes.
Exposure assessment An estimation of the magnitude, duration and frequency of exposure to hazards, and the numbers of people exposed via different pathways.
Exposure route A route by which a person or other living organism can absorb a substance and includes ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact or contact with the eye or mucous membranes.
Epoxy A type of paint, adhesion or plastic noted for high mechanical strength, good adhesion and chemical resistance.
Exogenous Originating outside the organism.
Extension A rope joined to another rope to increase its length.
Extension pin The uppermost section of the stanchion upright. It is good practice to remove the pins during a return trip to comply with vehicle height regulations and to keep the pins from falling out. The pins are usually then stored in a carrier on the rear of the cab.
Extraction General term for removing trees and logs from a felling area to a skid or road.
Extravasation Leakage of cytotoxic drug from the vein into the surrounding tissue.
Extrusion Forcing molten plastic through a die to form continuous lengths of plastic material. The cross section of the exuded product is the shape of the die aperture.
Eye bolt A bolt with a ring or eye at the head end, usually used to screw into a component so it can be lifted.
Fabrication inspection Inspection of equipment during the process by which it, or its component parts, is manufactured.
Face That part of a component in contact with a mating component, for example, (1) Of a flat belt pulley - the outer rim. (2) Of a friction clutch - the flat side.
Face An exposed sloping or vertical surface resulting from the excavation of material.
Face shield Transparent shield to protect the face and eyes from flying particles or chemical splashes.
Facility Includes amenity and equipment.
Facility malfunction incident (NIO) An incident that involves an aeronautical telecommunications facility.
Factor of safety The ratio of the load that would cause failure of a member or structure to the load that is imposed upon it in service.
FADE Foundation for Alcohol and Drug Education.
FAFOM Fellowship of the Australasian Faculty of Occupational Medicine.
Fail-safe The mode of failure whereby a safe condition is maintained upon loss of power or actuating force to any control element, or failure of any control element to operate when energised.
Failure The unintentional termination of the ability of a system or part of a system to perform its required function.
Fairlead A device containing sheaves or rollers used to guide rope on to a drum.
Fall-arrest harness An assembly of interconnected shoulder and leg straps, with or without a body belt, designed for attachment to a lanyard, pole strap, or fall-arrest device as specified in AS/NZS1891:1995 and used where there is a likelihood of free or unrestrained fall.
Fall arrest system An assembly of interconnected components comprising a safety harness connected to an anchorage point or anchorage system either directly or by means of a lanyard, lanyard assembly, pole strap, or fall-arrest device and whose purpose is to arrest a fall in accordance with the principles and requirements of AS/NZS 1891.4.
Fall block A heavy block, generally balanced so that most of its weight is at the bottom. It rides in the bight of the mainrope and has butt rigging and tailrope attached.
Faller One who fells trees.
Falling object protective structure (FOPS) A structure designed to be attached to, or form part of, mobile plant for the purpose of reducing the possibility that an operator seated beneath the structure in the driving position from being harmed should the FOPS receive a blow from a falling object. FOG is a new type of protection and is the same as the known FOPS: the term FOG stands for Falling Object Guard. In some cases, the FOPS (FOG) and ROPS or TOPS could be the same structure.
Falsework Any temporary structure or framework used in construction work to support materials, equipment or any assembly. Falsework includes the use of steel tubes, adjustable steel props, proprietary frames, or any other means to support a permanent structure during its erection and until it becomes self-supporting.
FAQ Frequently Asked Question.
Farm ATV An ATV primarily designed for an adult, as distinct from those specifically designed for children.
FarmSafe A programme to reduce the number and severity of on-farm injuries, developed by ACC, Federated Farmers and the Agriculture ITO.
Fasciculation Muscle twitching involving contiguous groups of muscle fibres.
Fast blow fuse Usually a cartridge fuse which operates at 1.2 times the nominal current.
Fast pulley (Opposite to loose pulley) A pulley keyed or otherwise fixed to a shaft so motion is transmitted from one to the other.
Fastener A special-purpose fastener stud, pin, nail, dowel, rivet or similar object designed to be driven into, or through, any substance by a powder-actuated fastening tool.
Fatigue The temporary inability, decrease in ability, or strong disinclination to respond to a situation, because of previous over-activity, either mental or physical.
Fatigue (metal) A mode of failure that can occur without warning and at a stress much lower than the ultimate stress for the material. Often associated with shafts and other rotating components, but any equipment subjected to cyclic loading is potentially susceptible. Usually has its origin in some surface imperfections (sometimes an imperfection below the surface can be the cause).
Fault tree analysis A systems engineering method for representing the logical combination of various systems states and possible causes which can contribute to a specified event (called the top event).
FDC Fixed dose combination (of multiple drugs in a single tablet or capsule).
Feather edging A rough weak edge that may be left after sharpening only one side of a cutter.
Feathering A stub defect where a loose pruner centre bolt or excessive blade wear causes incomplete cutting of the branch.
Fell To sever a standing tree from its stump and bring it to the ground.
Feller One who fells trees.
Feller-buncher A self-propelled machine designed to fell standing trees and to grasp, lift and bunch them.
Felling bench A frame or support on to which trees are felled to facilitate easy delimbing.
Felling face The edge of a stand of trees where felling is taking place.
Felling jack (tree jack) A hydraulic jack which can be inserted in the back cut of a tree to assist in felling it in the desired direction.
Felling lever Manually operated steel lever inserted in a back-cut to provide lifting force as an aid to felling small trees.
Felling wedge A wedge hammered into the back-cut, used to move a tree in the desired direction.
Ferrite Ceramic magnetic oxides which have magnetic properties. They are insulators.
Ferrous Made of or containing iron.
Ferrule A metal band or socket fitted to the end of a wire rope.
Fertiliser Any dry, powdered, granular, or other dry fertiliser material that flows, is delivered in bulk, and is used to top-dress agricultural land. Fertiliser includes agricultural lime.
Fettling Removing rough patches and unwanted metal from castings (foundry work).
FEV1 Forced Expiratory Volume at one second. This is the volume of gas breathed out during the first second of a maximally forced expiration. There is a poor result if the patient has airways obstruction.
FFA Fire fighting appliances.
Fibre rope Rope that is made from natural or synthetic fibre or from a combination of those materials.
Fibre.year/ml The product of fibres per millilitre multiplied by years of exposure.
Fibrous anthophylite A type of asbestos.
Field test In relation to an organism, means carrying out trials on the effects of the organism under conditions similar to those of the environment into which the organism is likely to be released, but from which the organism, or any heritable material arising from it, could be retrieved or destroyed at the end of the trials. It includes large-scale fermentation of micro-organisms.
Fifth wheel A device fitted to a vehicle to enable a semi-trailer to be connected to it by means of a kingpin so that the semi-trailer may be towed
Filed (ERS Authority, Tribunal, Court) An application has been filed and nothing else has happened to it.
File Transferred (ERS Authority, Tribunal, Court) This is when a file is transferred from one Registry to another.
Filing of forms All applications must be made on standard forms prescribed by the relevant Institution's Regulations. There are different forms depending on the nature of the action.
Fillet A small section of timber placed crosswise on a packet at set intervals to tie adjacent pieces together by friction, or to facilitate drying.
Filling connection A loading connection suitable for use with LP Gas and compatible with the tanker coupling or site coupling.
Filling pressure or charging pressure The pressure to which a cylinder is filled with a gas when both the gas and the cylinder are at 150C. Applicable only to permanent gases.
Filling ratio The ratio of the mass of gas in the cylinder to the mass of water which would fill the cylinder at 15°C (for liquefiable gases).
Final crop trees Trees that remain after all silvicultural operations are completed.
Final exit The point at which an escape route terminates by giving direct access to a safe place.
Final reserve fuel The minimum quantity of fuel required to provide a margin to secure the safe completion of a flight in the event of any unplanned manoeuvring in the vicinity of the destination or alternate or a suitable aerodrome, as the case may be, and in ordinary circumstances remains on board until completion of the landing.
FINSEC The finance and information union, representing workers in banks, insurance, finance, call centres, information technology, information, communications, law, etc.
Firebreak A natural or artificial physical barrier against the spread of fire from or into any area of continuous flammable material.
Fires, classes of In New Zealand there are six classes of fires, A B C D E and F. Class A Fires involving Carbonaceous Solids. Carbonaceous means carbon or ash residual, for example, wood, cloth, paper, rubber, coal, plastic and any other material that leaves an ash. Class B Fires involving Flammable and Combustible Liquids. These fires fall into two groups: Miscible:Liquids which will mix with water, usually alcohol-based products, for example, methylated spirits, methanol, etc. Immiscible: Liquids which will not mix with water, representing most of the hydrocarbon products we handle. Class C Fires involving Combustible Gases. These fires involve combustible gases, for example, LPG (butane and propane), natural gas, town gas, acetylene, etc. Class D Fires involving Combustible Metals. These fires involve combustible metals, i.e. magnesium, titanium and alkali metals. Water is not to be used as extinguishing medium. Use DRY sand, soda ash, powders, etc. Class E Fires involving Electrically Energised Fuels of any Other Class. These fires are self-explanatory and can occur when electrical equipment is loaded beyond its design capabilities, normally producing excessive heat and pungent smell. It's not the copper wire burning, but the carbonaceous materials surrounding the electrical equipment, i.e. insulation materials, plastics, etc. Where possible de-energise power. If this is not possible, then a non-conductive extinguishing medium must be used. Class F Fires involving Combustible Cooking Oils or Fats. These fires involve combustible cooking oil and fats commonly found in cafe and restaurant kitchens.
Fire brigade (a) A group of persons organised and trained for the prevention, suppression, and extinction of fires, and responsible to the National Commander for discipline and duty; and (b) includes a volunteer fire brigade; but (c) does not include (i) a defence fire brigade; or (ii) an industrial fire brigade.
Firecell Any space within a building, including a group of contiguous spaces on the same or different levels, which is enclosed by any combination of fire separations (as defined in clause A2 of the building code), external walls, roofs, and floors.
Fire control In relation to forest, rural, and other areas of vegetation, means: (a) the prevention, detection, control, restriction, suppression, and extinction of fire; and (b) the safeguarding of life and property from damage and risk of damage by or in relation to fire; and (c) all measures conducive to or intended to further or effect such prevention, detection, control, restriction, suppression, extinction, or safe-guarding.
Fire damper A device for automatically closing off the flow of air through a ventilation opening in the event of fire.
Fire extinguisher A compressed gas container intended to hold an extinguishant that can be discharged onto a fire by, or by being, a gas under pressure.
Fire hazard The danger in terms of potential harm and degree of exposure arising from the start and spread of fire and the smoke and gases that are thereby generated.
Fire hazard category (FHC) The number (graded 1 to 4 in order of increasing severity), used to classify purpose groups or activities having a similar fire hazard, and where fully developed fires are likely to have similar impact on the structural stability of the building.
Fire intensity The rate release of calorific energy in watts, determined either theoretically or empirically, as applicable.
Fire isolated compartment A portion of a building separated from another portion or portions by fire-resisting construction.
Fire resistant material A material having thermal and physical properties suitable for use in protecting a combustible surface.
Fire resisting (As applied to a structural member or other part of a building) Having resistance rating determined in accordance with the fire-resistance test set out in AS 1530.4 required for that structural member or other part.
Fire resisting closure A fire rated device or assembly for closing an opening through a fire separation. It shall have a FRR of no less than that required for the fire separation.
Fire resistance rating (FRR) The term used to classify fire resistance of primary and secondary elements as determined in the standard test for fire resistance, or in accordance with a specific calculation method verified by experimental data from standard fire resistance tests. It comprises three numbers giving the time in minutes for which each of the criteria stability, integrity and insulation are satisfied, and is presented always in that order.
Fire safety system The combination of all methods used in a building to warn people of an emergency, provide for safe evacuation, and restrict the spread of fire, and includes both active and passive protection.
Fire separation Any building element which separates firecells or firecells and safe paths, and provides a specific fire resistance rating.
Fire signs Signs indicating the location of fire alarms and fire-fighting equipment.
Firework An object containing small quantities of hazardous substances with explosive properties enclosed in a case of paper or similar material of such a strength, construction or character that the ignition or explosion of one such firework will not cause the explosion en masse of similar fireworks kept or carried with it, and whose sole or principal effect is not percussive or vertical or horizontal flight.
Firing cable A twin-core insulated conductor wire, used to connect an electric firing circuit to an exploder.
First aid The immediate and temporary care given to a casualty of an accident or sudden illness before a physician or other qualified health personnel attends to provide treatment.
First-aid kit A box or cabinet used to contain first aid items. It may be static or mobile.
First aider A person in a place of work who holds a valid first aid certificate which has been awarded by a trainer or instructor approved by OSH.
First aid trainer A trainer or instructor approved by the Occupational Safety and Health Service of the Department of Labour, to train first aiders.
FITEC Forest Industry Training and Education Council.
Fit for purpose In respect of a place of work, means designed, made and maintained so that it is safe for its intended use.
Fit, reach and see Refers to a group of OOS hazards associated with the dimensions of the workplace. 'Fit' problems occur when the size of the equipment is inappropriate for the user, for instance hand tools that are too small for an employee's hand. 'Reach' problems arise when objects are not within arm's length. 'See' problems can arise when visual conditions are difficult, for instance an employee may need to bend their neck in order to do very precise work.
Fittings (gas cylinder) All valves, safety devices, gauges and other attachments that remain fixed to the cylinder at all times except when undergoing periodic re-inspection as required by Regulation 15.
Fixed gas appliance An gas appliance which is designed to be fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specific location, for example, wall oven or bench hob.
Fixed ladder A ladder permanently attached to a structure, building, or equipment.
Fixed liquid level gauge, fixed ullage gauge A gauge which indicates the maximum permitted liquid level in the container.
Fixed-point monitoring An air monitoring procedure whereby fixed samplers are strategically located within a workplace; this method of sampling is preferred when evaluating engineering controls or determining sources of contamination.
Fixed skyline A skyline which is fixed at both ends and is tensioned to give the correct deflection.
Fixed tank In relation to a tank vehicle, means a tank which is either chassis mounted or of semi-trailer construction.
f/l Fibres per litre.
f/ml Fibres per millilitre.
Flag A A flag of the International Code of Signals (the diver's flag), a burgee (swallow-tailed) flag coloured in white and blue, with white to the mast, or a rigid equivalent.
Flag B The flag B of the International Code of Signals, a burgee (swallow-tailed) flag coloured in red, or a rigid equivalent.
Flame barrier A material or system applied or installed to protect another building element from flame contact. The protection shall be effective for no less than 10 minutes exposure in the standard test for fire resistance.
Flame ionization detector Detector in which hydrocarbons are burned in a hydrogen-air flame and the resulting ions are measured electrically between two electrodes. NOTE: The flame ionization detector is used in gas chromatography mainly to detect hydrocarbon compounds.
Flame photometric detector Detector that uses a reducing flame in which individual elements give rise to characteristic colours which are measured by a photomultiplier. NOTE: The detector is used in gas chromatography mainly to detect components which contain particular elements, for example, phosphorous (P) and sulfur (S).
Flame protected forklifts Modifications to forklifts to enable them to be used in situations/operations where substances present in the area present a hazard of explosion or ignition. In such cases the appropriate certification of the vehicle, by an approved authority, is mandatory. (In such conditions, the forklift manufacturer must be consulted).
Flame safeguard ystem A system consisting of a flame detector(s) plus associated circuitry, integral components, valves and interlocks, the function of which is to shut off the gas supply to the burner(s) in the event of ignition failure or flame failure.
Flammability The property which describes a danger of the product catching fire and under what conditions.
Flammability index (FI) That index number for flammability, which is determined according to the standard test method for flammability of thin flexible materials.
Flammability limits The range of concentrations of a flammable vapour in air at which a flame can be propagated or an explosion will occur, if a source of ignition is present. Normally expressed as upper and lower limits of this range (as percentages of the vapour in air). 'Explosive limits' has the same meaning.
Flammable Readily able to catch fire and undergo combustion.
Flammable liquids (Class 3 Dangerous Goods) Liquids or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension that give off flammable vapour at a temperature (referred to as the flash point) of 60.5°C or less, closed-cup test, or 65.6°C or less, open-cup test. Liquids transported at temperatures equal to or above their flash point are included as Class 3. Liquids with a flash point greater than 35°C that do not sustain combustion are not dangerous goods for land transport. Dangerous goods of Class 3 are assigned to a packing group according to the degree of danger they present: Packing Group I (high danger); Packing Group II (medium danger); Packing Group III (low danger).
Flammable solids (Class 4.1 Dangerous Goods) Solids that: (a) under normal conditions of transport are readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction; or (b) are self-reactive and related substances (including liquids) that are liable to undergo a strong exothermic reaction; or (c) are desensitised explosives that may explode if not diluted sufficiently. Class 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion. Liquids or solids that are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions of transport, or to heating when in contact with air and then being liable to catch fire. Class 4.3: Substances that, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (dangerous when wet). Substances that, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities. Dangerous goods of all divisions of Class 4 are assigned to a packing group according to the degree of danger they present: Packing Group I (high danger); Packing Group II (medium danger); Packing Group III (low danger).
Flammable substance A substance that meets the minimum degree of hazard prescribed by Schedule 2 of the Hazardous Substances (Minimum Degrees of Hazard) Regulations 2001 for a substance with flammable properties.
Flange Side wall or rim of a drum, wheel or sheave.
Flanged mount bearings Bearings supplied with flanged mounts permitting mounting on faces parallel to or perpendicular to the axis of a shaft.
Flap A circular strip of rubber or fabric-reinforced rubber used in pneumatic tyres to prevent chafing of the inner tube on the rim. Quite commonly known in New Zealand as a 'Rustband'.
Flashback Occurs when the flame in a gas torch burns back into the torch or hose; this is often accompanied by a hissing or squealing sound, and a pointed or smoky flame.
Flash point The lowest temperature in °C at which a liquid will produce enough vapour to ignite, if the vapour is flammable.
Flash point In relation to any substance, means the lowest temperature at which the substance, when tested in a prescribed type of apparatus, liberates vapour at a rate sufficient to produce an explosive mixture with the air that is in immediate contact with the substance.
Flashing light In relation to a ship, a light flashing at regular intervals at a frequency of 120 flashes or more per minute.
Flat belt conveyor A conveyor having a moving flat belt carried on freerunning rollers.
Fleet angle Angle subtendered from the centre line at a fairlead or fixed sheave between the drum flange and the centre point of a drum barrel.
Fleeting Positioning logs by machine in preparation for a subsequent operation.
Flexible cord A cable that is designed to be flexed frequently and connects an electrical appliance to the electrical installation, normally by a plug.
Flicker Light that alternately brightens and dims. Flicker on a VDU occurs at between about 50 and 80 times a second and is visible only under certain conditions.
Flight attendant An appropriately trained person assigned by the operator to be responsible to the pilot-in-command for passenger safety on an aircraft.
Flight crew member An appropriately qualified person assigned by the operator for duty in an aircraft during flight time as a pilot or flight engineer.
Flight information service An air traffic service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information intended for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.
Flight manual A manual, associated with the certificate of airworthiness, containing limitations within which the aircraft may be considered airworthy, and instructions and information necessary to the flight crew members for the safe operation of the aircraft.
Flight plan Specified information that is required under the rules to be provided to an ATS unit or to a flight following service regarding an intended flight, or portion of a flight, of an aircraft.
Flight time The total time from the moment an aircraft first moves for the purpose of flight until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight including all associated push back, taxiing and subsequent holding time.
Floor opening An opening in any floor, platform, pavement or yard, through which persons may fall; such as a hatchway, stair or ladder opening, pit or manhole.
Flora Plant life of a given place or time.
Flow property The flow rate achievable from a nominal aircraft hopper given the condition of the fertiliser with respect to substance type, granular size, compaction, contamination and moisture content.
Flue The pipe or duct through which combustion products are conveyed from a gas appliance to a discharge point, including any draught diverter and associated duct, barometric device, fan or other fittings in the duct.
Flue cowl A device placed at the end of a flue and designed to prevent the entry of rain and minimise the disturbing effect of wind while not hindering the discharge of flue gases.
Flue gases Combustion products plus all diluents and contaminants. These include, where applicable excess air, dilution air, process air and waste products from the process.
Flush deck ship A ship that has no superstructure on the freeboard deck.
Flux (soldering) A sticky liquid or paste used to react with and remove compounds from the surface of the connection, to improve the flow of the molten solder, and to prevent oxidation during the heating cycle.
Flying fox A cableway used for the free descent of passengers and incorporates the whole system including structures, cable, block and ropes.
Flywheel A heavy wheel used for storing rotational energy. it is used on a machine where the energy requirement varies greatly during the cycle to supply energy during the period of heaviest load. The prime mover may be reduced in size, as it only has to supply power to match the average load, not the peak load.
Foamed plastics Combustible foamed plastic polymeric materials of low density (typically less than 100 kg/m3) and are classified as cellular polymers which are manufactured by creating a multitude of fine voids (typically 90 to 98%) distributed more or less uniformly throughout the product. Examples of foamed plastics are latex foams, polyethylene foams, polyvinyl chloride foams, expanded or extruded polystyrene foams, phenolic foams, ureaformaldehyde foams, polyurethane foams and polychloropene foams.
Foetotoxic Poisonous to the foetus or unborn child.
Foetus Name given to the developing baby between the 8th and 40th weeks of pregnancy.
FOG Falling Object Guard.
FoodNet The national database with information on food safety programmes and food premises.
Food Safety Objective (FSO) A description of the expectations of hygiene measures that are applied during a particular segment of a food production process. These objectives should include measurable outcomes expected for the final product and may have a qualitative or quantitative association with the level of risk to the consumer.
Food safety programme A documented programme designed to identify and control food safety risk factors in order to establish and maintain food safety. A food safety programme within the meaning of the Food Act 1981 is a programme whose adoption gives rise to an exemption from the Food Hygiene Regulations 1974 under Part 1A of that Act.
Footprint The ground contact area of a tyre tread.
FOPS Falling Object Protective Structure.
Force Force equals mass x acceleration. This is the external agency which changes or tends to change the conditions of rest or of steady linear motion of a rigid body.
Foreign aircraft Any aircraft other than a New Zealand registered aircraft.
Foreign ship Any ship that is not a New Zealand ship.
Forestry work Any work in connection with forest establishment, silviculture, logging, transportation, tree work and solid wood processing.
Forging Shaping metal by impact, under a hammer or in a press. The metal may be pre-heated to 'soften' it.
Forklift A motor vehicle (not fitted with self-laying tracks) designed principally for lifting, carrying and stacking goods by means of one or more tines, platens or clamps.
Fork locking pins The devices which allow forks to be manually adjusted side to side, but which lock the forks in place after adjustment.
Forks The load arms by means of which a load is picked up and supported. Usually two (or more) forks are arranged to be used together to handle palletised and similar loads. They are fitted on to the carriage of the forklift and located by the fork locking pins. Forks are sometimes referred to as tines.
Fork extensions Metal sleeves which slide on to the forks and locked into place by some means. They enable the handling of loads of different lengths. They should not exceed the forks on which they are fitted by more than 50% and the load carried should not overhang the extensions. Sometimes referred to as fork slippers.
Fork height On a forklift, the vertical distance from the floor to the horizontal load-carrying surface of the forks, measured adjacent to the heel of the forks, and in the case of reach trucks, with the forks extended.
Fork locking pins On a forklift, the devices which allow forks to be manually adjusted side to side, but which lock the forks in place after adjustment.
Form pruning Removing competing leaders and large branches to improve tree form.
Formwork The mould into which concrete is placed.
Fossil fuels Coal, natural gas, LPG, crude oil and fuels derived from crude oil (including petrol and diesel). They are called fossil fuels because they have been formed over long periods of time from ancient matter.
Foul water The discharge from any sanitary fixture or sanitary appliance.
Fouled Refers to a rope not running correctly in the sheave of a block, or a ope caught behind an obstruction.
Frame saw A woodworking machine used for sawing logs or for resawing timber by using one or more straight rip-saw blades mounted vertically in a sash thatr eciprocates in vertical slides on a frame.
Free descent Descent at an uncontrolled rate.
Free fall, free fall-arrest As defined in AS/NZS 1891.4:2000 (Clause 1.4.5). A fall or the arrest of a fall where the fall distance before the fall-arrest system begins to take any loading, is in excess of 600 mm either vertically or on a slope on which it is not possible to walk without the assistance of a handrail or hand line.
Free flowing (fertiliser) A fertiliser may be said to be free flowing when: (1) it can be discharged as a dry powder from an aircraft hopper, in the form intended, without compacting and blocking in the throat of the hopper; (2) it can be discharged as a dry powder from an aircraft hopper, in the form intended, without sticking and blocking in the throat of the hopper; (3) it has passed the field test [in the industry guideline].
Free-standing scaffold A standing scaffold which is not attached to any other structure and is stable against overturning on its own account, if necessary assisted by rakers and anchors.
Freeboard The distance measured vertically downwards amidships from the upper edge of the freeboard deck to the upper edge of the related load line.
Freeboard deck The deck from which the freeboard is calculated when determining the load lines to be assigned to the ship under Part 47 of the maritime rules.
Freewheel Refers to a winch which is not in gear and therefore rope can be pulled easily by a breaker out or by gravity.
Freight container An article of transport equipment that is of a permanent character and strong enough to be suitable for repeated use; specially designed to facilitate the transport of goods, by one or more modes of transport, without intermediate reloading; designed to be secured and readily handled, having fittings for these purposes; but does not include vehicles or packaging.
Frequency The frequency of a wave is the rate at which it vibrates. On a radio or TV tuner, the number at which you set the tuner indicates the frequency of the signal. The frequency is also correlated with some physical properties of the signal: how well it can pass through obstacles (for example, buildings) and rate at which information can be transmitted. To avoid interference, defined ranges of frequencies are allocated to different applications: FM radio, AM radio, TV, cellphones, industrial applications, etc. Frequency is measured in hertz . See also hertz, radiofrequency, and microwave.
Frequency The potential rate at which a hazard may be realised. Sometimes referred to as likelihood or probability.
FRI Forest Research Institute.
Friable In relation to asbestos, means asbestos that under ordinary conditions can be easily crumbled.
Friction blocks Form of clutch by which drums of a hauler are engaged.
Frontal impact protection system A set of associated parts, components, and systems incorporated in a motor vehicle to protect occupants in a frontal impact collision.
FRSITO Fire and Rescue Services Industry Training Organisation.
FRST Foundation for Research, Science and Technology.
FSA Formal safety assessment - IMO agreed risk methodology.
FSWR Flexible steel wire rope.
FTE Full-time equivalent.
Fuel gas Any fuel that is supplied through pipes or in containers and is a gas at 15°C and at 101.3 kPa absolute pressure; and includes: (a) biogas, coal gas, natural gas, oil gas, producer gas, refinery gas, reformed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas; and (b) any gaseous substance that the Governor-General declares by Order in Council made under the Gas Act 1992 to be a gas for the purposes of that Act; and (c) any gas that is of a composition that complies with regulations made pursuant to the Gas Act 1992 for use as a fuel.
Fuel oil Any petroleum which has a flash point higher than 61 degrees Celsius and which is of a kind generally used for fuel or which is intended to be used for fuel.
Fugitive emissions Substances that escape from a source not associated with a specific process but scatter throughout the plant, for example,, leaks from equipment, dust blown from stockpiles.
Fulcrum The pivot, or point of support, of a lever.
Full-body safety harness Type of safety harness which secures both the both the lower and upper body. The full-body harness is designed to prevent people from flipping upside down in the case of a fall.
Full Court (ERS Employment Court) A formal hearing conducted in a courtroom before two judges sitting in quorum or three presided over by the Chief Judge or nominee.
Full load The maximum load under which a machine is designed to run.
Full trailer A trailer with two axle sets, the foremost of which is steered by a drawbar, and includes a semi-trailer with non-steering axles coupled to a converter dolly.
Full-mask respirator A respirator that consists of a mask covering the nose and mouth which is fitted with either cartridges or canisters (to filter sprays and vapours) and a transparent shield covering the eyes and nose.
Full-time employment In relation to an earner, means employment in the 4 weeks immediately before his or her incapacity commenced, for either: (a) an average of at least 30 hours per week; or (b) a lesser number of hours, if the lesser number of hours is defined as full-time employment in the employment agreement under which the earner was employed, because of the particular nature of that employment.
Fully funded scheme ACC levies are set at a rate that not only covers the cost of claims in the current year for persons injured in the current year, but also covers the estimated cost of claims which will be paid in future years for those injuries.
Fulminate A chemical compound or mechanical mixture which from its great susceptibility to detonation is suitable for employment in percussion caps or any other appliances for developing detonation.
Fume Particles forming an airborne suspension. Fuming is usually caused by the heating of a solid to such an extent that it vapourises and then condenses into small particles in the surrounding air.
Fume hood A device located in a laboratory, enclosed on five sides with a movable sash or fixed partial sash enclosed on the remaining side; constructed and maintained to draw air from the laboratory and to prevent or minimise the escape of air contaminants into the laboratory; and allows chemical manipulations to be conducted in the enclosure without insertion of any part of the employee's body other than hands and arms.
Fumigation The use of a hazardous substance [described in Schedule 1 of Hazardous Substances (fumigants) Tansfer Notice 2004] for the purpose of destruction of rodents, pests, or other plant or animal organisms.
Fumigation area Any of the following where fumigation is or is intended to be carried out: (a) all or part of (i) a ship: (ii) an aircraft: (iii) a building: (iv) a glasshouse: (v) any other enclosed structure: (b) a fumigation cell: (c) a shipping container: (d) a silo: (e) a soil area: (f) a covered space: (g) any other area where a hazardous substance described in Schedule 1 (fumigants) is or is intended to be released.
Fumigation cell A sealed chamber, which may include a shipping container, used exclusively for fumigation.
Fumigation under sheets Fumigation carried out under gas-proof sheets of plastic, tarpaulins, or other materials, but does not include space fumigation in which such sheets are used to isolate the fumigation area.
Fungi Nucleated, usually filamentous, spore-bearing organisms devoid of chlorophyll.
Fuse (rewireable) A device that disconnects a circuit from a power supply by means of a wire designed to melt when a high electric current flows.
Fusible link A safety device consisting of a suitable low melting point material which is intended to yield or melt at a predetermined temperature.
Gamma ray Ionising electromagnetic radiation emitted by a radionuclide during radioactive decay or during a nuclear (isomeric) transition.
Gang saw A series of parallel saws secured in a frame which is moved backwards and forwards. Used to saw a log into planks in one operation.
Gantry (1) A structure covering a public way, providing protection from both side and overhead. (2) Rigid frames, incorporating a means of lifting, often used to load or unload trailers.
Gases (Class 2 Dangerous Goods) A gas is a substance that: (a) at 50°C has a vapour pressure greater than 300 kilopascals (absolute); or (b) is completely gaseous at 20°C at a pressure of 101.3 kilopascals (absolute). Class 2.1: Flammable gases. Class 2.2: Non-flammable, non-toxic gases. Class 2.3: Toxic gases
Gas Any fuel that is supplied through pipes or in containers and is a gas at a temperature of 15°C and an absolute pressurof 101.325 kilopascals; and includes (a) biogas, coal gas, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, oil gas, producer gas, refinery gas, reformed natural gas, and tempered liquefied petroleum gas: (b) any gaseous substance that the Governor-General declares by Order in Council to be a gas for the purposes of this Act: (c) any mixture of gases.
Gas appliance Any appliance that uses, or is designed or intended to use, gas, whether or not it also uses, or is designed or intended to use, any other form of energy.
Gas carrier A non-passenger ship constructed or adapted and used for the carriage in bulk of any liquefied gas or other product listed in Chapter 19 of the International Gas Carrier Code.
Gas chromatograph A chromatograph that physically separates components of a mixture and measures them individually with a detector whose signal is processed. A chromatograph consists of the following main parts: an introduction unit, a separation unit and a detector. The separation unit consists of one or more chromatographic columns through which carrier gas flows and into which samples are introduced. Under defined and controlled operating conditions, components can be qualitatively identified by their retention time, and quantitatively measured by comparing their detector response to that of the same or a similar component in a calibration mixture.
Gas free For gases and volatile liquids, an atmosphere in the tank or receptacle containing a concentration of the gas or liquid vapour less than the concentration listed in the NOHSC:1003. For flammable gases an atmosphere in the tank or receptacle less than 5% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) for the substance concerned when sampled at ambient temperature.
Gas-safe space On a ship, a space in which the entry of hydrocarbon gases would produce flammability or toxicity hazards.
Gas sorption effects Processes whereby some gases are adsorbed onto or desorbed from the surfaces of a solid. NOTE: The force of attraction between some gases and solids is purely physical and depends on the nature of the participating material. Natural gas may contain several components which exhibit strong sorption effects. Special care should be taken when determining trace concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons, water, sulfur compounds and hydrogen.
Gas supply point The point in the gas supply system downstream of which any work that is performed is deemed to be gasfitting.
Gastight The condition of a gas installation or gas pipework in which any leakage of gas is at a sufficiently low rate that no hazard is likely to ensue.
Gas transmission The supply of line function services by means of high pressure gas pipelines operated at a gauge pressure exceeding 2,000 kilopascals:
Gassy mine A coal mine, metalliferous mine or tunnel in which tests on three successive days indicate the presence of flammable gas in an area, district or main airway on the return side or exhaust side.
Gastric Pertaining to the stomach.
Gate station The point that gas is supplied to a distribution system from a transmission system.
Gathering line A pipeline that transports untreated gas with or without associated liquids from a production facility to a further production facility, treatment plant or storage facility.
Gauge The thickness of the drive link on a chain. Should be matched to the chainsaw's cutter bar gauge.
Gauge pruning A method of determining the pruned height of a tree by measuring stem diameter. When the caliper-type gauge fits the stem, that is the top of the lift.
GCP (New Zealand) Gas Code of Practice.
GDP per capita The basis for measuring the link between productivity and standard of living. GDP per capita can be broken down into the sub-components labour productivity (the quantity of output produced with a given quantity of labour input) and labour utilisation (hours worked per capita).
Gear A toothed wheel which, when meshed with other gears, transmits rotary motion from one shaft to another. The design of the gears determines whether the speed or direction of motion is changed. Different types include spur, helical, bevel, herringbone, worm and wheel, rack and pinion, etc.
Gel coating The application to the surfaces of moulds, by means of a spray, of a mixture of resins and pigments, for the purpose of providing smooth outer skins for mouldings produced from those moulds.
Gelatines Dynamites or gelignites.
General aviation area An airspace, of defined dimensions, in which intensive VFR activity may occur and the rules of Class G airspace apply.
Generic name A name applied to a category or class of chemicals (for example, azo dyes, halogenated aromatic amines, etc.)
Genetic element In relation to a new organism, means: (a) heritable material; and (b) any genes, nucleic acids, or other molecules from the organism that can, without human intervention, replicate in a biological system and transfer a character or trait to another organism or to subsequent generations of the organism.
Genetic susceptibility The existence of a predisposition to a health status that may be attributable to the genetic makeup (constitution).
Genetically modified organism (GMO) An organism in which any of the genetic material has been modified by in vitro techniques, or one which is derived from such an organism.
Genome The complete DNA sequence of an organism containing its complete genetic information.
Genotoxic A specific adverse effect on the genome of living cells that, upon duplication of the affected cells, can be expressed as a mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic event because of specific alteration of the molecular structure of the genome.
Geothermal Associated with heat derived from the earth.
Geothermal energy Energy derived or derivable from and produced within the earth by natural phenomenon.
Geothermal fluid All steam, water, and water vapour, and every mixture of all or any of them (which mixture may include gases), that has been heated within the earth by natural phenomena to a temperature of 70 degrees Celsius or more.
Geothermal work Includes: (a) the drilling of any bore to a depth exceeding 2 metres from ground level; and (b) any work in the construction or maintenance of any pipeline of 150 mm or less nominal internal diameter in relation to a bore which is not primarily associated with the generation of electricity, including associated fittings, vessels, pumps, and appurtenances necessary for the containment and control of pressure in the pipeline.
GHP Good Hygienic Practice.
GHS Global Harmonisation System.
GHz Gigahertz. One billion hertz.
Gibhead key A key (for locating pulleys, etc. on a shaft) having a head formed at right angles to the length of the key at one end which projects above the surface of the shaft to aid removal.
Gin pole A single, guyed pole set in the ground at an angle from which a block or tackle can be suspended for lifting.
GJ Gigajoules.
Glare A bright light in the field of view.
Glasswool A fibrous product formed by either blowing or spinning a molten mass of glass. The resultant fibres are subsequently collected as a mat of fibrous product which may either be bonded or non-bonded.
GLC Gas liquid chromatography.
Glider A non-power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft which derives its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight.
Glucosuria Raised glucose levels.
Glutaraldehyde A chemical used in solution as a sterilising agent for medical, veterinary and dental equipment. Also used in radiography for processing X-ray films. It can cause occupational asthma, dermatitis and other health problems. Synonym: 1.5-Pentanedial.
Glycol Liquid binary alcohol (R-CHOH-CH2OH) used as an anti-freeze and in some processing operations as a dehydrating agent.
GMAW Gas metal arc welding. See also MAGS.
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System.
GMO See Genetically modified organism.
GMP Good Manufacturing Practice.
Goal A broad and high-level statement of general purpose to guide planning around an issue.
Goals/Objectives Planned specified outcomes to be achieved in a given timeframe (SMART).
Good employer An employer who operates a personnel policy containing provisions generally accepted as necessary for the fair and proper treatment of employees in all aspects of their employment, including provisions requiring- (a) good and safe working conditions; and (b) an equal employment opportunities programme; and (c) the impartial selection of suitably qualified persons for appointment; and (d) opportunities for the enhancement of the abilities of individual employees; and (e) recognition of (i) the aims and aspirations of Maori; and (ii) the employment requirements of Maori; and (iii) the need for greater involvement of Maori as employees of the employer; and (f) recognition of the aims and aspirations, and the cultural differences, of ethnic or minority groups; and (g) recognition of the employment requirements of women; and (h) recognition of the employment requirements of persons with disabilities. [NZ Public Health and Disability Act 2000]
Good faith As set out in the Employment Relations Act 2000.
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Assurance that product is consistently produced and controlled to quality standards appropriate to their intended use and as required by the regulatory authority and industry.
Goods All kinds of moveable personal property.
Goods vehicle A motor vehicle that: is constructed primarily for the carriage of goods, and either: (a) has at least four wheels, or (b) has three wheels and a gross vehicle mass exceeding one tonne.
Governance The system by which organisations are directed and controlled.
Government department A government department named in the First Schedule of the State Sector Act 1988.
Governor A device for regulating the speed of an engine to a preset fixed level, or ensuring it does not exceed a certain maximum speed.
GP General practitioner.
GPS Global positioning system.
GPWS Ground proximity warning system.
Grab hook A single-finger hook used for connecting chains.
Grade (abrasive wheels) A measure of the strength with which the grains of abrasive are held together by the bonding material.
Gradual process (injury/illness) Personal injury caused by a work-related gradual process, disease, or infection. Includes personal injury that is of a type described in Schedule 2 that is suffered by a person who is or has been in employment involving exposure to agents, dusts, compounds, substances, radiation, or things described in that schedule. [IPRC Act].
Gradual process hearing test The test used to assess a claim for deafness arising from a personal injury caused by a work-related gradual process.
Granular herbicides Weed-killing chemicals manufactured as small grains.
Granulator A machine having two or more cutters attached to a rotor which is used to convert scrap thermoplastic material into a form suitable for further processing.
Gravimetric Standard A standard based on the weight of material in a given volume of air (mg/m3).
Gravity return Any cable system that depends on the force of gravity for downhill travel of the carriage.
Grain auger (portable) A machine consisting of a tube inside which a worm or screw is rotated to convey grain. The lower end of the tube is frequently fitted with a detachable hopper. The tube is mounted on a wheeled carriage and is intended for use on farms and other places where grain is stored or handled in bulk.
Grain Code The International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk adopted by the International Maritime Organization by Maritime Safety Committee Resolution 23(59), as amended from time to time.
Granulator (plastics industry) A machine having two or more cutters attached to a rotor which is used to convert scrap thermoplastic material into a form suitable for further processing.
Granule Solid formulation comprising particles of defined size (>80µm diameter) for application without further dilution, usually to soil.
Graphic material Any material used for writing, drawing, marking, or painting.
Grapple Hinged jaws which can be closed or opened and used for grasping logs. In helicopter logging, a pilot-controlled mechanical device, attached to the helicopter long line, which is used to pick up logs in the forest and release them following placement in the desired log landing area.
Grapple hauling Hauling logs using a grapple in place of butt rigging and strops.
GRAS Generally Recognised As Safe. A substance known to present negligible hazards to human or animal health or the environment.
Gray (Gy) The SI unit of absorbed dose being equal to 1 Joule per kilogram of the material being irradiated.
Greenhouse gases Atmospheric gases that increase the temperature of the earth's surface. They include water vapour, tropospheric ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Around 90% of gross CO2 emissions in New Zealand are caused by energy production and use.
Grit Measure of the size of the abrasive particles in an abrasive wheel.
Grommet (Synonym: Molly, Molly Hogan) Short length of wire, wound to form a loop for temporary connection between eye splices of two ropes. An endless wire rope sling.
Gross domestic product (GDP) Represents a broad measure of economic activity and signals the direction of overall aggregate economic activity. GDP is calculated by the quantity, quality and variety of goods and services available for consumption.
Gross weight (or gross mass) In relation to a vehicle or combination of vehicles means the weight of the vehicle or of the vehicles comprising the combination, together with the load the vehicle(s) are for the time being carrying. The gross weight may be determined by adding the weight on the axles or groups of axles.
Ground fire A fire which is burning in the ground cover (grasses, weeds, and scrub).
Ground haul In cable logging, where there is no lift so that logs are hauled along the ground.
Groundspreader A vehicle designed specifically for the carriage of powder or particulate artificial fertilisers on the road, and for the distribution of those fertilisers directly from the vehicle onto the land by means of a mechanical or pneumatic distributor that forms part of the vehicle.
Group Standard An approval under HSNO for a group of hazardous substances of a similar nature, or type or having similar circumstances of use. A Group Standard is therefore risk based rather than solely hazard based. The risk of substances in the Group Standard will be managed by a single set of conditions rather than by the controls set out in the HSNO regulations.
Grubscrew A fully threaded, headless screw used to secure a component to a shaft.
GTAW Gas tungsten arc welding. See also TAGS.
Guaranteed minimum breaking load In relation to rope, means the load guaranteed by the manufacturer as being the minimum load at which the rope will fail.
Guard A screen or cover to prevent access to the dangerous part of a machine.
Guardrail A rail or barrier secured to standards or upright members, and erected along the exposed sides and ends of working platforms to prevent persons from falling. A lower rail which is fixed to standards midway between the guardrail and platform is termed a midrail.
Guidance note In the Australian jurisdictions, refers to a document describing a work practice or thing which warrants specific advice or guidance to encourage an improvement in health and safety performance. It may also give guidance on an OHS statutory procedure or process. The document is generally 2 and no more than 4 pages in length. The topic of a guidance note is relevant to a range of workplaces rather than dealing with something unique to one workplace.
Guide rails On a chainsaw, the sides of the groove running around the cutter bar, which keep the chain on the bar.
Guide, guidelines A relatively extensive document (5 pages or more) which aims to provide practical general guidance or implementation tools on a particular hazard or range of hazards applicable to a range of workplaces. A guide may also provide guidance on interpreting a particular piece of legislation or provide supplementary guidance associated with a code of practice. A guide may be published exclusively in an electronic format.
Gunpowder A mixture of charcoal and sulphur with potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate or both; and includes blasting powder.
Gut hook To attach a strop to a stem so that it swings when lifted off the ground.
Guy A length of anchored rope, attached to near the top of a spar, gin pole etc, and holding it upright against forces imposed upon it in hauling or loading.

H – K

Term or acronym


HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point.
Haematemesis Vomiting blood, usually from stomach ulcers or erosion of stomach wall following ingestion of corrosive substances.
Haemoglobin A complex protein contained in red blood cells which gives them their colour and oxygen-carrying properties.
Haemolysis Destruction of red blood cells causing anaemia and jaundice.
Haemoptysis Bleeding from the lungs.
Haemorrhage An escape of blood from its vessels.
Hairdresser Any person who engages for profit or reward in the business or practice of hairdressing, whether in a hairdresser's shop or not.
Hairdressing The dressing, curling, waving, cleansing, cutting, shaving, trimming, singeing, bleaching, tinting, colouring, or other treatment of the hair or beard of any person.
Half-body safety harness Type of safety harness that straps the lower half of the body. The climber is connected at one point rather than two as with the full-body harness.
Half-life A measure of the time required to eliminate one half of a quantity of a chemical from the body or from an environmental medium.
Half-mask respirator A half-mask respirator covers the user's nose and mouth and is fitted with either cartridges or canisters to filter for sprays and vapours.
Halocarbon A hydrocarbon with some hydrogen atoms replaced by halogen atoms such as chlorine or fluorine.
Halogenated Containing one or more halogen atoms, i.e., fluorine, chlorine, iodine, bromine or astatine.
Halon 1211 (Bromochlorodifluoromethane) Halon 1211 was once widely used in yellow, hand-held fire extinguishers and in fixed fire protection systems in unoccupied spaces such as substations or computer rooms. Now largely superseded by more modern, ozone-friendly products.
Hammerlock A device for joining chains or fixing chains to an anchor point.
Hang glider A glider, including a powered glider with the engine not operating, capable of being launched and landed solely by the use of the pilot's legs, and includes paragliders.
Hanging scaffold A working platform suspended by tubes, bolts, fixed rope slings or other methods and not intended for raising or lowering while in use.
Hand guard (chainsaw) The metal or plastic guard in front of top handle, usually incorporating the chain brake.
Handrail A rail to provide support to, or assist with the movement of a person.
Hapu Eextended family structure.
Harbour Includes the waters and any port within any pilotage area defined in Part 90 of the maritime rules, and any other coastal or inland waters that a regional council determines are a harbour for the purpose of the New Zealand Port and Harbour Marine Safety Code.
Harbourmaster A person appointed as harbourmaster under section 650B of the Local Government Act 1974.
Hardeners (or catalysts) The chemicals added to paint that make the paint harden as opposed to drying. These chemicals usually contain isocyanates.
Hardware The mechanical and electronic components of a computer system.
Harm (a) Illness, injury, or both; and (b) includes physical or mental harm caused by work-related stress.
Harm minimisation With reference to drug use is an approach that aims to minimise the adverse health, social and economic consequences of drug use, without necessarily ending such use for people who cannot be expected to stop their drug using immediately. The primary goal is a net reduction in drug-related harm rather than becoming drug-free overnight, although harm minimisation strategies often lead to a reduced number of people who use drugs over time. An example of harm minimisation is the needle and syringe exchange programme for injecting drug users, which attempts to prevent the use of 'dirty' needles and needle-sharing, which can pose a risk of the transmission of blood-borne viruses such as HIV and hepatitis.
Harmful use A pattern of psychoactive substance use that is causing damage to health. The damage may be physical (for example hepatitis following injection of drugs) or mental (for example depressive episodes secondary to heavy alcohol intake). Harmful use commonly, but not invariable, has adverse social consequences; social consequences in themselves, however, are not sufficient to justify a diagnosis of harmful use.
Harvester General term for a self-propelled multi-function logging machine which combines felling, processing and assembling logs.
HASARD Health and Safety Accident Recording Database.
Hauler (Synonym: Yarder) A machine equipped with winch or winches which operates from a set position to haul logs or drags from the stump to landing.
Haulage equipment In relation to stationary compactors may be as detailed below but not limited to: (a) Hoist-type equipment or hoist equipment: The hoist arms, chains, and frames used to elevate, support, transport, dump, and unload compactor containers and self-contained compactors. (b) Tilt-frame or roll-off equipment: The tilt-frame, tilt-frame support equipment, hoisting devices, tilt cylinders, and controls for operating the tilt-frame and hoisting devices for loading, dumping, and unloading containers or stationary compactors. Tilt-frame equipment can be mounted on an engine cab and chassis or on a trailer chassis. (c) Hoist-type equipment is mounted on an engine-powered cab and chassis.
Hauling Moving logs in a cable logging operation.
Hazard (a) An activity, arrangement, circumstance, event, occurrence, phenomenon, process, situation or substance (whether arising or caused within or outside a place of work) that is an actual or potential cause or source of harm; and (b) includes (i) A situation where a person's behaviour may be an actual or potential cause or source of harm to the person or another person; and (ii) Without limitation, a situation described in subparagraph (i) resulting from physical or mental fatigue, drugs, alcohol, traumatic shock or another temporary condition that affects a person's behaviour. Hazardous has a corresponding meaning [HSE Act].
Hazard/risk assessment In Australia, the term 'risk assessment' is used to mean the overall process of estimating the magnitude of risk and deciding what actions will be taken. In New Zealand, the term 'hazard assessment' is used to mean the overall process of determining whether a hazard is significant.
Hazard classification A combination of the hazardous property of a substance and the level or type of hazard related to that property.
Hazard identification The process of recognising that a hazard exists and defining its characteristics.
Hazard management A system for identifying hazards to workers at work, assessing hazards, and managing hazards so that people are not harmed. Hazard management involves: (a) elimination (removing the hazard completely); (b) isolation (putting a barrier or distance between the hazard and the person); (c) minimisation (minimising the chance it will cause harm).
Hazard notice A notice that: (a) describes a hazard identified in a place of work; and (b) is in the prescribed form; and (c) may set out suggested steps to deal with the hazard.
Hazard rating The level of hazard (high, medium or low) applied to a hazardous substance for the purpose of an HFSP calculation, based on its HSNO classification.
Hazard register A register to record (in writing) the existence of a hazard.
Hazard signs Signs advising of hazards. These are subdivided as follows: Danger signs. Signs warning of a particular hazard or hazardous condition that is likely to be life-threatening. Warning signs. Signs warning of a hazard or hazardous condition that is not likely to be life-threatening.
Hazardous area A delineated area in which all electrical installations and equipment used must be of a type approved by the electrical authority for installation and use in the area.
Hazardous area A Zone 0, Zone 1 or Zone 2 area as defined in the relevant Parts of AS/NZS 2430.
Hazardous facility Activities involving hazardous substances and sites, including vehicles for their transport, at which these substances are used, stored, handled or disposed of.
Hazardous manual handling The presence in a manual handling task of one or more of the following: twisted, stooped, awkward, asymmetrical postures; fixed, sustained, rigid, prolonged postures; unvaried, repetitive movements; sudden, uncontrolled or jerky movements; handling or reaching away from the body; using high or sustained force; handling heavy or awkward loads; whole body vibration or upper limb vibration; handling that goes on for too long without a break.
Hazardous occurrence In relation to a ship means an occurrence other than an accident which could affect the safety of the ship or persons, and includes a 'pollution incident' as defined in section 225 of the Maritime Transport Act 1994.
Hazardous sub-facility A hazardous facility that is separated by more than 30 metres from any other hazardous facility on the same site.
Hazardous substance

Unless expressly provided otherwise by regulations, means any substance:

  • With one or more of the following intrinsic properties:
    • Explosiveness
    • Flammability
    • A capacity to oxidise
    • Corrosiveness
    • Toxicity (including chronic toxicity)
    • Ecotoxicity, with or without bioaccumulation


  • Which on contact with air or water (other than air or water where the temperature or pressure has been artificially increased or decreased) generates a substance with any one or more of the properties specified in paragraph (a) of this definition.
Hazardous substance emergency The release or potential accidental release of any hazardous substance from any building or other premises, or from any receptacle, container, vessel, or pipe, or from any conveyance (whether motorised or not), where the release of that hazardous substance constitutes a contaminant.
Hazardscape The net result of natural and manmade hazards and the risks they pose cumulatively across a given area.
Hazchem code The Hazchem emergency action code of numbers, letters and diamonds give information to emergency services. Its use is required by the NZS 5433:1988 Code of practice for the transport of hazardous substances on land.
HAZID HAZard IDentification meeting. Structured meeting to achieve maximum information flow about hazards, causes and consequences.
HAZOP Hazard Operability Study.
HBFCs Hydrobromofluorocarbons.
HCB Hexachlorobenzene, previously used as a pesticide.
HCFCs Hydrochlorofluorocarbons.
HDC Health and Disability Commissioner.
HCH 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, also known as lindane. An insecticide previously used in New Zealand.
HCN Hydrogen cyanide.
HCV Hepatitis C virus.
Head Top of tree severed from merchantable stem.
Head off, or top Cut off unmerchantable top of tree.
Head pull Extracting a tree or log by the small end.
Head restraint A fitting forming part of a vehicle seat intended to restrain occupants' heads from excessive movement in the event of a crash.
Headlamp A lamp designed to illuminate the road ahead of a vehicle, and that is: (a) a dipped-beam headlamp; or (b) a main-beam headlamp; or (c) a combination of a dipped-beam headlamp and a main-beam headlamp.
Headspar The rigged spar at or near the landing.
Headboard A device mounted at the front of a vehicle platform to restrain the load and protect the driver.
Health A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.
Healthy In the HSE Act means unharmed, and 'health' has a corresponding meaning.
Health agencies Those organisations that provide a health service, whether or not a charge for service is made.
Health and safety activity plan An annual action plan outlining the activities that will be undertaken to manage health and safety during the plan period.
Health and Safety at Work Act (HSWA) New Zealand's workplace health and safety law.
Health and safety committee A Health and Safety Committee (HSC) supports the ongoing improvement of health and safety at work. An HSC enables PCBU representatives, workers and other HSC members to meet regularly and work co-operatively to ensure workers’ health and safety.
Health and safety inspector WorkSafe's health and safety inspectors assess health and safety compliance, and investigate health and safety incidents in workplaces. Inspectors have a range of powers under health and safety laws including the ability to enter and inspect a workplace, require answers to specific questions and seize items for use as evidence.
Health and safety representative A worker elected by the members of their work group to represent them in health and safety matters, in accordance with subpart 2 of Part 3 of HSWA. Throughout this website and in our guidance, the term HSR means an elected representative who meets the requirements of HSWA and WEPR Regulations. It does not apply to people who are referred to as HSRs under other arrangements, but who are not elected under HSWA.
Health and usage monitoring system A system that acquires data from specialised sensors that measure various parameters related to the airworthy condition of the aircraft and its systems.
Health assessment Check of a person's health to determine their fitness for a job, for example if the job will involve work in a hot environment.
Health care services Services that are hospital care, residential disability care, rest home care, or specified health or disability services.
Health exposure criterion (HEC) An estimated level of exposure to a hazardous substance that can be used for developing regulatory measures and public policy to manage ongoing population exposures to that substance. When used in the context of a public health risk assessment approach, the HEC is directly related to the existing background exposure of the population to the substance being considered.
Health gain (loss) A way to express improvement (or deterioration) in health outcomes. It can be used to measure: (1) the improvement (or deterioration) in population health status; or (2) the degree to which the level of health of a population has changed in response to a policy or other intervention
Health gap The difference between the observed health status of a population and some standard or reference level of health.
Health impact assessment A systematic process to assess the actual or potential effects of policies, objectives, programmes, plans, consents, or activities on the health of individuals, groups or communities. It is an assessment of risks to people either directly or indirectly as a result of environmental conditions or hazards.
Health information In relation to an identifiable individual, means: (a) information about the health of that individual, including that individual's medical history: (b) information about any disabilities that individual has, or has had: (c) information about any services that are being provided, or have been provided, to that individual: (d) information provided by that individual in connection with the donation, by that individual, of any body part, or any bodily substance, of that individual.
Health needs


  1. what an individual requires to achieve or maintain health; or
  2. an estimation of the programmes required to improve the health of populations.
Health needs assessment A process designed to establish the health requirements of a particular population.
Health outcomes A change in the health status of an individual, group or population that is attributable to a planned programme or series of programmes, regardless of whether such a programme was intended to change health status.
Health practitioner A person who is, or is deemed to be, registered with an authority established or continued by section 114 of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of a particular health profession.
Health professional A registered medical practitioner, nurse, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physiotherapist, or other registered qualified health practitioner recognised by the Health and Disability Commissioner Act 1994.
Health promotion The process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health status, as described in the Ottawa Charter (WHO 1986).
Health protection officer A public health officer employed by a District Health Board.
Health surveillance The monitoring of individuals for the purpose of identifying changes in health status due to occupational exposure to a hazardous substance. It includes biological monitoring but not atmospheric monitoring or other measures used to control hazardous substances in the workplace
Health Research Council The major Government funder of biomedical, public health, health services, Maori health and Pacific health research in New Zealand.
Health services

Goods, services or facilities which are provided by health agencies and which are:

  • provided to individuals for the purpose of improving or maintaining a person's health status; or
  • provided for the purposes of related or incidental to improving or maintaining a person's health status.
Health Sponsorship Council (HSC) Organisation set up under the Smoke-free Environments Act that focuses on promoting health and healthy lifestyles through social marketing.
Health status A set of measurements which reflect the health of populations. The measurements may include physical function, emotional wellbeing, activities of daily living, etc.
Health target A change in the health status of a population that can be reasonably expected within a defined period
Hearing (ERS Tribunal, Court) A future or past event of fixed duration involving one or more files. The method by which the Tribunal or Court hears the cases of the parties to an employment relationship problem.
Hearing protectors A device worn on or inserted in the ears to reduce a person's noise exposure.
Hearing test Test to ascertain if a person has hearing loss caused by exposure to excessive noise.
Heat cramp Muscular spasms common in people who work vigorously in the heat, caused by a reduction in the concentration of sodium chloride in the blood.
Heat exchanger A device to transfer heat from one medium to another.
Heat rash Rash caused when sweat cannot evaporate from the skin. 'Prickly heat' is the most common heat rash.
Heat strain The effects that occur in the body as a result of heat load. Early symptoms include muscle cramps, change in breathing pattern and pulse rates, heavy perspiration, and dizziness or faintness.
Heat stroke Severe heat strain leading to convulsions and coma, potentially fatal if not treated promptly.
Heat treatment The controlled heating and cooling of metals to change their physical properties (for example to harden/soften, toughen, etc.) to suit their intended use.
Heaving line A light line of sufficient length to reach the water from a position on deck near the transfer arrangement.
Heavy engineering

That branch of engineering:

  • which characteristically but not exclusively uses as its raw material ferrous or non-ferrous metals in the form of plate having a thickness greater than 4.5 mm or in the form of angles, shapes, and sections exceeding 80 mm by 80 mm in cross-section; or
  • which is engaged in the machining of components or items large enough to require cranage to present or locate the workpiece to or in a machine tool being used in the fabrication of machines, equipment, or structures. Typical items include
    • steel fabrication for buildings, bridges, and towers
    • storage tanks and containers
    • pressure vessels
    • firetube boilers
    • process machinery, metal-working machinery
    • saw-milling and log-handling equipment
    • cranes, hoists, forklift trucks, rail wagons, and transporters
    • construction and mining equipment
    • equipment used in the energy industry, in fertiliser manufacture, pulp and paper manufacture
    • ships.
Heavy metal Refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic, highly toxic or poisonous at low concentrations. Examples of heavy metals include mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb).
Heavy motor vehicle

A motor vehicle that is either:

  • of Class MD3, MD4, ME, NB, NC, TC or TD; or
  • a vehicle (not of a class specified in Table A: Vehicle classes) with a gross vehicle mass that exceeds 3500 kg.
Heavy power press A straight-side press fitted with a friction clutch and used to form panels or other products from blanks. It does not include a bending brake, press brake, or hot forging press.
HEI Health Effects Institute (USA).
Helicopter A rotorcraft incorporating one or more power-driven rotors.
Heliport Any defined area of land or water, and any defined area on a structure, intended or designed to be used either wholly or partly for the landing, departure, and surface movement of helicopters.
Hematopoietic agent A chemical which interfers with the blood system by decreasing the oxygen-carrying ability of haemoglobin. This can lead to cyanosis and unconsciousness. Carbon monoxide is one such agent.
HEPA filter High-efficiency particulate air filter capable of removing particles of 0.3 mm or larger from air at 99.97 percent efficiency.
Hepatotoxin A chemical capable of causing liver damage.
Hepatic disease Disease of the liver. A variety of liver disorders may be related to occupation. These include acute hepatitis (inflammation of liver cells), chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic cirrhosis. Cirrhosis a disorder of the liver involving damage to liver cells, resulting in irreversible fibrosis. Acute hepatitis in an occupational setting is most commonly due to exposure to certain hazardous substances (particularly organic solvents) and to hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV). Chronic active hepatitis is due to exposure to HBV and HCV. The strongest connection between occupational exposures and hepatic cirrhosis is to HBV and HCV.
Herbal smoking product A product that: (a) is or contains vegetable matter; and (b) is intended to be smoked; but (c) contains no tobacco.
Herbicide Chemical poison used to destroy plants, especially weeds.
Heritable material In relation to a new organism, means viable biological material, including gametes and spores, arising from the organism that can, without human intervention, regenerate the organism or reproduce a new generation of the same species of the organism.
Heritage operators (rail) Operators of vintage rail vehicles or trams, usually on a small dedicated railway or tramway, or on railway excursion trips over Tranz Rail's lines. Two small (15-inch gauge) Tourist Railways are also included in this definition.
HEWP Horticulture elevating work platform.
HFSP Hazardous Facility Screening Procedure.
High explosive An explosive having a VOD of 1500 m/s or more.
Highlead logging A hauler logging system in which a lead block is hung on a spar or tower to provide lift to the front of the logs being hauled.
High pressure liquefiable gas A liquefiable gas that has a critical temperature greater than -50°C but not exceeding 65°C.
High rise building A building having five or more storeys above ground level.
High-Speed Code The International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft, adopted by IMO resolution MSC.36(63).
High-speed craft A ship in respect of which a High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate has been issued in compliance with the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft adopted by Resolution MSC 36(63) of the International Maritime Organisation's Maritime Safety Committee dated June 1994, as amended by that committee from time to time.
High temperature hazardous waste incinerator An incinerator that is designed and operated principally for burning hazardous waste at a temperature greater than 850C as measured: (a) near the inner wall of the incinerator; or (b) at another point in the combustion chamber where the temperature is likely to represent the temperature in the incinerator.
High-visibility (hi-vis) Clothing and equipment that is 'hi-vis' has the property that it can be easily spotted and seen from a great distance when compared to ordinary-coloured clothing and equipment. Common hi-vis colours include fluorescent yellow, pink, and orange, though it has been found that yellow is the most easily spotted of the fluorescent colours.
High-voltage (HV) Any voltage exceeding 1000 V a.c. or 1500 V d.c.
High-voltage lines Lines conveying electricity at a voltage of 1000 volts or more.
Hinge The wood left between the scarf and the backcut, used to control the direction of fall.
HIPC Health Information Privacy Code.
Hiree Someone who may be an employer or worker who hires an item of plant.
Hirer of plant A person who hires out plant for use at work.
Histopathology Branch of medicine concerned with cause, origin and nature of disease in animal or plant tissues.
Hitch hiker Debris in a turn (the helicopter's load of logs) which may fall free and become a hazard to ground crews.
Hitch-hiker pest A pest that is carried by a commodity and in the case of plants, and plant products, does not infest those plants or plant products.
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Infection with this virus may result over time in a person having AIDS, which stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Hi-vis See High-visibility.
Hoarding A structure alongside a public way providing side protection but no overhead protection.
Hogget A sheep that is 7 to 15 months of age.
Hoist unit A standard mass-produced lifting unit providing powered vertical lifting capacity by either chain or wire, via a hook and block. Power may also be provided to a beam runner, if fitted, for horizontal travel.
Hold-to-run A control that requires continuous pressure by the operator. May also be referred to as deadman control.
Home In the HSE Act means a place occupied as a dwelling house; and includes any garden, yard, garage, outhouse, or other appurtenance, of a home.
Home-based health care Home-based services provided from a variety of sources, required to realise the aims of supporting a person to remain living at home, and traditionally associated with home help, attendant care, district nursing and respite care. It includes services for people with disabilities and people with personal health needs. An indicative list of health and disability services includes categories of personal care/ assistance with activities of daily living, health care services, domestic help with household tasks, social support and respite care.
Homeostasis State of equilibrium.
Homeworker (a) Means a person who is engaged, employed, or contracted by any other person (in the course of that other person's trade or business) to do work for that other person in a dwellinghouse (not being work on that dwellinghouse or fixtures, fittings, or furniture in it); and (b) includes a person who is in substance so engaged, employed, or contracted even though the form of the contract between the parties is technically that of vendor and purchaser.
Hook truck A vehicle recovery service vehicle with a crane hoist that partially lifts the vehicle to be recovered, which is then towed in this position.
Hooker (breaker out) An worker who directs the helicopter pilot to the load site and hooks up the load to the remote hook.
Horticultural elevating work platform (HEWP) A rough terrain self-propelled platform of a single, rigid articulated or telescoping boom type, with a single-person cage. It is intended to be driven and operated from the cage with the boom in the elevated position.
Hose assembly A flexible tube or pipe complete with end couplings.
Host organism An organism that is the subject of a genetic modification procedure.
Hot deck Landing where log hauling and loading is done concurrently.
Hot water boiler An item of pressure equipment and includes an arrangement of mainly pressure-containing parts such as drums, vessels, tubes, coils, and interconnecting parts used to heat water at pressures exceeding 200 kPa and temperatures exceeding 100°C by the use of a directly applied combustion process, or by the application of heated gases.
Hot work Welding, thermal or oxygen cutting, heating or other fire-producing or spark-producing operations that may increase the risk of fire or explosion.
Hours of darkness Means: (a) any period of time between half an hour after sunset on one day and half an hour before sunrise on the next day, or (b) any other time when there is not sufficient daylight to render clearly visible a person or vehicle at a distance of 100 m.
Household unit Any building or group of buildings, or part of any building or group of buildings, used or intended to be used solely or principally for residential purposes and occupied or intended to be occupied exclusively as the home or residence of not more than one household; but does not include a hostel or boardinghouse or other specialised accommodation.
Housekeeping Attention to tidiness and cleanliness in the workplace.
Hover A helicopter flight at a constant height and position over the surface.
Hovercraft A transport vehicle capable of travelling over water or land by riding on a cushion of air produced by power from its own engines; and includes a ground effect machine and an air cushion vehicle, but does not include an aircraft within the meaning of the Civil Aviation Act 1964. A hovercraft is deemed under the General Harbour Regulations to be a vessel at all times when it is standing in or moving over the water.
HPF High powered field. Term used in microscopy.
HRC Health Research Council of New Zealand.
Hydrogen sulfide H2S Colourless, toxic gas with an odour similar to rotten eggs.
HSDR Hazardous Substances (Disposal) Regulations 2001.
HSE Act Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992
HSE Act Improvements Unless otherwise specified, means any of:
  • written warning
  • improvement notice
  • prohibition notice
  • infringement notice.
HSEMR Hazardous Substances (Emergency Management) Regulations 2001.
HSER Health and Safety in Employment Regulations 1995.
HSIR Hazardous Substances (Identification) Regulations 2001
HSNO Includes both the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 and HSNO Regulations in relation to hazard classification and life cycle requirements for hazardous substances.
HSNO Act enforcement actions Unless otherwise specified, means any of:
  • compliance notices
  • emergency declarations
  • search warrants.
HSWA Health and Safety at Work Act 2015
HTL Hearing threshold level.
Hui Gathering to speak and share ideas and thoughts.
Human cells (a) Means human cells, human cell lines, or human tissues that are being grown or maintained outside the human body; and (b) includes human reproductive cells or human embryonic cells that are being grown or maintained outside the human body.
Humboldt scarf Scarf where the bottom cut is angled and the top cut is horizontal.
Humping The loading or unloading of an excavator from a transporter or truck without the use of a ramp.
HUMS Health and usage monitoring system.
Hung scaffold A working platform suspended by tubes, fixed ropes, slings or other methods and not intended to be raised or lowered during use.
Hung-up tree A cut or windblown tree caught in another, thus preventing it falling to the ground.
HV High voltage.
HVAC Abbreviation for heating, ventilating and airconditioning.
Hybrid An organism resulting from a cross between genetically different parents. Hybrids can arise from crosses between closely related species (interspecific hybrids) or by crosses between different types (subspecies, varieties, cultivars) within a species (intraspecific hybrids).
Hydraulic Using oil under pressure as a means of doing work.
Hydraulic cylinder A hollow cylinder containing a sliding piston which is connected to a piston rod protruding through a bearing in one or both ends of the cylinder. Pressurised fluid can be introduced to either end of the cylinder, forcing the piston to move in the required direction.
Hydraulic machinery Machinery producing, controlling, or powered by pressurised liquid. The working liquid is usually oil-based. Includes pumps, control valves, motors, cylinders, etc.
Hydraulic press A press in which the power is transmitted to the ram by hydraulic pressure, used in the sheet metal and plastics industries.
Hydrocarbon A chemical compound consisting of only the elements carbon and hydrogen, for example methane, propane, butane, etc.
Hydrocarbon dew point Temperature above which no condensation of hydrocarbons occurs at a specified pressure. NOTE 1: At a given dew point temperature there is a pressure range within which retrograde condensation can occur. The cricondentherm defines the maximum temperature at which this condensation can occur. NOTE 2: The dew point line is the locus of points for pressure and temperature which separates the single phase gas from the biphasic gas-liquid region.
Hydro-extractor A centrifuge for removing water or other liquid from 'wet' objects. The water is thrown outwards through holes in the rotating 'basket' while the material to be dried is retained in the basket, for example a spin-dryer.
Hyperbaric Pertaining to gas pressures greater than 1 atmosphere of pressure.
Hyperbaric chamber An air-tight chamber that can simulate the ambient pressure at altitude or at depth; is used for treating decompression illness.
Hyperthermia Abnormally high body temperature.
Hypomanic Characterised by overactive behaviour and racing thoughts.
Hypothermia A dangerous body condition in which the core temperature becomes too cold. Early symptoms include shivering, coldness, and numbness of extremities, pale skin colour, clumsiness, and irrational behaviour.
Hypoxia Oxygen deficiency. When the cells do not have, or are unable to utilise, sufficient oxygen to carry on their normal functions.
Hz Hertz, the international measure of frequency. 1 Hertz equals 1 cycle per second.
1080 Sodium fluoracetate, a vertebrate toxic agent used in the control of possums, rabbits and other pests.
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency.
IANZ International Accreditation New Zealand. It is part of New Zealand's national standards and conformance infrastructure and is the national authority for the accreditation of laboratories, inspection bodies and other technical competence based activities.
IAQ See Indoor Air Quality.
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer.
IATA International Air Transport Association.
IBSCs Institutional Biological Safety Committees, which are based in academic and research institutions and may be delegated decision-making powers by ERMA for applications relating to low-risk GMOs.
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation.
ICD International Classification of Diseases.
ICISS International Classification of Diseases-based Injury Severity Score.
ICNIRP International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.
ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection.
ICRU International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements.
Icteric Jaundiced.
ID Internal diameter.
Idema A round dish with 4-8 high-pressure nozzles that make it spin, used for cleaning salmon nets. It is only to be used with SSBA diving gear.

Under HSNO means the provision of any information about a substance or organism which:

  • Clearly identifies the chemical or biological nature of the substance or organism:
  • Specifies the nature and degree or type of hazard intrinsic to the substance or organism:
  • Describes precautions to be taken by persons managing hazardous substances to avoid injury to people or environmental damage:
  • Directly or indirectly aids in managing any hazardous effect of a hazardous substance:
  • Identifies and specifies the means of contacting any person knowledgeable in the management of the substance.
Idler A non-driving wheel to support or guide the track in a track laying machine.
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission.
IED Improvised Explosive Device.
IFCS Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety.
IFR flight A flight conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules.
Ignitability index (Ig) That index number for ignitability which is determined according to the standard test method for measuring the properties of lining materials.
Ignition source A source of energy sufficient to ignite a flammable atmosphere and includes naked flames, smoking, exposed incandescent material, electrical welding arcs and electrical or mechanical equipment not suitable for use in the particular hazardous zone. A vehicle is not regarded as being an ignition source while it is entering or leaving the hazardous zone surrounding a LP Gas dispenser or a bulk LP Gas filling connection. However, it is treated as a potential ignition source during the period of bulk liquid transfer, and precautionary measures need to be taken.
IHD Ischaemic heart disease.
Illuminance The luminous flux falling onto a unit area of surface.
ILO International Labor Organization, international agency of the United Nations which addresses labour issues. Has an interest in occupational safety and health issues, and publishes useful reference materials.
IM Intramuscular.
IMDG Code International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. A code which sets out packaging and separation requirements for smaller quantities of hazardous goods carried on board vessels, generally container or RoRo vessels.
Immediate family In relation to a victim: (a) means a member of the victim's family, whanau, or other culturally recognised family group, who is in a close relationship with the victim at the time of the offence; and (b) for the avoidance of doubt, includes persons whose relationship to the victim at that time is close through a relationship that is, or 1 or more relationships that are, that of spouse or de facto partner (whether the partner and victim are of the same sex or different sexes), child or step-child, brother or step-brother, sister or step-sister, parent or step-parent, and grandparent.
Immunisation (Synonym: vaccination) Protection of susceptible individuals from communicable disease by administration of a living modified agent, a suspension of killed organisms or an inactivated toxin (see vaccine). Temporary passive immunisation can be produced by administration of an antibody in the form of immune globulin in some conditions.
IMO International Maritime Organisation. The London-based, United Nations organisation responsible for setting international standards for shipping by the use of international maritime conventions.
Impervious That which does not allow the passage of moisture.
Ignition source Any agency capable of igniting a flammable gas, vapour, or other combustible substance; and includes a fire, flame, spark, fuel-lamp, and any electrical equipment of a type not approved for use in the particular location where a flammable gas or vapour or combustible substance is or may be present.
Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) Exposure to an atmosphere that poses an immediate adverse effect on health or the ability to escape.
Immersion accident Accident occurring when the drowned or injured person either did not intend to be in the water at the time, or was submerged accidentally.
Immune system toxicity (immunotoxicity) The occurrence of adverse effects on the immune system that may result from exposure to environmental agents, such as chemicals.
Immunity Protection against infectious disease conferred either by the immune response generated by immunisation, or previous infection, or by other non-immunological factors.
Immunology The study of immunity and an individual's response to antigens.
Immuno-compromised / immunosuppressed Having the immune response reduced by administration of immuno-suppressive drugs, by irradiation, by malnutrition, or by some disease process (eg, cancer).
Immunosuppressive drug A drug that is administered to reduce the tendency of the living organism to reject tissues or an organ, for example kidney or heart from a donor.
Importation In relation to hazardous substances, has the same meaning as in section 47 of the Customs Act 1966; and 'to import', in relation to those substances, has a corresponding meaning.
Improvement notice A notice issued by an OSH inspector under the Health and Safety in Employment Act, requiring a person to comply with a provision of the Act.
Impulse noise Noise consisting of a single pressure peak, or a sequence of such peaks, or a single burst with multiple pressure peaks, or a sequence of such bursts.
In bulk In relation to liquid or gaseous dangerous goods, product contained in receptacles of a liquid capacity greater than 250 litres. Conversely, non-bulk means contained in receptacles of 250 litres capacity or less.
In writing Printed, typewritten, or otherwise visibly represented, copied, or reproduced, including by fax or email or other electronic means.
In vitro Laboratory studies not involving whole organisms (eg, tissue culture studies); 'in glass'.
In vivo Laboratory studies involving whole organisms (eg, studies on rats or mice); 'in life'.
Inching Limited motion of machinery where dangerous parts of machinery are exposed during cleaning, setting, adjustment or feeding material. Depending on the machine and industry, may include the terms jog, crawl and pulse.
Incidence The number of new cases of a disease in a given period of time (normally one year).
Incident Any unplanned event resulting in, or having a potential for injury, illhealth, damage or other loss.
Incident (aviation) Any occurrence, other than an accident, that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and affects or could affect the safety of operation. Note: Incident has many sub-categories.
Incident category A method of categorising different events into, for example collisions, contacts or groundings, for use in the risk assessment.
Incineration In relation to waste or other matter, means its deliberate combustion for the purpose of its thermal destruction; and 'to incinerate' and 'incinerated' have corresponding meanings.
Incompatibility A situation where any substance or residue which, by combining chemically with the incompatible substances or promoting self-reaction or decomposition of the incompatible substance, may create a hazard.
Incubation period The time between initial contact with an infectious agent and the appearance of the first sign or symptom of the disease.
Independence allowance An independence allowance under the Accident Insurance Act 1998 that is or may be payable by virtue of the Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Compensation Act 2001.
Independent brake A brake of which the entire operating mechanism or system is either: (a) distinct and separate from all parts or connections of any other brake or brake system, so that the independent brake cannot be adversely affected by the operation or failure of any other brake; or (b) common to any other brake or brake system only in parts or connections which are of such design and strength that under normal operating conditions and with a proper standard of maintenance there is no reasonable probability of failure by reason of the failure of any other brake or brake system.
Independent spar yarder A yarder winch (one or two drums) with a separate guyed spar or tower.
Index case The initial case that prompts a contact investigation. In most communicable diseases this is the source case. For TB, the index case is usually, but not necessarily, the source for infections found in a social group. DNA fingerprinting can clarify this.
Indexing Rotating a workpiece by a predetermined accurate amount, usually dividing the circle into an integral number of divisions for cutting the teeth of a gear wheel or similar operations.
Indirect contact (electrical) Contact is made when part of the body touches a conductive object in contact with a live electrical conductor. An indirect contact can be made through conductive tools, branches and equipment.
Indirect sampling Sampling in situations where there is no direct connection between the medium to be sampled and the analytical unit (i.e. off-line instrument). NOTE: In the case of indirect sampling, depending on the fluctuations of composition and/or properties, the following sampling techniques can be used:
  • periodical sampling where a spot sample is periodically taken from the gas stream and brought to the analytical unit;
  • incremental sampling which accumulates gas samples into one composite sample then brought to the analytical unit.
Individual employment agreement An employment agreement entered into by one employer and one worker who is not bound by a collective agreement that binds the employer.
Individual stress management Where an individual is taught coping skills.
Indoor air quality A general term combining a multitude of issues related to complaints by the occupants of buildings about illnesses or discomfort resulting from being in the building. Typically, no single agent or easily recognised group of agents is present in excess of a WES.
Inductive Causing magnetic flux by passage of current through a conductor.
Industrial railway operators Operating a railway servicing the needs of their works, usually on a localised site, using their own motive power, with a rail connection to Tranz Rail and using their own or Tranz Rail wagons.
Industry A particular branch of trade, manufacture or commerce. Key participants in industries are employers, workers, self-employed persons, employer organisations, and trade unions.
Industry health and safety group A group established by industry participants with the principal objects of promoting workplace health and safety, and reducing the social and economic impact of occupational diseases and injuries.
Infection Invasion and multiplication of micro-organisms in body tissues, which may result in local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intra-cellular replication, or antigen antibody response. Infection may be clinically inapparent.
Infectious agent Any principle or substance capable of causing infections.
Infectious disease (synonym: communicable disease) An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal or reservoir to a susceptible host. It may be transmitted directly, or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector or the inanimate environment .
Infectious substances (Class 6.2 dangerous goods) Substances known, or reasonably expected, to contain pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, parasites, fungi or recombinant micro-organisms (hybrid or mutant) that are known, or reasonably expected, to cause infectious disease in humans and animals that are exposed to them. Classification of infectious substances may be determined according to guidelines issued by the relevant regulatory authority.
Inflammation A condition of part of the body which involves heat, swelling, redness and usually pain.
Infrared Heat radiation within the range 400 nm to 4000 nm. nm = nanometres = 10-9 metres.
Infringement notice A notice given under section 56B of the HSE Act.
Infusion The term applied to the injection of a solution into blood vessels or tissue underlying the skin.
Ingestion Introduction of a substance to the body through the mouth.
Ingress Entrance to a confined space.
Inhalation Breathing of air, gases, vapours, dusts or aerosols into the lungs.
Inhaul In logging, the segment of an extraction cycle where the drag is hauled in towards the landing.
In-house inspection body An inspection body that: (a) is part of an organisation that designs, manufactures, or controls equipment; and (b) has a separate identity within the organisation; and (c) has a reporting path that ensures adequate segregation of responsibilities and accountabilities in the provision of inspection services.
Initiation/ignition The process of starting combustion.
Injury Tissue damage resulting from either the acute transfer to individuals of one of the five forms of physical energy (kinetic or mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical or radiant) or the sudden interruption of normal energy patterns to maintain life processes.
Injury-related information Data and statistics related to personal injury, including occupational diseases and illnesses.
Injury setting The physical location or environment where the injury occurred.
Inspector's notice Under the HSE Act, means an improvement notice or a prohibition notice.
Integral fixed tower yarder A yarder with a built-in tower not capable of swinging relative to the chassis or car body.
Illness A departure from a state of health. A disease or sickness.
Illumination The amount of light flux per unit area at a specified distance from a light source.
ILO International Labour Organisation.
IMMP Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme. A programme that undertakes prospective, observational, cohort studies on selected new medicines. These are aimed at measuring the incidence of adverse reactions, their characterisation, the early identification of previously unrecognised reactions and the construction of a risk profile for each medicine.
Impairment A loss, or loss of use, of any body part or organ function.
ICAO The International Civil Aviation Organisation established under the Convention; and includes any successor to the Organisation.
Incapacity State where a person is unable to return to work because of a personal injury.
Inching Adjusting by small amounts, usually under power at slow speed.
Incremental sampler Sampler that accumulates a series of spot samples into one composite sample. NOTE: There are two general classes of commercial incremental samplers: (a) pressure increment: a specially designed pressure regulator increases the pressure of the collected sample in a sample cylinder from zero to a maximum of line pressure during the sample period; (b) volume increment: the sample is displaced by a pump into a floating piston cylinder at constant line pressure during the sampling period.
Incubation The period the time between initial contact with an infectious agent and the appearance of the first sign or symptom of the disease.
Independence allowance A weekly non-taxable allowance to help offset the additional costs associated with living with a disability or impairment.
Indirect measurement Measurement of a property from quantities which, in principle, do not define the property, but have a known relationship with the property. NOTE: For example, the determination of the calorific value from measurements of the air-to-gas ratio required to achieve stoichiometric combustion which is related linearly to the calorific value.
Individual physiology Drugs are metabolised differently and have a different effect on different people on account of the difference in size, age, health (for example state of liver and kidneys), gender, genetics, and different experience of previous drug use.
Individual Rehabilitation Plan (IRP) The key management and planning document for ACC case management. It collects information, sets goals and establishes plans of action for treatment and for social and vocational rehabilitation.
Indivisible load A load that cannot reasonably (without disproportionate effort, expense or risk of damage to the load) have its size reduced or be divided into two or more sections for road transport; and includes customs-sealed import/export ISO containers.
Induced draught burner A system where all or part of the air for combustion is introduced by providing suction in the combustion chamber by mechanical means.
Industrial hygiene The science of identifying, evaluating, and controlling or eliminating physical, chemical, and biological hazards in the workplace.
Industrial use, commercial use In relation to dangerous goods, means the use of dangerous goods in connection with any trade, business, profession, commercial enterprise, or industry; and includes the use of any such goods for any purpose incidental to the pursuit or conduct thereof.
Informative Appendix An Appendix for information and guidance only.
INMARSAT The organisation established by the Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organisation (INMARSAT) adopted on the 3rd day of September 1976.
Inmarsat-C A satellite telex system.
Inmarsat-E A satellite EPIRB system.
Inner liner (tyre) The air retaining part of a tubeless and consists of a sheet of special of the first (inside) casing ply.
Inorganic Chemicals not containing carbon-carbon bonds.
In plant bin Specialised steel bin of one cubic metre to 1.5 cubic metre capacity, normally wheeled and used for hydraulically lifting waste into a stationary compactor.
In-service In relation to equipment, means that the equipment has been commissioned and is being used, or is capable of being used, for the purpose for which it was designed.
In-situ filling A cylinder-filling procedure by which an installed cylinder on a customer's premises is filled from a tanker.
In vitro Isolated from the living organism and artificially maintained, as in a test tube (literally 'in glass').
In vivo Occurring within the living organism.
Inspection body (a) An organisation currently recognised under the HSE Regulations; and (b) in relation to a design verifier or equipment inspector, the inspection body by which the design verifier or equipment inspector is employed or engaged.
Inspirable That fraction of dust which enters the respiratory tract.
Instability The condition where the overturning moments exceed the restoring moments. (See also Stability.)
Institution The Employment Tribunal, the Employment Relations Authority and the Employment Court. These are made up of the various Registries around the country.
Institutional Biological Safety Committees (IBSCs) Committees that sit within scientific institutions or research organisations that have been appointed by the Authority as delegated decision-making agencies. IBSCs are authorised to make decisions on approvals for low-risk genetically modified organisms.
Instrument approach procedure A series of predetermined manoeuvres by reference to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix, or where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route, to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed, to a position at which holding or en-route obstacle clearance criteria apply.
Instrument flight Flight during which an aircraft is piloted solely by reference to instruments and without external reference points.
Insulated In relation to conductors, means that the conductors are covered with insulation in such a manner that a person may safely handle them when they are live.
Insulating elevating work platform (Insulating EWP) An approved and tested insulated aerial device.
Insulating joint A joint or fitting designed to prevent the flow of electric current across the joint or fitting.
Insulating material A material that has a thermal conductivity of less than 0.07 W/mK.
Insulating rope Commercial grade synthetic rope that is tested and manufactured to ensure good insulating properties but should not be intentionally placed across phase to phase or phase to earth air gaps.
Insulation In the context of fire protection, the time in minutes for which a prototype specimen, of a fire separation when subjected to the standard test for fire resistance, has limited the transmission of heat through the specimen.
Insurance A contract whereby the insurer agrees, for payment of a premium by the insured, to idemnify the insured against losses resulting from certain events. The policy is the document which contains the insurance contract.
Integrated management The management of activities, existing or potential, in a manner which ensures that each is in harmony with the other and that priorities are clear.
Integrity Design for predictable operation.
Interaction Relations, interface or dealings with a client.
Interaction Modification of toxic effects of one substance by another. The effects can be amplified (synergism) or reduced (antagonism).
Interception (of a pest) The detection of a pest during inspection or testing of an imported consignment.
Interested parties Individual(s) or group(s) concerned with, or affected by the OHS performance of an organisation.
Integrated radio communication system (IRCS) A system in which individual radio communication equipment and installations are used as sensors, that is, without the need for their own control units, providing outputs to and accepting inputs from the operator's position (workstation).
Interlock System to prevent a machine from operating unless the guard is in place.
Interlock system In cable logging, a means of synchronising the main and tailrope speeds to maintain tension in the operating ropes.
Interlocutory (ERS Authority, Tribunal, Court) An interlocutory application is an application filed in the course of the proceedings. Most are purely procedural in nature. Filing fees are not always required and are dependent upon the type of application. A file can have any number of interlocutory applications associated with it.
Intermediate pressure (IP) An operating pressure greater than 700 kPa but not exceeding 2000 kPa.
Internal area [Smoke-free Environments Amendment Act 2003] In relation to any premises or vehicle, means an area within or on the premises or vehicle that, when all its doors, windows, and other closeable openings are closed, is completely or substantially enclosed by: (a) a ceiling, roof, or similar overhead surface; and (b) walls, sides, screens, or other similar surfaces; and (c) those openings.
Internal safety control valve (ISC) A quick-closing internal valve incorporating an internal excess-flow valve function.
International airport Any airport designated as an airport of entry and departure for international air traffic where the formalities incident to customs, immigration, public health, animal and plant quarantine, and similar procedures are carried out.
International Protection (JP) ratings Degree of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment. AS 1939-1986 provides a statement for use in New Zealand.
International Bulk Chemical Code The International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk adopted by the Marine Environment Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organisation by Resolution MEPC.19(22), as amended by that organisation from time to time.
International Life- Saving Appliance Code The Code adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee of the International Maritime Organisation in Resolution MSC.48(66) and made mandatory under the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 by amendments to that Convention adopted by MSC.47(66).
International Load Line Certificate Means: (a) for a New Zealand ship, an International Load Line Certificate that has been either: (i) issued under section 258 of the Shipping and Seamen Act 1952 and deemed to be issued or recognised as a marine document under Part V of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 pursuant to section 468(5) of that Act; or (ii) issued under section 160 of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 and saved under section 468(8) of that Act; or (iii) issued in accordance with rule 47.55(l)(a) and that is in the form shown in Appendix 4; and (b) for a foreign ship, the International Load Line Certificate referred to in rule 47.59(1) of the maritime rules.
International Safety Management Code Or 'ISM Code' means the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention adopted by the International Maritime Organisation by Resolution A.741(18), as amended by that organisation from time to time.
International Tonnage Certificate (1969) Means: (a) in relation to a New Zealand ship, a maritime document issued under Part V of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 in accordance with rule 48.12; and (b) in relation to a foreign ship, the international tonnage certificate referred to in rule 48.12.
Internode On a tree, the length of stem between whorls of branches.
Inter-vehicle spacing The distance between a towing vehicle (excluding the tow coupling shroud) and trailer (excluding the drawbar or tow rope or front dolly but including the load).
Intervention A specific prevention measure or activity designed to meet a programmeobjective. The three categories of intervention are:legislation/enforcement; education/behaviour change; and engineering technology.
Intima Innermost lining of blood vessel.
Intoxication A condition that follows the administration of a psychoactive substance and results in disturbances in the level of consciousness, cognition, perception, judgement, affect, or behaviour, or other psychophysiological functions and responses. The disturbances are related to the acute pharmacological effects of, and learned responses to, the substance and resolve with time, with complete recovery, except where tissue damage or other complications have arisen.
Intrinsic values In relation to ecosystems, means those aspects of ecosystems and their constituent parts which have value in their own right, including: (a) their biological and genetic diversity; and (b) the essential characteristics that determine an ecosystem's integrity, form, functioning, and resilience.
Introduction The entry of a pest resulting in its establishment.
Investigation meeting (ERS Authority) A method by which the Authority investigates an employment relationship problem lodged with it. Usually consists of all parties appearing before the Authority and giving scorn of affirmed evidence about the employment relationship problem.
IOMC Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals.
Ion An atom in a charged state following ionisation.
Ionisation The process by which one or more electrons are removed from, or sometimes added to, an atom leaving the atom in a charged state.
Ionising radiation Radiation which is capable of causing ionization, either directly (for example: for radiation in the form of gamma rays and charged particles) or, indirectly (for example: for radiation in the form of neutrons).
IP Institute of Petroleum, London.
IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety. The WHO/UNEP/ILO has established a network of poison control centres throughout the world. The primary role is to contribute relevant expertise and experience in the preparation and review of poisons information monographs (PIMs), the establishment of methodologies for recording case data and compiling files on local products and the strengthening of poison information centres worldwide. The overall programme is known as the INTOX Project.
IPENZ Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand.
IPNANZ Injury Prevention Network Aotearoa New Zealand. It seeks to promote safe living, working and recreational environments in Aotearoa New Zealand through injury prevention.
IPRC Act The Injury Prevention Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2001.
IPRU Injury Prevention Research Unit, University of Otago.
Irradiating apparatus Any apparatus that can be used for the production of X-rays or gamma rays or for the acceleration of atomic particles in such a way that it produces a dose equivalent rate of or exceeding 2.5 microsieverts per hour at a point which could be reached by a living human being.
Irritant A substance that will produce local irritation or inflammation on contact with tissues and membranes such as skin or eyes, or will, after inhalation, produce local irritation to nasal or lung tissue.
Ischaemic heart disease A condition characterised by partial or complete blockage of arteries taking blood to the muscle of the heart. It can result in angina (chest pain), myocardial infarction (heart attack), heart failure or sudden death.
ISO The International Standards Organisation, located in Geneva, Switzerland.
Isocyanates A group of chemicals characterised by the general chemical formula R(NCO)x. They are used in the production of polyurethane foams and paints. Isocyanates can cause respiratory sensitisation and lead to occupational asthma.
Isolate (electrically) Positively disconnect a machine from its power supply to ensure that maintenance, tool setting or adjustments can be carried out without risk of accidental starting.
Isolation Separation for the period of communicability of infected persons or animals from others, in such places and under conditions designed to prevent or limit the direct or indirect transmission of the infectious agent to those who are susceptible.
Isolation valve A valve installed in a piping system for the purpose of isolating the pipework downstream of the valve from the supply of gas.
Isolating transformer An electrical transformer which, when connected between a wall socket and an electrical power tool, will supply power to the tool at the normal voltage but drastically reduce the risk of the operator receiving a dangerous shock if the insulation of the tool or cord breaks down. It should be used especially in damp places and on building sites, etc. where there is a high danger of the cord or tool being damaged.
I-TEQ International toxic equivalents.
ITL ICD Injury Threat-to-Life scale.
ITO Industry Training Organisation.
ITP Inspection and test plan. It is: (a) for equipment under manufacture, a schedule of surveillance and hold points at which any inspection and testing required by the manufacturing standard is performed; (b) for in-service equipment, a schedule of equipment, inspection periods and inspection and test methods.
ITU International Telecommunication Union.
ITU Radio Regulations The ITU Radio Regulations as adopted by the World Administrative Radio Conference , Geneva, 1979, as well as the revisions and resolutions adopted by subsequent Conference s of the ITU, and published under the authority of the Secretary-General of the ITU.
ITU Intensive Treatment Unit.
IU International units.
IUATLD International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease.
IV Intravenous(ly).
Iwi Tribe, nation.
IWRC Independent Wire Rope Core.
J-hook assembly A load-rated metal lashing that; (a) consists of a bush, fastener, associated washer or washers, and 'J'-shaped bar including its threaded portion; and (b) is used for the retention of a stockcrate or detachable bin to the vehicle load platform; and (c) is vertically fixed either inside or outside the deck coaming rail and tensioned through a permanently fitted bush on the crate or bin structure by way of a threaded fastener.
Jack (Synonym: Skyline jack) Device for suspending the skyline in an intermediate support or tail tree.
Jacket A sleeve around a cylinder or vessel arranged so that steam, water, air, refrigerants or other fluids can be circulated between them to heat or cool the contents of the vessel.
Jammer A truck-mounted two-drum hauler incorporating a leaning boom on which blocks are hung, for short-distance hauling and, sometimes, for loading.
Jig A device attached to a machine tool to hold the workpiece in the desired position while machining operations are being carried out. Sometimes also used to guide the tool, for example a drilling jig.
Jinker pole A telescoping or sliding pole that forms the drawbar to steer a pole trailer.
JIS Japanese Industrial Standard.
Jitter A small, jerky repeated motion of a VDU screen image.
Job The group of activities (which may include manual handling tasks) which a person does at work.
Job design Deliberate attention given to the way all the aspects of a person's job are designed and integrated together to form a job.
Job prescription Detailed specification for a job, covering what is to be done, where, and to what standard.
Job strain Describes the extent to which the worker is exposed to any of a range of work factors such as excessive workload, unreasonable leadership/management style, professional conflict, excessive emotional demands of the job, and lack of job security. (The term 'workplace stress' is sometimes used synonymously with 'job strain'.) Job strain (and/or low job control) has been associated with a range of work-related disorders. These include anxiety, depression and related psychological disorders; ischaemic heart disease (particularly related to low job control); upper limb musculoskeletal disorders; and suicide.
Jockey pulley An 'extra' pulley placed between two others used to tension a driving belt.
Joined File (ERS Authority, Tribunal, Court) Two files may be joined, for example AEA 100/01 and AEA 101/01.
Judgments (ERS Court) A written decision on a judicial matter before the Court i.e. a verdict, a conclusion.
Kaitiakitanga Guardianship rights, the ability of Maori to act as stewards or caretakers.
Kerato-conjunctivitis Irritation of the eyes caused by excessive UV exposure. The symptoms are pain, discomfort similar to that resulting from grit in the eyes, an aversion to bright light, and inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. The symptoms tend to disappear after about 36 hours. The condition is known colloquially as 'arc-eye', 'welder's flash' and 'snow blindness'.
Kerb ramp A short ramp either cutting through a kerb or built up to the kerb.
Kerf The width of a saw cut.
Key A piece of metal, usually square in cross section or half-round, used to locate a pulley, gear etc, on a shaft and prevent it rotating relative to the shaft.
Keyway A slot or groove cut into the surface of a shaft or the bore of a pulley, gear, etc, into which a key fits. Usually flat-bottomed and rectangular in cross section but may be half-round in a shaft to take a half-round key (Woodruff key).
kg/l Kilograms per litre.
Kickback Reaction caused when a chainsaw's bar nose contacts wood or is pinched and the guide bar is thrown back towards the operator.
Kingpin A pin attached to the skid plate of a semi-trailer and used for connecting the semi-trailer to the fifth wheel of a towing vehicle.
Kink Permanent deformation caused by an open loop pulling tight in a wire rope.
Knock-down The initial attack on a fire using a jet of water to knock down the flames.
Knurling (1) Corrugations around the edge of a knob or handle, etc. to aid gripping. (2) The operation which produces a knurled surface.
Kow The steady state ratio of the solubility of a substance in n-octanol to the solubility of that substance in water.
kPa Kilopascals.
kPag Kilopascals (gauge)
KPI Key Performance Indicator.
kV Kilo-volts (1000 volts).
K/W Kelvin/Watts.

L – N

Term or acronym


l Litre, sometimes written as L or l.
LAeq,T The equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level in decibels and is the value of the steady continuous A weighted sound pressure level that, within a measurement time interval, T, has the same mean square sound pressure as the sound under consideration whose level varies with time. It is the average level of noise over some specified period of time.
LAeq,8h The 8-hour equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level in decibels, and is that steady sound pressure level which would in the course of an 8-hour period cause the same A-weighted sound energy as that due to the actual noise over the actual working day. It is the average level of noise to which a person is exposed, averaged out over a period of 8 hours. NOTE: LAeq,8h is the same as LEX,8h.
Lpeak The highest unweighted (linear) peak sound pressure level in decibels, and is ten times the logarithm, to the base ten, of the ratio of the square of the maximum instantaneous sound pressure to the square of the reference sound pressure (20 micropascals). It is determined by sound measuring equipment with 'P' time-weighting, as specified in the International Standard IEC 651:1979. NOTE: The maximum instantaneous sound pressure level (Lpeak) is not the same as the maximum rms level (Lmax).
Label (1) Information on a container that identifies the substance in the container, and includes basic information to allow the safe use of the substance. (2) In relation to the land transport of dangerous goods, means the pictorial representation of a class or division of dangerous goods, in a form similar to a diamond (a square rotated 45 degrees) appearing on or attached to a package or container of dangerous goods and includes: (a) a primary risk label that is a pictorial and numerical representation of the class of dangerous goods and may include some text; and (b) a subsidiary risk label that is a primary risk label without the class number. 'Labelled' and 'labelling' have corresponding meanings.
Laboratory A vehicle, room, building or any structure set aside and equipped for scientific experiments or research, for teaching science, or for the development of chemical or medicinal products.
Laboratory compartment A fire-isolated compartment in a laboratory, being either the whole laboratory or a subdivision of the laboratory.
Labour inspector An employee of the Department designated under section 223 of the Employment Relations Act to be a Labour Inspector.
Labour productivity The quantity of output produced by a given quantity of labour input. It is driven by the amount of capital available to workers, such as equipment, as well as multifactor productivity.
Lacrimation Flow of tears. Alternative spelling: lachrymation.
Lactate Ester of lactic acid.
Ladder An appliance consisting of two styles joined by steps or rungs and designed for the purpose of climbing or ascending.
Ladder bracket A bracket to be attached to at least two rungs of a ladder for the purpose of supporting a plank as a work platform.
Lamb A sheep that is less than 7 months of age.
Laminar flow An essentially uni-directional airflow with minimum turbulence.
Laminated glass Glazing consisting of two or more pieces of sheet glass, plate glass or float glass bonded together by one or more intervening layers of plastic material.
Lamp A light-emitting device: a bulb or a fluorescent tube.
LAN Local Area Network.
Land transport (a) Means (i) transport on land by any means: (ii) the infrastructure, goods, and services facilitating that transport; and (b) includes coastal shipping (including transport by means of harbour ferries, or ferries or barges on rivers or lakes).
Land Transport Safety Authority (LTSA) A Crown Entity established by the Land Transport Act 1993, with the principal function of undertaking activities that promote safety in land transport at reasonable cost. It has responsibility for administration of the Transport Service Licensing Act 1989 and the Land Transport Act 1998.
Land Transport New Zealand Ikiiki Whenua Aotearoa New agency (formed December 2004) from the merger of Transfund New Zealand and the Land Transport Safety Authority.
Landfill A site where waste is disposed of by burying it, or placing it upon land or other waste.
Landing, Dump or Skid A selected or prepared area to which logs are extracted and where they may be sorted, processed, loaded or stockpiled.
Langs lay Wire rope in which the individual wires are wound in the same direction as the strands.
Lanyard A line used, usually as part of a lanyard assemble which includes a personal energy absorber, to connect a fall arrest harness to an anchorage point or static line.
Lap seatbelt A seatbelt that passes solely across the front of the wearer's pelvic region.
Lap-and-diagonal seatbelt A seatbelt comprising a lap strap that passes across the front of the wearer's pelvic region, and a diagonal strap that passes across the front of the wearer's torso from one side of the pelvic region to the shoulder on the opposite side
Lapping Smoothing and truing a surface by rubbing it on a flat surface covered lightly with grinding paste, or by rubbing two mating parts together with grinding paste to fit them to each other.
Laryngeal cancer A malignant disease of the larynx. Many occupational exposures have been associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer. The strongest evidence is for sulphuric acid mists, asbestos and organic solvents.
Latency period The delay that is often seen between a period of exposure to an environmental agent or hazardous substance, and the onset of a toxic response, most commonly cancer. Development of tumors may occur decades after the exposure believed to be responsible has occurred.
Lateral hauling In skyline logging, the initial breaking out and movement of logs to the skyline haul path.
Lathe A machine tool used generally for producing round parts. The workpiece is rotated while a stationary tools is moved slowly along the length of, or across the face of, the revolving workpiece, cutting metal off as it moves (hence the term 'turning' applied to work carried out on a lathe).
Lay (1) Describes the direction strands of wire rope are wound about the core. (2) Position on the ground where a tree will fall when severed from the stump.
LBP Lead-based paint that contains by dry weight 0.5 mg/cm2 or 2500 µg/g or more of lead.
LC50 The median lethal concentration, being a statistically derived concentration of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of animals.
LD50 A dose of a substance that produces death in 50% of a population of experimental animals. LD50s may be estimated after swallowing, injection or after application to the skin. It is usually expressed as mg per KG of body weight.
Lead agency An organisation, which, because of its expertise and resources, is primarily responsible for dealing with a particular hazard.
Lead product Any carbonate, oxide, nitrate, chromate, sulphate, acetate, or other salt of lead or material containing soluble lead.
Lead process Any of the following processes: (a) the melting, casting, pasting, or burning of lead or of any material containing lead: (b) the filing, buffing, or polishing of lead or any material containing lead: (c) the repair or assembling or the breaking up of any appliance which contains any lead or lead product: (d) any process involving the manufacture of any lead product, where any of the said processes may give rise to fumes or dust from lead or lead compounds: (e) the blending of motor-spirit with tetra-ethyl lead: (f) any process involving the mixing, crushing, sifting, or spraying of any lead product, or involving any movement or manipulation of lead products.
Lead time Period of a particular hazard between its announcement and arrival. Also used for the mobilisation of resources needed in relief operations.
Lean The inclination of a tree from the perpendicular.
L(E)C50 Either LC50 or EC50 data.
Ledger A horizontal member placed in the longitudinal direction between standards of a scaffold for the purpose of supporting putlogs.
Legal name The name a corporate entity or person is recognised by pursuant to statute.
Legend In relation to a safety sign is the message content of a sign in words (text) or symbols, or a combination of these.
Legionellosis (Also known as Legionnaire's disease) A disease caused by infection with the Legionella bacteria. It most commonly causes pneumonia, which may be severe. The source of Legionella infection in an occupational context is usually water aerosol from pooled warm water, such as occurs in association with air-conditioning cooling towers, but dust (such as potting mix) has also been documented as a source.
Legislation Means and includes Acts (primary legislation), Regulations (secondary legislation), and Standards, Codes of Practice, etc. that are cited by Acts or Regulations (tertiary legislation).
LEL Lower Explosive Limit. The level of concentration in percentage by volume in air above which explosion can occur upon ignition in a confined area.
Length (of a ship) Means 96 per cent of the length on a waterline at 85 per cent of the least moulded depth measured from the keel line, or as the length from the foreside of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock on that waterline, if that be greater. In ships designed with rake of keel the waterline on which this length i s measured must be parallel to the designed waterline.
Leptospirosis A flu-like illness contracted from the infected urine of livestock cattle, pigs, deer or infected kidneys. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira and belongs to the same family of bacteria that causes syphilis and leprosy.
Lesion Any discontinuity of tissue or loss of function of a part of the body as a result of disease or trauma.
Lethality The end point normally associated with acute toxicity.
Leukaemia A malignant disease of a subset of white blood cells. It has various forms, with the most relevant in occupational terms probably being acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myelocytic leukaemia (AML). Occupational exposures strongly implicated as causing leukaemia are ionising radiation, benzene and ethylene oxide. There is also some evidence that exposure to low-frequency electromagnetic fields may cause leukaemia.
Level 2 (National Information Centre) A type of interaction in which an information officer provides information to a third party.
Level 3 (National Information Centre) A type of interaction in which the IRD refers a paid parental leave issue to an information officer and the information officer may provide information to the parties involved and may refer the issues to a Labour Inspector.
Level crossing (a) Means any place where a railway line crosses any road or street on the level, or where the public is permitted to cross a railway line on the level; and in this paragraph 'railway line' does not include a railway line on a road or street, being a railway line intended solely for the use of light rail vehicles; and (b) Includes a bridge used for both rail service vehicles and road traffic on the same level.
Level indicator (Inclinometer) A device fitted to a machine which indicates whether the machine is level or not.
Levelling shim A single or series of thin strips of suitable material that are used under elements to assist with final positioning of a load.
LFT Liver function test.
LH Left hand.
Liability Subject to legal obligation; or the obligation itself. A person who commits a wrong or breaks a contract or trust is said to be liable or responsible for it.
Liable earnings Earnings that a self-employed person has made in a financial year and declared on their end of year tax return. It is also the wages/salaries that an employer has paid out to their staff.
Lifed In relation to an aeronautical product, means an aeronautical product that has a period of acceptable usage defined by the aeronautical product's manufacturer after which the likelihood of failure increases sharply and before the expiry of which the aeronautical product is removed from service.
Life-saving appliance (Marine) Any device, arrangement, apparatus or thing intended to sustain the lives of people in distress, or to signal their distress, or to alert people on board a ship to an emergency, and includes lifebuoys, lifejackets, immersion suits, anti-exposure suits, visual signals, survival craft, rescue boats, evacuation systems, line-throwing appliances, and general alarm and public address systems.
Lifeboat A totally enclosed motor-propelled survival craft.
Life cycle All aspects that apply to a substance from extraction or manufacture to disposal, including storage, transport, handling and use (see also pan-life cycle)
Life cycle (1) The cycle of activities that an asset (or facility) goes through while it retains an identity as a particular asset i.e. from planning and design to decommissioning or disposal. (2) The period of time between a selected data and the last year over which the criteria (for example, costs) relating to a decision or alternative understudy will be assessed.
Lifecycle cost The total cost of an asset throughout its life including planning, design, construction, acquisition, operation, maintenance, rehabilitation and disposal costs.
Lift The assembly of ledgers and putlogs forming each horizontal level of a scaffold. The lift height is the vertical distance between two lifts, measured centre to centre.
Lifting appliance Any appliance (except where defined in the Approved Code of Practice for Cranes) capable of being operated by mechanical, manual, or other means to raise or lower a load in a vertical or near-vertical plane, and includes any lifting tackle.
Lifting beam A beam which carries loads from two or more points while being supported by one or more different points.
Lifting gear In relation to a crane: (a) means a device used (i) to attach the load to the hook or load-handling device; or (ii) to control the load independently of the hook or load-handling device; or (iii) as a container for the load; and (b) includes lifting beams, lifting frames, spreaders, or similar devices that are not an integral part of the crane.
Lifting frame A device made up of more than one lifting beam.
Lifting spreader A device which spreads the lifting ropes and is in compression.
Lifting tackle Any sling, shackle, swivel, ring, hook or other appliances, including lifting beams, frames and spreaders, used in connection with a lifting appliance or from the hook of a crane.
Light curtain A two-part electronic guarding mechanism. It provides an instantaneous cut-off of the machine and any electrical drives if any body part, for example, a finger, is inserted into the controlled location.
Light rail vehicle (a) A rail vehicle that is designed to run on or along a road with other road vehicles and users; and (b) includes a tram; but (c) does not include: (i) a rail vehicle approaching or on a level crossing; or (ii)a rail vehicle while it is on a railway line that is not on a road.
Light source A device that emits light, including an incandescent or fluorescent light bulb, with each filament in an incandescent bulb having multiple filaments deemed to be a separate light source.
Light vehicle A vehicle with a gross vehicle mass of less than 3500 kg except for one defined as a heavy vehicle (see heavy vehicle).
Lighter Any vessel, however propelled, used for the transport of goods between a ship at anchor offshore in any port, harbour, or roadstead and any other vessel or the quays, wharves, or shore of that port, harbour, or roadstead.
Lighting equipment Equipment designed both to emit or reflect light and to be fitted to a vehicle; and includes a reflector and reflective material.
Lightning interceptor Any permanently located object, including a landscape feature, that is exposed to the atmosphere and is capable of intercepting lightning discharges in the vicinity of any hazardous substance location in which class 1 substances are present.
Lightweight The displacement of a ship in tonnes without cargo, fuel, lubricating oil, ballast water, fresh water and feedwater in tanks, consumable stores, and passengers and crew and their effects.
Likelihood The chance that something will happen in a given timeframe. It is expressed in terms of number of incidents per time period or series of activities.
Likelihood ratio The ratio of the likelihood of a positive test in people with a disease to the likelihood of a positive test in people without the disease.
Limb (1) To remove limbs or branches. (2) Branch of a tree.
Limit of detection The lowest concentration of an analyte at which positive identification can be achieved with reasonable confidence in a defined matrix using a specific analytical method.
Limited-attendance boiler A boiler that: (a) may be started up or shut down automatically or under manual control; and (b) when operating, is checked at regular intervals by the holder of a relevant certificate of competence, who is on site and within range of the boiler's audible or visual alarms at all times; and (c) may be brought at any time under the direct control of a holder of a relevant certificate of competence.
Limited free fall, limited free fall-arrest As defined in AS/NZS 1891.4:2000 (Clause 1.4.6). A fall or the arrest of a fall occurring under the conditions described in clause 1.4.5 of AS/NZS 1891.4 except that under reasonably foreseeable circumstances the fall distance will not exceed 600 mm.
Limit switch An automatically activated switch to stop a machine motion at its extremity of operation.
Line-haul vehicle A vehicle or vehicle combination that: (a) has more than three axles and a combined gross vehicle mass of more than 20 tonnes; and (b) is transporting dangerous goods on a journey that includes travel outside a radius of 100 km from any point at which dangerous goods were loaded.
Line owner A person that owns works that are used or intended to be used for the conveyance of electricity.
Line pull The pulling force exerted on a rope from a drum, usually measured when drum is half-full; expressed in kilograms or tonnes.
Liner A casing having openings for the production or injection of fluids, and installed in the drilled hole to prevent collapse of the formation or entry of debris into a well.
Linisher A continuous loop of sandpaper, in the form of a belt, is driven over pulleys In general, hand-held parts are held against the moving sandpaper to smooth off rough edges or sufaces.
Link belt Transmission belting made up of short links, usually of leather, riveted together.
Linkage A device, usually a solid rod, for transmitting movement from one machine part to another.
Lipophilicity Fat solubility, attraction to fatty tissues.
Liquefiable gas A gas that has a critical temperature exceeding -50°C and a boiling point not exceeding 20°C at 101.3 kPa absolute.
Liquefied natural gas LNG Natural gas which has been liquefied, after processing, for storage or transportation purposes. NOTE: Liquid natural gas is revaporised and introduced into pipelines for transmission and distribution as natural gas.
Liquefied petroleum gas LPG Mixtures of propane, butane, and pentanes used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. Odourless, but a distinct smelling odorant such as ethyl mercaptan is added as a detection agent.
Liquid (a) A substance with a melting point of less than or equal to 20°C at 101.3 kPa absolute pressure; or (b) a viscous substance, without a defined melting point.
Litter Includes any refuse, rubbish, animal remains, glass, metal, garbage, debris, dirt, filth, rubble, ballast, stones, earth, or waste matter, or any other thing of a like nature.
Live Any electrical equipment, which has, or may have, a potential difference between it and earth. It includes equipment which is isolated and de-energised but not earthed.
Live gas operation Work where gas may be present in, or may be released into, the atmosphere or where air may enter a network containing gas.
Live line equipment All live line tools, rope, gloves and insulating equipment used for live line work.
Live line minimum approach distance (live line MAD) The minimum air gap that shall be maintained between a lineworker and any other component at different potential during live line work, in order to prevent flashover and provide for worker safety.
Live line permit A permit issued by the system controller or equivalent to verify to a live line work party that the control measures are in place on the circuit being worked on and to authorise work.
Live line rope Rope that is specially designed, manufactured, tested and maintained so as to have very high insulating qualities and may be intentionally placed across phase to phase or phase to earth air gaps.
Live line work Any high-voltage work performed under approved procedures inside the minimum approach distance (MAD), on or near components of a line capableof being energised to high voltage without implementing the full protective practice of isolating, proving de-energised and earthing.
Live line stick (hot stick) A solid or filled stick of insulating material specially designed, approved and tested for use in physically bridging the distance between; the lineworker and energised components; or the energised components and earth; or adjacent phases; or to enable physical loads to be taken or tools to be applied.
Live load That portion of a load which does not include any part of the scaffolding or decking supporting the load, and comprises the weight of workers and/or materials.
Livened Connected to a source of electric current.
Livestock Cattle, sheep, horses, swine, goats, deer, poultry, bees, fish, and other animals kept for commercial or domestic purposes.
Load The object being handled or the forces being applied.
Load In relation to road transport includes part of a load; and includes covers, ropes, ties, blocks, tackles, barrows, or other equipment or object used in the securing or containing of loads on vehicles or the loading or unloading of vehicles, whether or not any other load is on the vehicle; but does not include animal wastes discharged from animals being carried on a vehicle at the time.
Load anchorage point A device permanently attached to a vehicle to enable a load to be secured or attached to the vehicle
Load backrest On a forklift, that portion of the carriage and forks serving to restrain the load when the load is tilted rearward or upward.
Load backrest extension On a forklift, a removable device that increases the load restraining area beyond that provided by the load backrest.
Load engaging means A term for (but not limited to) forks, clamps, jibs or attachments for the carrying of loads by a forklift.
Load-handling device A device that is an integral part of the crane; and that may be substituted for the hook; and includes lifting beams, lifting frames and spreaders or similar devices and associated chains, pins, pulley blocks, pulley frames, ropes, shackles, twist locks and wires.
Load index A numerical system of marking tyres to indicate their load-carrying limits. The load index is related to ply rating.
Load indicating device A device that measures and displays the weight being lifted or force being applied.
Load lines The marks indicating several maximum depths to which a ship is permitted to be loaded in various circumstances prescribed by maritime rules or regulations.
Load moment The load x the horizontal distance from the centre of rotation to the hook.
Load moment indicator A device that indicates the load moment.
Load moment limiter A device that is preset prior to operation, that limits the lifting capacity at any given crane configuration.
Load radius indicator A device fitted on a crane which shows the distance to the hook measured from the centre of the slew.
Load range The term 'Load Range', and its designating letter, is used to identify a given tyre size with its load and inflation limits when used for a specific type of service, as defined in the TRA tables. Load ranges are normally only used on tyres of USA or Canadian manufacture. (A = 2PR, B = 4PR, C = 6PR etc.)
Load rating The maximum force that can be withstood without incurring any loss of structural capacity.
Load securing equipment Equipment or a device permanently fitted to a vehicle to secure, either by itself or in conjunction with other equipment or devices such as lashings, a load to a vehicle.
Load-sharing trailer A type of short, load-sharing semi-trailer, that is not designed to directly carry any goods, and that has one or more axles equipped with a kingpin, a fifth wheel and other parts necessary for attaching it to the rear end of a towing vehicle and the front portion of a second gooseneck trailer.
Loaded section width The width of the cross section of a tyre under load.
Loader A self-propelled crawler or wheeled machine with an integral front-mounted bucket supporting structure and linkage, which loads or excavates through motion of the machine and lifts, transports and discharges materials.
Local authority A regional council or territorial authority.
Local effects Harmful effects at the point of contact or entry into the body (as opposed to systemic effects).
Local exhaust ventilation Ventilation system for removing harmful fumes from a worker's breathing zone.
Lockout A condition in which the device or system under consideration has been turned off and can be restarted only after the fault has been corrected and the system checked by the qualified operator or responsible person.
Lockout A safety shut-down condition of the control system that requires a manual reset in order to restart.
Lockout An act that: (a) is the act of an employer (i) in closing the employer's place of business, or suspending or discontinuing the employer's business or any branch of that business; or (ii) in discontinuing the employment of any employees; or (iii) in breaking some or all of the employer's employment agreements; or (iv) in refusing or failing to engage employees for any work for which the employer usually employs employees; and (b) is done with a view to compelling employees, or to aid another employer in compelling employees, to (i) accept terms of employment; or (ii) comply with demands made by the employer.
Lockout device A mechanical locking system to prevent a machine being started while repairs are being carried out.
LOD Limit of detection.
Log (1) Stem, or length of stem, of a tree after felling and cross-cutting. (2) To harvest (extract) trees or logs from a forest.
Log band breakdown saw A log breakdown saw that is fitted with a blade in the form of a continuous band or strap with continuous series of notches or teeth on one or both edges of the band and running over a pair of wheels or pulleys that are mounted either vertically or horizontally.
Log breakdown saw A woodworking machine that is used for reducing logs to flitches or sawn timber.
Log carriage A carriage that is used for conveying logs into a log breakdown saw.
Logbook The official logbook prescribed by Part 73 of the Maritime Rules or required by the New Zealand Safe Ship Management Code as appropriate for the ship.
Logging Tree felling by manual or mechanical means for the purpose of extracting logs, poles and posts, including the preparation and extraction of logs for processing or loading out.
Logging bolster A vertically orientated member attached to a vehicle that is used to secure loads of timber logs.
Logging system Method of harvesting, usually with a descriptive term such as skyline, skidder, mechanised, etc.
Logic System of determining output signals from combinations of input signals.
Long line A helicopter load line attached to the belly hook.
Long span skidding Cable system capable of hauling drags or loads for 1000 m or more.
Loose cargo gear An article of equipment by means of which a load can be attached to a lifting appliance but which does not form an integral part of the appliance or load. Loose cargo gear includes any steel wire rope, shackle, block, hook, clamp, tray, crate, tub, grab, or other receptacle used to convey any cargo, personnel cradle, pallet bar, connecting plate, swivel, ring, chain, beam sling, overhauling weight, lifting beam, spreader, lifting frame, magnetic lifting device, vacuum lifting device or any other similar device that is designed or used to facilitate loading or unloading of cargo; but does not include containers as defined by the International Convention for Safe Containers 1972 (CSC).
Loose materials Solid material in particle form that is capable of subsiding or flowing in such a manner as to trap or engulf a person, for example, sand, grain, fertilser, sawdust.
Loose pulley (Opposite of fast pulley). A flat belt pulley running free on a shaft, so that when a belt is shifted on to it, no motion will be transmitted between the pulley and the shaft.
Lopping/Layering Process of felling existing trees onto the ground while maintaining adequate connection with the stump.
Lost time accident An event that causes an injury or illness of such a nature that, following basic first aid treatment, prevents the sufferer from returning to their normal work.
Loose gear Covers any gear by means of which a load can be attached to a lifting machine or appliance but does not form part of the machine, appliance or load.
Lordosis The natural curve at the base of the spine, curved forwards when standing erect (as opposed to kyphosis, at the thoracic end of the spine).
Low back pain A common musculoskeletal disorder related to work. Chronic low back pain is a major cause of disability and cost. A wide range of occupations, work tasks, workplace factors and psychological factors have been associated with low back pain, with heavy lifting the task most commonly associated.
Low explosive An explosive having a VOD of less than 1500 m/s. Blasting powder is a low explosive.
Low pressure (LP) An operating pressure of 7 kPa or less.
Low pressure liquefiable gas (a) A gas which has a critical temperature above 70°C; and (b) a toxic substance which is liquid at a pressure of 101 kPa at 0°C but which boils at or below 300°C at that pressure.
Low pressure steam wells Steam-producing wells with a measured shutin wellhead pressure of less than 35 kPa.
Low profile tyres Any tyre having a section height to section width ratio (aspect ratio) of 80% or lower.
Low risk biological product A biological product that has a low probability of containing pathogens of risk group 2 or 3 (as defined by the World Health Organisation) and includes a biological product that is transported for routine screening tests or is defined as a low risk biological product in guidelines issued by the relevant regulatory authority
Lower body harness An assembly of a body belt and leg loops for use as a work positioning device and for use where there is likelihood of restrained or limited free fall only. It may also have shoulder straps and/or a sitting strap. Note: A lower body harness is equivalent to a 'work positioning harness' as defined in AS/NZS 1891.1 (clause 1.3.23) and described in AS/NZS 1891.4 (clause 4.1.3). It is also permissible to use it where a limited free fall may occur. Note: A lower body harness is also equivalent to a 'sit harness' when it is designed to suspend the wearer in a sitting position, eg. it has a sitting strap included.
Lower limit on effective dose01 (LED01) The 95% lower confidence limit of the dose of a chemical needed to produce a 1% increase of an adverse effect in those exposed to the chemical, or a 1% of the maximal response, relative to control.
Lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) The lowest exposure of a chemical in a study, or group of studies, that produces statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed group and its appropriate control group.
LPGA Liquefied Petroleum Gas Association of New Zealand.
LPGITA The UK LP Gas Association.
LSA Lifesaving appliance.
LTSA Land Transport Safety Authority - now known as Land Transport New Zealand (LTNZ).
Luffing The raising and lowering of the crane boom.
Lumbar spine The lower end of the spine, often known as the 'small of the back'. It extends to the pelvis and exhibits lordosis (is bent forward).
Lumbar vertebrae The vertebrae, or spinal bones, present in the lumbar spine.
Luminaire A lighting fixture - the lamp and its mounting and light control surfaces.
Luminance The amount of light given off by lamp or other body. This includes reflected light and emitted light, and the unit of measurement is the candela per sq m (cd/m2).
Lump sum compensation A one-off, non-taxable payment to compensate for permanent impairment resulting from an injury covering injuries occurring on or after 1 April 2002.
Lung cancer A malignant disease of the respiratory tree and gas exchange areas of the lung. The main exposures associated with lung cancer are asbestos, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium VI, diesel fumes, nickel, radon, silica, soots, bis-(chloro-methyl) ether and environmental tobacco smoke.
Lux The SI unit of measurement of illuminance. It is equal to one lumen per square metre (lm m2). It's the same as the 'metre candle'.
LV Low voltage.
LWOP Leave without pay.
Lycopodium A combustible, organic dust used by pyrotechnicians for fire effects.
m Metres.
mm Millimetres.
Mach number The ratio of true airspeed to the speed of sound.
Machine-lifted platform A working platform which is moved into any working position by a power-operated machine to which it is attached.
Machine mass The manufacturer's maximum recommended mass for the machine including attachments with all reservoirs full to capacity, and tools and operator protective structure fitted, but not including: (a) any equipment towed by that machine; or (b) kingpins, hitches or steering components attached to hitches or towed units; or (c) material dug, carried or handled in any manner by a machine.
Machine pacing Where a person's work rate is determined by the rate at which a machine operates.
Machinery An engine, motor, or other appliance that provides mechanical energy derived from compressed air, the combustion of fuel, electricity, gas, gaseous products, steam, water, wind, or any other source; and includes: (a) any plant by or to which the motion of any machinery is transmitted; and (b) a lifting machine, a lifting vehicle, a machine whose motive power is wholly or partly generated by the human body, and a tractor.
Machinery spaces On a ship, means those machinery spaces of Category A and all other spaces containing propulsion machinery, boilers, fuel oil units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators, steering gear , major electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigerating, stabilising, ventilating and air conditioning machinery and similar spaces, and trunks to such spaces.
Machinery spaces of Category A On a ship, means those spaces and trunks to such spaces that contain: (a) internal combustion machinery used for main propulsion; or (b) internal combustion machinery used for purposes other than main propulsion where such machinery has in the aggregate a total power output of not less than 375 kW; or (c) any oil-fired boiler or oil fuel unit.
Macroinvertebrate Freshwater insects, molluscs, crustaceans, annelids, hydroids and flatworms living amongst surficial stream bed substrate or on instream vegetation.
MAF Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.
Magazine Any building, chamber, cave, pit, cellar, hulk, floating vessel, or place in which explosives or partly manufactured exposives are stored.
Magnetic chuck A work-holding device which holds the workpiece by magnetism. Used only with iron and steel.
MAGS Metal arc gas-shielded. Alternative names: MIG metal inert gas, MAG metal active gas, GMAW gas metal arc welding, CO2 welding, semi-automatic welding.
Mahinga kai Food-gathering practices and traditional Maori foods including indigenous shellfish, inland fish (eels, freshwater crayfish) and plants (puha, kumara etc).
Main Continuous pipe used for the conveyance of gas from points of supply, generally running within the road corridor and from which individual service pipes for other parts of the distribution network are supplied.
Main earthing system An earthing system of an electrical installation: (a) that operates at standard low voltage; and (b) that incorporates both an earth electrode and an earthing lead that is connected at that earth electrode and at the switchboard.
Main earthing wire A wire that connects the earth electrode to the earth bar of the main switchboard. Colour: green or green/yellow.
Main equipotential bonding wire A wire that connects any equipotentially bonded metal to an earth electrode or earth bar on the main switchboard. Colour: green or green/yellow.
Mainrope (Synonym: mainline) The wire rope used to pull the carriage or butt rigging in to the landing.
Mainrope swivel (Synonym: Three-way swivel) A swivel in the butt rigging with a side lug and ring to which other fittings can be attached.
Mains Those fittings forming part of an electrical installation that are used for the supply of electricity to the main switchboard of that installation.
Maintenance All actions necessary for retaining an asset as near as practicable to its original condition, but excluding rehabilitation or replacement.
Maintenance personnel Employees who service, inspect, clean, or maintain equipment.
Maintenance plan Collated information, policies and procedures for the optimum maintenance of an asset, or group of assets.
Major industrial accident An unexpected, usually sudden occurrence including, in particular, a major emission, fire or explosion, resulting from abnormal developments in the course of an industrial activity, leading to a serious danger to workers, the public or the environment, whether immediate or delayed, inside or outside the installation and involving one or more hazardous substances.
Major non-conformity An identifiable deviation which poses a serious threat to personnel or ship safety or a serious risk to the marine environment, and requires immediate corrective action; and includes a lack of effective and systematic implementation of a requirement of the International Safety Management Code.
Malignant mesothelioma A malignant disease of the inside lining of the chest wall (pleura), pericardium and abdomen (peritoneum). The latency between exposure and development of disease is in the order of 20 to 50 or more years. Asbestos is the only known cause, and the vast majority of this exposure occurs in an occupational context.
Mandrel A special shaft used for mounting a workpiece which is rotated during machining, for example, a workpiece in a lathe, or a gear wheel while the teeth are being cut.
Manipulative tasks Tasks that require an object of some sort to be held and worked on at the same time.
Manned steering jinker A specialised load-bearing vehicle that is steered by an operator and that is used to carry the rear of a long load.
Manoeuvring area That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off and landing of aircraft and for the surface movement of aircraft associated with takeoff and landing; but does not include areas set aside for loading, off-loading, or maintenance of aircraft.
Mantoux test The test used to assess tuberculin sensitivity, as an indicator of previous TB exposure, potential risk from exposure, and past BCG status. In New Zealand the standard Mantoux test is performed using 5TU of PPD. See Tuberculin skin test.
Mantoux conversion Two Mantoux results (not less than eight weeks apart), where the first result is negative and the second is positive (as defined above), and where the second result is greater than the first by 10 mm or more.
Manual handling Any activity requiring a person to interact with their environment and use any part of their muscles or skeletal system to lift, lower, push, pull, carry, throw, move, restrain or hold any animate, or inanimate, object.
Manual handling task A specific manual handling action or activity. It may be one part of a job.
Manual shut-off valve A manually operated valve which allows a gas appliance or a section of consumer piping to be shut off.
Manufacturer The person or organisation that builds machinery or equipment for distribution to end users, either through dealers or directly to end users.
Manufacturer's maintenance programme A programme that is contained in a maintenance manual or the instructions for continued airworthiness published by the manufacturer as required by the certificating authority for the aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, rotors, appliances, emergency equipment, and parts.
Manufacturer's operating limits Means: (a) in relation to a vehicle, the allowance provided by the vehicle manufacturer in terms of performance capability and dimensions, relative to deterioration, malfunction or damage beyond which the safe performance of the vehicle, as defined by the vehicle manufacturer, is compromised, and (b) in relation to a system, component or item of equipment, incorporated in or attached to a vehicle, the allowance provided by the system, component or equipment manufacturer in terms of performance capability and dimensions, relative to the deterioration, malfunction or damage, beyond which the safe performance of the system, component or item of equipment (and consequently the vehicle) is compromised.
Marae Includes the area of land on which all buildings such as the wharenui (meeting house), the wharekai (dining room), ablution blocks, and any other associated buildings are situated.
Margin line On a ship, means a line drawn at least 76 mm below the upper surface of the bulkhead deck at side.
Margin of safety The ratio between a derived exposure level that is considered to be without an appreciable risk of an adverse health effect and the estimated exposure of a population.
Marine farm Means all that part of the area that is being or has been developed into a farm for the farming of fish or marine vegetation; and includes all structures, whether floating or submerged, and rafts used in the area in connection with the farm, and all boundary markings, and all fish or marine vegetation for the time being farmed.
Marine farming In relation to any species of fish or marine vegetation, means the breeding, cultivating, and rearing of any such fish including spat catching or the cultivating of any such vegetation, as the case may be whether for commercial or research purposes.
Marine interests For the purposes of Part XX of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 (Protection of the marine environment from hazardous ships, structures and offshore operations) these are interests related to, or affected by, the marine environment, including a wide range of business activities, tourist attractions, public health and welfare, and the conservation of living marine resources and wildlife.
Marine operations Operations which facilitate the safe use of a harbour by vessels. They include, but are not limited to, directing shipping, the regulation of safety of navigation, pilotage, communication between vessels and the shore, the maintenance of aids to navigation and dredging within the harbour.
Marine protection rules Rules aimed at preventing pollution of the sea from ships and the disposal of waste. Marine protection rule-making powers cover the implementation of international conventions and standards for protection of the marine environment; marine protection documents; dumping of waste at sea; oil spill contingency plans; and controls in relation to harmful substances, including the discharge of produced water from offshore installations.
Maritime radio service Public maritime radio service provided by Maritime New Zealand for the purposes of continuously monitoring safety calling frequencies, providing distress and safety communications and enhancing safety through the dissemination of Maritime Safety Information, including weather and navigational information. The service includes the MF/HF station, TAUPO Maritime Radio, the coastal VHF stations and Inmarsat-C satellite services.
Maritime rules Rules relating to the safety of ships and people. These rules contain the detailed technical, documentary and procedural standards for the navigation and operation of ships. Their content covers design, construction, equipment, crewing, operation, tonnage measurement, carriage of passengers and cargoes, and the health and safety of seafarers. Many of the standards are based on international ship safety conventions.
Maritime New Zealand The authority with statutory responsibilities for administration of maritime safety and maritime pollution matters.
Maritime Safety Inspector An employee of Maritime New Zealand who has the appropriate delegations from the Director for the scope of work being undertaken.
Marking In relation to the land transport of dangerous goods, means the written identification of the dangerous goods appearing on or attached to a package or container of dangerous goods; and 'marked' has a corresponding meaning.
Marlin spike An iron or steel hand tool, tapered to a point, which is used to separate the strands of a wire rope when splicing.
MARPOL International Convention for the Provision of Pollution from Ships. Aims to eliminate pollution of the sea by oil and other toxic substances that might be discharged operationally or released accidentally as a result of collisions or stranding by ships.
Marry To fit together separate strands of rope to conform to the original structure of the rope.
Mass [Molar] concentration Quotient of the mass [number of moles] of each component to the volume of the gas mixture under specified conditions of pressure and temperature. NOTE: The mass and molar concentrations depend on the pressure and temperature of the gas mixture.
Mass-filling ratio The ratio between the greatest mass of LP Gas permitted in a container and the mass of water at 15°C which would completely fill the container.
Master In relation to any ship, means any person (except a pilot) having command or charge of the ship; and, in relation to any boat belonging to a ship, means the master of the ship; and, in relation to any other boat or to any lighter, means the person having command or charge of the boat.
Mast On a forklift, the support member providing the guideways permitting vertical movement of the carriage. it is usually constructed in the form of channels or similar sections providing the supporting pathway for the carriage rollers.
Masthead light A white light placed over the fore and aft centreline of the vessel showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 225 degrees and fixed to show the light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees (2 points) abaft the beam on both sides of the vessel.
Mate ohorere Sudden death.
Material measure device intended to reproduce or supply, in a permanent manner during its use, one or more known values of a given quantity. NOTE: The quantity concerned may be called the supplied quantity.
Material safety data sheet (MSDS) A document that describes the properties and uses of a substance, that is, identity, chemical and physical properties, health hazard information, precautions for use, and safe handling information.
Matter In CIMS an applications are called matters.
Matter item Each application has a matter type associated with it.
Matter item type Each application has a matter type associated with it, for example, PG - Unjustified Dismissal.
Mattock A hand tool used for grubbing into heavy roots, gravel, and rocky ground.
Matauranga Maori Traditional Maori knowledge.
Mauri Spiritual integrity or life-force; for Maori all things have an inner spiritual force, the mauri.
Maximum acceptable value (MAV) The concentration of a determinand below which the presence of the determinand does not result in any significant risk to a consumer over a lifetime of consumption. For carcinogenic chemicals, the MAVs set in the Drinking-Water Standards for New Zealand generally represent a risk of one additional incidence of cancer per 100 000 people ingesting the water at the concentration of the MAV for 70 years.
Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP The maximum pressure that can be sustained with a factor of safety, by the type of class of pipe or fitting for its estimated useful life under the anticipated operating conditions.
Maximum certificated take-off weight In relation to an aircraft, means the weight specified as the maximum take-off weight of the aircraft in a flight manual or airworthiness certificate relating to the aircraft.
Maximum inflation pressure (tyre) Maximum cold pressure required to carry the maximum load.
Maximum load Maximum carrying capacity of a tyre when run at maximum inflation pressure, at a given speed.
Maximum zero fuel weight The maximum permissible weight of an aircraft with no disposable fuel or oil. The zero fuel weight figure may be found in either the aircraft type certificate data sheet, the approved Aircraft Flight Manual, or both.
Maul Heavy wooden mallet used to drive wedges.
Mauri Life force, spirit.
Mayday The distress signal. This signal indicates that a ship or aircraft or person is in grave and imminent danger and immediate assistance is required.
MBL Minimum breaking load.
MCA Ministry of Consumer Affairs.
McCleod tool A rake-like tool used for scraping and grubbing into sub-surface fires.
MCDEM Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management.
MCNZ Medical Council of New Zealand.
MCS Multiple chemical sensitivity (or sensitivities).
MDF Medium-density fibreboard.
MDI 4,4 diphenylmethane diisocyanate. See Isocyanates.
Mean radiant temperature A physical measure of thermal environmental conditions. It is obtained from globe temperature, corrected for air temperature and air velocity. Integrated with other measures to predict the mean thermal sensation (comfort) scale and thus the percentage of people likely to complain about the thermal conditions. Along with other factors, it provides an indication of possible local thermal discomfort.
Means of escape from fire In relation to a building which has a floor area, means continuous unobstructed routes of travel from any part of a floor area of that building to a place of safety; and includes all active and passive protection features required to assist in protecting people from the effects of the fire in the course of their escape.
Mechanical splice An alloy, copper or steel sleeve fitting pressed onto wire, generally to form an eye in the wire.
Mediastinum Membranous middle septum between the lungs.
Mediation A process by which a mediator assists the parties to resolve their differences.
Mediator A person employed by the Employment Relations Service to provide mediation services.
Medical misadventure A personal injury resulting from treatment by a registered health professional or, in limited circumstances, a hospital or medical laboratory.
Medical Officer of Health Medical officers of health are specialists in public health medicine and are usually employed by public health services in DHBs. Some cover more than one DHB. Medical officers of health are designated by the Director-General of Health of the Ministry of Health.
Medical physicist A person holding a licence under the Radiation Protection Act 1965 for the purpose of Medical Physics.
Medical practitioner A health practitioner who: (a) is, or is deemed to be, registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand continued by section 114(1)(a) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of the profession of medicine; and (b) holds a current practising certificate.
Medical radiation technologist (MRT) A person who has undergone a recognised course of training of duration of several years, including requisite experience, and is registered or certificated to perform radiography occupationally. Previously known as radiographers.
Medical therapy The performance of a procedure on a patient intended to have a curative or palliative effect on a confirmed disease.
Medicine Any substance or article, other than a medical device, that is manufactured, imported, sold, or supplied wholly or principally: (a) for administering to one or more human beings for a therapeutic purpose; or (b) for use as an ingredient in the preparation of any substance or article that is to be administered to one or more human beings for a therapeutic purpose, where it is so used (i) in a pharmacy or a hospital; or (ii) by a practitioner, or registered midwife, or designated prescriber, or in accordance with a standing order; or (iii) in the course of any business that consists of or includes the retail sale, or the supply in circumstances corresponding to retail sale, of herbal remedies; or (c) for use as a pregnancy test.
Medium pressure (MP) An operating pressure greater than 7 kPa, but not exceeding 700 kPa.
Medium-term outcome A state or condition that is a contributing factor towards an outcome. It leads towards the outcome, but is not the result itself.
Medsafe The NZ Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority.
Melanoma A malignant disease of the melanin-containing cells of the skin. The only occupational exposure strongly implicated as increasing the risk of malignant melanoma is sunlight.
Melting point A temperature in at which a substance can exist in solid and liquid form. Normally measured in C° at 760 mm Hg.
Membrane filter method A method using phase contrast microscopy for estimating airborne asbestos fibre concentrations.
MEN switchboard A switchboard that has a connection to an earth electrode via an earthing lead, and a connection between earth and neutral made by a removable link, for the purposes of a MEN system.
Mental disorder In relation to any person, means an abnormal state of mind (whether of a continuous or an intermittent nature), characterised by delusions, or by disorders of mood or perception or volition or cognition, of such a degree that it: (a) poses a serious danger to the health or safety of that person or of others; or (b) seriously diminishes the capacity of that person to take care of himself or herself. 'Mentally disordered', in relation to any such person, has a corresponding meaning.
Mental injury A clinically significant behavioural, cognitive or psychological dysfunction.
Mercaptan A chemical compound or compounds of the mercaptan family, including tertiary butyl mercaptan (commonly used in odorant blends for reticulated gas) and ethyl mercaptan (commonly used as an odorant for LPG in containers).
Mesh (1) Woven or welded wire mesh (which is commonly used for guards). (2) Two parts, for example, gear wheels, chain and sprocket etc., which have teeth or similar devices which fit together snugly without being permanently fixed are said to mesh together.
Mesothelioma See Malignant mesothelioma.
Metabolism The breakdown in the body of nutrients (glucose or glycogen) to release energy rich phosphates (ATP), along with waste products such as CO2, H2O (and lactic acid if anaerobic).
Metabolite In physiology, any product yielded by or taking part in the chemical processes essential to life.
Metalliferous mine (a) Any place where any person works above or below ground for the purpose of (i) extracting any mineral from the earth; or (ii) processing any mineral extracted from the earth at that place; and (b) includes any place where any person works below ground for the purpose of (i) extracting any material, other than any coal or any mineral, from the earth; or (ii) processing any material, other than any coal or any mineral, extracted from the earth at that place; and (c) includes any place in which any mineral or material extracted or processed as described in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of this definition is (i) crushed or screened; or (ii) extracted from any other mineral or material extracted or processed as described in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b) of this definition.
Metal working The working of any metal by any process of flame cutting, welding, brazing, or silver soldering, involving the use of any gas.
Metal fume fever A flu-like illness resulting from exposure to fumes from welding or gas cutting zinc, lead, copper or other metals.
Meteorological service Any of the following services that provide meteorological information in support of aviation: (1) Climatology service: a service for the development and supply of climatological information for a specific place or airspace: (2) Forecast service: a service for the supply of forecast meteorological information for a specific area or portion of airspace: (3) Information dissemination service: a service for the collection and dissemination of meteorological information: (4) Meteorological briefing service: a service for the supply of written and oral meteorological information on existing and expected meteorological conditions: (5) Meteorological reporting service: a service for the supply of routine meteorological reports: (6) Meteorological watch service: a service for maintaining a watch over meteorological conditions affecting aircraft operations in a specific area.
Methanol Light, volatile, flammable, poisonous, liquid alcohol (CH3OH).
Methyl bromide Synonym: Bromomethane. Chemical formula: CH3Br. A highly toxic fumigant used for soils, grains, silos, mills, warehouses, vaults, ships, buildings, and rail cars, shipping containers, motor vehicles and general commodities. Most commonly used to fumigate against insect pests and rodents under import and export bio-security agreements.
Methylated spirits A mixture containing more than 90% denatured ethanol (whether it contains methanol or not).
MFE Ministry for the Environment.
MF/HF Medium and High Frequency. Used to describe frequencies or channels in the range 300 kHz - 30 MHz. SSB (single side band) radios are used for communication in the MF/HF bands.
mg/kg bw Milligrams of substance per kilogram of bodyweight.
mg/l Milligrams per litre.
mg/L Milligrams of substance per litre of air.
MHz Megahertz, one million hertz.
MIC Minimum inhibitory concentration.
Micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) One millionth of a gram of a substance in a cubic metre of air.
Microlight aircraft A basic low-performance aircraft designed to carry not more than 2 persons which meets low-momentum parameters that are acceptable to the Director.
Micrometre l µm represents one thousandth of a millimetre. (A strand of human hair is approximately 50 µm in diameter.)
Micron One millionth of a metre (µm).
Micropause A brief pause to relax the muscles. The greater the relaxation, the more beneficial the micropause. They ought to be taken frequently - 5-10 seconds every 3 minutes - for the greatest effect. The micropause allows blood to flow again in a muscle that has been tense.
MicroTesla A unit of magnetic flux density - how strong the magnetic field is.
Microwave Radiofrequencies greater than 300 MHz.
MIG welder Metal inert gas welder. Welder designed to provide a strong weld and not damage thinner metals now on vehicles, using different combinations of gas to shield the arc from environmental conditions. See also MAGS.
Mild traumatic brain injury (Also known as post-concussive syndrome) Avaguely defined condition characterised by physical, cognitive and/or psychosocial disability that follows from a significant blow to the head without obvious physical injury to the brain.
Mile A standard nautical mile of 1852 metres.
Milliamperes Thousandths of amperes. 1 mA = 10-3 A
Milligrams per cubic metre (mg/m3) One thousandth of a gram of a substance in a cubic metre of air.
Millimetre tyres Tyres marked with the section width in millimetres, and the rim diameter in inches, for example, 165 R 13.
Mine Any place where a person works above or below ground for the purpose of extracting or processing coal or any mineral from the earth.
Mineral A mineral, mineral substance, metal, or precious stone; but does not include clay, coal, gravel, limestone, sand, or stone.
Mineral pool A pool or spa supplied directly with geothermal fluid, or partial geothermal fluid.
Minihauler A small mobile hauler with light hauling ropes and a short tower with two or three guyropes, and used mainly for thinning operations.
Minimal risk level (MRL) An estimate of daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effects over a specified route and duration of exposure. MRLs are derived using the NOAEL/LOAEL plus safety factor approach. Generally, MRLs established by the ATSDR are based on the most sensitive chemical-induced endpoint considered to be of relevance to humans.
Minimum approach distance The minimum distances when approaching live conductors that shall apply to any person who is not a competent live line lineworker, and include conductive material carried by them, vehicles, and mobile plant. These distances apply to any part of the line mechanic's body or clothing and to anything in contact with the line mechanic, for example, tools, ladders and scaffold poles (except live line tools and voltage detectors).
Minimum breaking load (MBL) The maximum certified test load that a rope will carry without parting.
Minimum descent altitude A specified altitude, referenced to mean sea level, in a non-precision approach or circling approach below which an aircraft descent may not be made without visual reference.
Minimum dual spacing The minimum recommended distance between centrelines of dual-mounted tyres to avoid touching or chafing in the flex area.
Minimum ignition temperature The lowest temperature at which flame propagation occurs in a dust suspension.
Minister The Minister of the Crown who, under the authority of any warrant or with the authority of the Prime Minister, is for the time being responsible for the administration of the HSE Act.
Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles (Class 9 dangerous goods) Any substance or article presenting a danger for transport and that is not covered by other classes. This includes substances transported at temperatures of 100 °C or higher in a liquid state or 240°C or higher in a solid state.
Miscibility The property enabling two or more liquids to mix in any proportion to form a solution.
Mists Airborne droplets. The droplets may carry substances in solution or particles in suspension. Mists are usually formed by the condensation of a vapour but may be produced by the atomisation of a liquid.
Mitt Leather protective mitt attached to the front handle of a chainsaw to keep the hand on the saw in case of kickback.
Mixed load A load comprised of different classes or divisions of dangerous goods, or dangerous goods and other goods from which they must be segregated.
MLS Microwave landing system.
mm Hg Millimetres of mercury (Hg). This is a unit of pressure. (See also Pascal).
MMA Manual metal arc. Alternative name: electric arc welding.
Mobile crane A non-load carrying self-propelled vehicle designed solely or principally for lifting objects using a boom with lifting gear.
Mobile electrical plant (a) Self-propelled plant that is capable of moving while energised by a trailing cable; and (b) portable plant that is capable of being moved while energised by a trailing cable.
Mobile garbage bins Bins with wheels and handle which are easily mobile and usually plastic, in which waste and recoverable resources are placed prior to removable for disposal or processing.
Mobile gas appliance A gas appliance fitted with wheels which is designed to be easily moved by one person.
Mobile hauler A cable hauler with an integral tower, mounted on a tracked or rubber-tyred carrier.
Mobile installation An installation that is designed or intended to be moved from place to place without major dismantling or modification, whether or not it has its own motive power.
Mobile offshore drilling unit A mechanically propelled unit or vessel that is capable of engaging in drilling operations for the exploration for, or exploitation of, resources beneath the seabed such as liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons, sulphur, or salt.
Mobile plant Any self-propelled mechanical plant, such as wheel and crawler tractors, excavators, skidders, graders, loaders.
Mobile tailhold A self-propelled unit (bulldozer or excavator) which is attached to ropes and blocks used in hauler operations.
Mobile tailspar Short spar, usually mounted on a crawler tractor, used to facilitate rope shift and increase clearance.
Mode of transmission The mechanisms by which an infectious agent is spread to humans, including direct (skin to skin, sexual intercourse, etc) and indirect (airborne, vector-borne, etc).
Model life table A standard or reference life table used to estimate life expectancy remaining at age of death (ie the health loss function) for calculation of YLL.
Modification Any change, alteration, addition to or removal from the original equipment or component, made in such a manner that the changed or altered portions or function of the equipment or component are different from the manufacturer's original design, specification or use.
Modify In relation to a vehicle, means to change the vehicle from its original state by altering, substituting, adding or removing any structure, system, component or equipment; but does not include repair.
MOH Ministry of Health.
MOJ Ministry of Justice.
Mole Amount of substance of any chemical species which contains the relative molecular mass. NOTE: A table of recommended values of relative molecular masses is given in ISO 6976[22].
Monitoring The performance and analysis of routine measurements, aimed at detecting changes in the environment, provision of services, delivery of outputs, or health status of individuals or populations.
Monocoque In relation to a vehicle, means that the chassis of the vehicle is integral to the body.
Monomer A molecule or compound usually containing carbon and of relatively low molecular weight and simple structure, which is capable of conversion to polymers, by combination with itself or other similar molecules or compounds. for example, vinyl chloride is the monomer from which polyvinyl chloride is made.
Monsoon bucket A pilot-activated water bucket slung beneath a helicopter. Used to drop large amounts of water directly on top of a fire.
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Introduces controls on a range of ozone-depleting substances.
Moorings Any weight or article placed in or on the bed of a harbour for the purpose of securing a vessel; but does not include an anchor or weight lifted by the vessel when departing from the site, anchorage, or mooring.
Morbidity Illness or disease. A morbidity rate for a certain illness is the number of people with that illness divided by the number of people in the population from which the illnesses were counted.
MORST Ministry of Research, Science and Technology.
Morts Dead fish.
Mortuary A room regularly used or intended to be regularly used for the preparation of dead bodies for burial or for the embalming of dead bodies or the examination or treatment of dead bodies prior to burial: but does not include premises so used or intended to be used exclusively in [or in connection with a hospital care institution (within the meaning of section 58(4) of the Health and Disability Services (Safety) Act 2001)], or a school of anatomy established under the authority of the Governor-General in Council.
MOSHH Management of Substances Hazardous to Health.
Motor grader A self-propelled machine having an adjustable blade positioned between the front and rear axles, where that blade is used to cut, move and spread material as required.
Motor scraper A self-propelled wheeled machine having a cutting edge positioned between front and rear axles which enables it to load, transport, discharge and spread material through the forward motion of the machine.
MOU Memorandum of Understanding (often between government departments on a specific issue).
Mould A device in which castings are made. The mould (usually of sand held together with a binding agent) has hollow spaces in it into which molten metal is poured. The shape of the hollow spaces gives the shape of the final product.
Moulded breadth On a ship, means the maximum breadth of the ship, measured amidships to the moulded line of frame in a ship with a metal shell and to the outer surface of the hull in a s hip with a shell of any other metal.
Moulded depth On a ship, means the vertical distance, measured amidships from the keel line to the top of the working deck beam at side. Where the working deck is stepped and the raised part of the deck extends over amidships, t he moulded depth is to be measured to a line of reference extending from the lower part of the deck along a line parallel with the raised part.
MOYA Ministry of Youth Affairs.
Mouse over Hover mouse pointer over a highlighted text for drill down to further detail.
Mouse trap In skyline logging systems, a device for holding a moveable carriage at the spar during unhooking of the drag.
MPR Marine Protection Rules.
MR Maritime Rules.
MRL Maximum Residue Limit.
MS Mediation Service (of ERS).
MSC Mountain Safety Council
MSD Ministry of Social Development.
Mobile hauler Trailer or self-propelled hauler with integral spar.
Mpa Megapascals.
MPH Master of Public Health.
MSD Musculoskeletal disorder.
MSDS Material safety data sheet.
MTA Maritime Transport Act 1994.
MTOPP Mean tracheal oxygen partial pressure.
Mucous membrane Tissue which secretes mucous and lines body cavities such as the mouth and nose.
Multidisciplinary team A functioning unit, composed of individuals with varied and specialised training, who coordinate their activities to provide services to a client or group of clients.
Multifactorial productivity (MFP) Refers to the way that labour and capital are combined to produce gooods and services (also called total-factor productivity). It is driven by economies of scale, technical progress and the adoption of best practice.
Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) A syndrome characterised by an abnormal, multi-organ sensitivity following chemical exposures. There is lack of agreement as to what the underlying pathological mechanisms are and whether multiple chemical sensitivity should be viewed as a separate clinical entity. Synonyms and related terms for MCS:
  • environmental or ecological illness
  • chemical acquired immune deficiency syndrome (chemical AIDS)
  • total allergy syndrome
  • 20th century disease
  • cerebral allergy
  • chemical sensitivity
  • chemical intolerance
  • environmental hypersensitivity
  • toxic encephalopathy
  • toxicant-induced loss of tolerance
  • eco-syndrome.
Multiple earthed neutral system (MEN) A system of supply of electricity in which the neutral is connected to the earth (a) at the source of supply; and (b) at points on the supply system; and (c) at every electrical installation connected to that system.
Multiple leader Multi-leader Tree with three or more stems. See also Crutch, Double leader.
Multi-lifting The use of more than one crane to raise a single load.
Multiple-earthed neutral (MEN) system The system of public 230 V power supply used in New Zealand.
Multi-meter An electrical test instrument designed to measure various quantities of an electrical circuit. The test instrument should be one that measures voltage (V), amperage (A) AC and DC, and resistance (ohms (Ω)).
Multi-piece rim wheels A vehicle wheel consisting of two or more parts, one of which is a side or locking ring that holds the tyre and other components on the rim wheel by interlocking the components when the tyre is inflated.
Multiple-sensitive emergency-locking retractor A seatbelt retractor that, during normal driving conditions, allows freedom of movement by the wearer of the seatbelt by means of length-adjusting components that automatically adjust the strap to the wearer, and that is activated by two or more of the following: (a) deceleration of the vehicle; or (b) acceleration of the strap from the retractor; or (c) other means of activation.
Musculo-skeletal system The integrated system of the muscles, bones and joints in the body.
Musculoskeletal disorders (work-related) A collective name for a range of conditions that affect the muscles, tendons, bones and joints. This term includes occupational overuse syndromes, back injuries and acute low back pain.
Mutagen A substance which can cause genetic damage, i.e. damage to chromosomes.
Mutagenesis The process of producing mutation.
Mutagenic Able to produce genetic mutation.
Mutation A change occurring in the genetic material (DNA) in the chromosomes of a cell. It is caused by a fault in the replication of a cell's genetic material when it divides to form two daughter cells.
Muting Some machines are only considered dangerous during part of their cycle. If they are fitted with presence-sensing guards, then the guard may be de-activated during the non-dangerous part of the cycle so that the operator can approach the machine, to feed or extract workpieces, without causing it to stop. The position at which the guard is de-activated is called the muting position.
Mycobacterial reference laboratory A laboratory providing a reference service to less specialised laboratories for identification and susceptibility testing of mycobacteria.
MYD Ministry of Youth Development.
NABSA An acronym for Not Afloat But Safely Aground. Used in many parts of the world to describe a berth in which the vessel is normally expected to take the bottom at some stage on the ebb tide.
Nanograms per cubic metre (ng/m3) One billionth of a gram of a substance in a cubic metre of air.
Nape earmuff An earmuff worn with the headband behind the head. A head-strap is normally provided that is to be worn over the head.
Narcosis Lack of concentration, loss of co-ordination, loss of consciousness caused by exposure to a narcotic agent, possibly leading to coma and death.
Narcotic A drug or chemical which causes narcosis.
Narrow blade band saw A woodworking machine that is fitted with a blade in the form of a continuous band or strap running in a vertical direction; but does not mean aband re-saw or a log band breakdown saw.
National Poisons Centre A 24-hour advisory service that answers enquiries both from health professionals and from the general public concerning acute poisoning and the toxic effects of chemicals, which may be encountered in emergencies of any sort. It is provided by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago.
National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) A specialist business unit in the Ministry of Health. It provides a resource of expert advice, service provision and research capability on matters concerning public, occupational and medical exposure to radiation radiation, the performance of radiation equipment, and the measurement of radiation and radioactivity.
Natural and physical resources Means (a) organisms of all kinds; and (b) the air, water, and soil in or on which any organism lives or may live; and (c) landscape and land form; and (d) geological features; and (e) structures of all kinds; and (f) systems of interacting living organisms and their environment.
Natural gas (a) Means: (i) any naturally occurring gaseous hydrocarbon; or (ii) any mixture of naturally occurring gaseous hydrocarbons; or (iii) any other naturally occurring substance that is in a gaseous state at a temperature of 15°C and an absolute pressure of 101.325 kP and that is recovered by mining; and (b) includes Liquefied Petroleum Gas.
Natural hazard Any atmospheric or earth or water related occurrence (including earthquake, tsunami, erosion, volcanic and geothermal activity, landslip, subsidence, sedimentation, wind, drought, fire, or flooding) the action of which adversely affects or may adversely affect human life, property, or other aspects of the environment.
Nautical certificate of competency A certificate of competency, the requirements for which are prescribed in any of maritime rule rules 32.8 to 32.19.
Nautical chart A special-purpose map, or a specially compiled database from which such a map is derived, that is issued officially by, or on the authority of, the relevant government institution and is designed to meet the requirements of marine navigation.
Nautical publication A special-purpose book, or a specially compiled database from which such a book is derived, that is issued officially by, or on the authority of, the relevant government institution and is designed to meet the requirements of marine navigation.
Naval Health Service An organisation which provides OSH with expert medical opinion on diving issues.
Navigate/Navigational A vessel or craft is said to be navigating if it is able to transit for a distance of about two kilometres under its own power or using environmental conditions. Navigational Safety Management is the system of criteria, standards and competence that maintain the ability of a vessel or craft to navigate safely in confined waters such as are found in harbour areas.
Navigational warnings Warnings regarding hazards to safe navigation of ships, issued by Maritime New Zealand and the New Zealand Hydrographic Office and broadcast by coast stations.
NAVTEX The international service of co-ordinated broadcast and automatic reception on 518kHz of maritime safety information by means of narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy using the English language.
NB Nominal bore.
NDB Non-directional radio beacon.
NDE Non-destructive examination.
Negative display A method of character display on the VDU screen that shows bright characters on a dark background. (The reverse of paper.)
Negative pressure Condition that exists when less air is supplied to a space than is exhausted from the space, so the air pressure within that space is less than that in surrounding areas.
Neoplasm Another word for tumour.
Neo-vagina Name used for a constructed vagina which replaces the male genitalia, removed during a surgical process undertaken by some male to female transgender people.
Nephrotoxin A chemical which may cause kidney damage. Common examples include antimony compounds, dimethyl sulphoxide, dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofuran.
NES National Environmental Standard (under the RMA).
Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA) A process of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of taking a particular course of action (such as dispersant spraying), including recognising the likely outcomes if the course of action is not taken (the impact of doing nothing). The result will determine if there will be a net (overall) beneficial or detrimental outcome of taking any or no action.
Network For electricity, this refers to the interconnected transmission or distribution lines or cables and associated power transformers for supplying power to customers.
Network operator The person who or organisation which controls the supply of electricity to the power lines involved.
Network operators (rail) Those operators with a railway network of 40 route kilometres or more. Tranz Rail and the Taieri Gorge Railway are the only such operators in New Zealand.
Network owner The person or organisation who owns the power lines involved.
Network utility operator A person who: (a) Undertakes the distribution or transmission by pipeline of natural or manufactured gas, petroleum, or geothermal energy; or (b) Is an electricity operator or electrical distributor as defined by section 2(1) of the Electricity Act 1992 for the purposes of any works defined by that Act; or (c) Undertakes the piped distribution of potable water for supply; or (d) Is the operator of a sewerage system or a stormwater drainage system.
Neural tube defects Birth defects of the neural tube such as anencephalus and spina bifida.
Neurobehavioral toxicity A toxic effect on the behavior or development of an organism, such as learning or socialising skills.
Neurotoxin A chemical whose primary action is on the CNS (Central Nervous System). Many neurotoxins, such as some mercury compounds, are highly toxic, and must only be used under carefully-controlled conditions.
Neutral (N) The return wire of an AC electrical circuit. Colours: blue or black.
Neutral posture The body position that minimises stresses on the body. Typically the neutral posture will be near the mid-range of any joint's range of motion.
New Zealand Aeronautical Information Publications The AIP for New Zealand published for the Authority by the holder of the AIS certificate for the AIP service.
New Zealand accredited laboratory A laboratory that is currently accredited by International Accreditation New Zealand on behalf of the Testing Laboratory Registration Council.
New Zealand Cancer Registry NZCR A population-based register of all primary malignant diseases diagnosed in New Zealand, excluding squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers.
New Zealand Gazette A Government publication that publishes official notices.
New Zealand Register of Aircraft The register established under section 73 of the Act.
New Zealand Safe Ship Management Certificate The maritime document issued under Part V of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 in accordance with rule 21.13(7) or rule 21.13(11).
New Zealand ship A ship that is registered under the Ship Registration Act 1992; and includes a ship that is not registered but is required or entitled to be registered.
New Zealand Standard A standard promulgated by the Standards Council as a New Zealand Standard under the Standards Act 1988 or as a standard specification under the Standards Act 1965.
New Zealand waters Means: (a) the territorial sea of New Zealand; and (b) the internal waters of New Zealand; and (c) all rivers and other inland waters of New Zealand.
New organism Any organism that:
  • was not legally present in New Zealand immediately before 29 July 1998;
  • is prescribed as a risk species in HSNO regulations;
  • is present in New Zealand but is found only in containment - for example, only in zoos or laboratories;
  • has been genetically modified;
  • has been eradicated from New Zealand.
Nga Kaihautu Tikanga Taiao A special advisory committee set up to advise the Environmental Risk Management Authority on Maori perspectives of applications in order to give effect to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi in the HSNO Act.
ng/g Concentration units in nanograms (ng) per gram(g) where a nanogram is 10-9grams.
NGO The National Gas Outlet (America).
NGOs Non-governmental organisations.
Night The hours between: (1) the end of evening civil twilight, which is when the centre of the setting sun's disc is 6 degrees below the horizon; and (2) the beginning of morning civil twilight, which is when the centre of the rising sun's disc is 6 degrees below the horizon.
NIHL Noise-induced hearing loss.
NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, USA.
Nitro-compound Any chemical compound possessed of explosive properties, or capable of combining with metals to form an explosive compound, which is produced by the chemical action of nitric acid (whether mixed or not with sulphuric acid) or of a nitrate mixed with sulphuric acid upon any carbonaceous substance, whether the compound is mechanically mixed with other substances or not.
NMVOCs Non-methane volatile organic compounds.
NODS Notifiable Occupational Disease System.
No observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) The dose of a chemical in a study, or a group of studies, at which there are no statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects seen between the exposed group and its appropriate control group. Effects may be produced at this dose, but they are not considered to be adverse.
No-go area An area that personnel shall be prohibited from entering when the plant is operating.
NOHSAC National Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Committee. Established in July 2003, its function is to provide independent advice directly to the Minister of Labour on major occupational health and safety issues in New Zealand.
NOHSC National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Australia).
Noise Noise means any sound which is present in the place of work whether it is wanted or not wanted, and includes sound energy of any frequency, whether or not capable of being perceived by the unaided human ear.
Noise dose The amount of noise exposure relative to the exposure limit for a working day. It is normally stated as a percentage of the limit such that 100% represents an LAeq,8h of 85 dB(A).
Noise exposure The amount of sound energy a person is exposed to during a typical day.
Noise exposure level The LAeq,8h, and is a measure of the noise exposure of a person.
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) Permanent loss of hearing caused by exposure to excessive noise.
Non-combustible material A material that neither burns nor gives off flammable vapours in sufficient quantity for self - ignition when heated to approximately 750° C, this being determined this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code. Any other material is a combustible material.
Non-conformity In relation to maritime safety, means an identifiable deviation from the stated practices and conditions of the organisation's documented approved safe ship management system, which poses a risk to personnel or ship safety or to the marine environment, and requires corrective action; and includes lack of effective and systematic implementation of a requirement of the New Zealand Safe Ship Management Code.
Non-directional tread A general-purpose tread pattern designed so that the tyre can be run in either direction without loss of traction or self-cleaning properties.
Non-return valve A valve designed to operate automatically to prevent reversal of flow in a pipe.
Non-SOLAS In relation to a life-saving appliance, means an appliance that is not required by maritime rules to meet the requirements for that type of appliance contained in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.
Non-steering axle Any axle of a vehicle the wheels of which remain substantially parallel with the longitudinal centre-line of the vehicle while the vehicle is turning.
No observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) The highest dose or concentration of a substance at which no significant adverse biological or toxic effect is observed.
Normally closed Switch contacts which are closed when the switch actuator is under no pressure.
Normally open Switch contacts which are open when the switch actuator is under no pressure.
Normative appendix An Appendix that forms an integral part of the body of a Standard which, for reasons of convenience, is placed after the body of the Standard.
Nosocomial infection An infection (including TB) occurring in a hospital setting. It can be transmitted from patient to patient, from staff member to patient, or from patient to staff member.
NOTAM A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations.
NOTAM service A service for the issue and distribution of NOTAM relevant to air navigation in the New Zealand FIR and in the areas of the Auckland Oceanic FIR in which New Zealand is responsible for air traffic services.
Notch Groove cut in a stump to prevent a rope slipping off.
Notice of intention to defend (ERS Tribunal) If a respondent wishes to defend a case set down they need to formally advise the Tribunal of their intention to defend. Within 10 days of receiving the applicant's Statement of Claim the respondent must file a Notice of Intention to Defend with the Tribunal.
Notifiable disease A communicable disease, sexually transmitted disease, or other medical condition of public health significance, notification of which is required by statute and the outbreak of which may be prevented, controlled or treated using the authority and powers particularly available under legislation.
Notifiable occupational disease See Notifiable Occupational Disease System (NODS). These include diseases caused by asbestos, chemicals, metals, solvents, etc. occupational overuse syndrome, noise-induced hearing loss, etc.
Notifiable Occupational Disease System (NODS) A system for notifying health-related conditions suspected to arise from work, administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Service.
Notifiable work Specified types of work, for example, involving asbestos, logging, construction, mining, diving, that must be notified to OSH before work commences. (a) Any restricted work, as that term is defined in regulation 2(1) of the [Health and Safety in Employment (Asbestos) Regulations 1998]: (b) Any logging operation or tree-felling operation, being an operation that is undertaken for commercial purposes: (c) Any construction work of one or more of the following kinds: (i) Work in which a risk arises that any person may fall 5 metres or more, other than- (A) Work in connection with a residential building up to and including 2 full storeys: (B) Work on overhead telecommunications lines and overhead electric power lines: (C) Work carried out from a ladder only: (D) Maintenance and repair work of a minor or routine nature: (ii) The erection or dismantling of scaffolding from which any person may fall 5 metres or more: (iii) Work using a lifting appliance where the appliance has to lift a mass of 500 kilograms or more a vertical distance of 5 metres or more, other than work using an excavator, a fork-lift, or a self-propelled mobile crane: (iv) Work in any pit, shaft, trench, or other excavation in which any person is required to work in a space more than 1.5 metres deep and having a depth greater than the horizontal width at the top: (v) Work in any drive, excavation, or heading in which any person is required to work with a ground cover overhead: (vi) Work in any excavation in which any face has a vertical height of more than 5 metres and an average slope steeper than a ratio of 1 horizontal to 2 vertical: (vii) Work in which any explosive is used or in which any explosive is kept on the site for the purpose of being used: (viii) Work in which any person breathes air that is or has been compressed or a respiratory medium other than air
Notified toxic substances (NOTS) Substances that were notified under section 32 of the Toxic Substances Act 1979 and were in New Zealand prior to commencement of the hazardous substance elements of the HSNO Act (2 July 2001).
Noxious chemicals Chemicals with objectionable odours which may be toxic or hazardous.
Noxious substance Any substance specified in the Schedule to the Noxious Substances Regulations 1954. These are as follows: (1) dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNC); but not including a substance used as an insecticide and containing not more than 5 percent of DNC; (2) dinitro-o-sec-butyl-phenol (DNBP); but not including a substance used as an insecticide and containing not more than 5 percent of DNBP; (3) para-nitrophenyl-diethyl-thiophosphate (Parathion or E605); (4) bis-dimethylamino-phosphorous anhydride (Schradan or Pestox); (5) bis-dimethylamino-fluorophosphine oxide (Dimefox); (6) bis-isopropylamino-fluorophosphine oxide (Mipafox); (7) tetraethyl pyrophosphate (TEPP); (8) hexaethyl tetraphosphate (HETP or Hexone); (9) any other organo-phosphate compound, and any other dinitro phenolic derivative; but not including a substance used as an insecticide and containing not more than 5 percent of a dinitro phenolic derivative. The following substances were declared by the Noxious Substances Notice 1958 to be noxious substances: Endrin, potassium arsenite, sodium arsenite, fluoroacetic acid and its derivatives, fluoroacetamide and its derivatives. The following substances were also declared by the Noxious Substances Notice 1959 to be noxious substances: methyl bromide, chloropicrin, Aldrin, except in preparations containing 1% or less of aldrin, Dieldrin, except in preparations containing 1% or less of dieldrin.
NPC See National Poisons Centre.
Nurse A health practitioner who: (a) is, or is deemed to be, registered with the Nursing Council of New Zealand continued by section 114(1)(a) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of the profession of nursing whose scope of practice permits the performance of general nursing functions; and (b) holds a current practising certificate.
Nursing process A term applied to the systematic approach used by the nurse in the practice of nursing in any situation. The steps of the process consist of assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation of outcome. It is a tool for establishing accountability for nursing practice.
NZAMM New Zealand Association of Musculoskeletal Medicine.
NZBS New Zealand Blood Service.
NZCIC New Zealand Chemical Industry Council.
NZCTU New Zealand Council of Trade Unions.
NZDF New Zealand Defence Force.
NZDS New Zealand Dermatological Society.
NZES New Zealand Electrical Specification.
NZFOA New Zealand Forest Owner Association.
NZFSA New Zealand Food Safety Authority
NZHIS New Zealand Health Information Service.
NZIPS New Zealand Injury Prevention Strategy.
NZISM New Zealand Institute of Safety Management.
NZIW New Zealand Institute of Welding.
NZMA New Zealand Medical Association.
NZMFA New Zealand Marine Farmers Association.
NZNO The New Zealand Nurses Organisation.
NZOHS New Zealand Occupational Hygiene Society Inc.
NZQA New Zealand Qualifications Authority.
NZSAR New Zealand maritime search and rescue.
NZSCO New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations.

O – R

Term or acronym


OAG Office of the Controller and Auditor-General.
Obstacle [Aviation industry] All fixed and mobile objects, or parts thereof, that may obstruct either the movement of an aircraft on the ground or protrude into an aircraft's takeoff or landing path.
Objective A statement that indicates how the goals can be achieved.
Occupational asthma A disorder characterised by bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) or variable airflow limitation related to workplace exposures. Many hundreds of occupational agents, including some inorganic and organic dusts, have been associated with occupational asthma. Biological agents include grains, flours, plants and gums, fur, feathers and other animal parts, insects and fungi, drugs and enzymes, and various types of wood. Chemical agents include chlorofluorocarbons, alcohols, metals and their salts, and welding fumes.
Occupational cancer Cancer caused by an agent in the workplace, for example, asbestos, benzene.
Occupational diving Diving performed in the course of employment for gain or reward (irrespective of whether or not diving is the principal function of employment or merely an adjunct to it).
Occupational health The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations, the prevention among workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions, the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological condition. [ILO and WHO, 1963]
Occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) That part of the overall management system which includes organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the OHS policy, and so managing the risks associated with the business of the organisation.
Occupational health and safety objectives Overall OHS goal in terms of OHS performance, arising from the occupational health and safety policy that an organisation sets itself to achieve, and which are quantified where practicable.
Occupational health and safety performance The measurable results of the OHSMS, related to the organisation's control of health and safety risks, based on its OHS policy, objectives and targets. Performance measurement includes measurement of OHS management activities and results.
Occupational health and safety policy Statement by the organisation of its commitment, intentions and principles in relation to its overall occupational health and safety performance which provides a framework for action and for the setting of its occupational health and safety objectives and targets.
Occupational health and safety professional A person with expertise and qualifications in the identification, assessment, evaluation or control of occupational hazards and risks, and hazards associated with occupational ill-health.
Occupational health and safety target A detailed performance requirement, quantified wherever practicable and pertaining to the organisation, that arises from the health and safety objectives and that needs to be met in order to achieve those objectives.
Occupational health nurse A registered nurse who specialises in occupational health.
Occupational medicine The study and practice of medicine related to the effects of work on health and health on work.
Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) An umbrella term covering a range of disorders characterised by pain and/or other sensations in muscles, tendons, nerves, soft tissues and joints with clinical signs evident to a medical practitioner. Symptoms such as pain, discomfort, and muscle weakness may continue even after initial clinical signs have diminished. The disorders are caused, or significantly contributed to, by occupational factors including prolonged muscle tension, repetitive actions, forceful movements and sustained or constrained postures, which exceed the usual ability of the body to rapidly recover.
Occupational physician A medical practitioner who has a post-graduate qualification in occupational medicine.
Occupational Safety and Health Service (OSH) A Service of the Department of Labour, charged with administering the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992.
Occupational skin disease A skin disease caused by a physical, chemical or biological hazard in the workplace. Contact dermatitis (see Dermatitis) is the most common example.
Occupier (a) In relation to any premises or to any part of any premises, means the person in actual occupation thereof; and (b) in relation to any building or part of a building in which any manufacture or trade is carried on, includes the person carrying on that manufacture or trade in that building or that part.
Occurrence [Aviation industry] An accident or incident.
Octave band attenuation data
  • Mean The average attenuation at a particular frequency when measured on a number of people.
  • SD The standard deviation of the data obtained from measurements on a number of people. Standard deviation is a statistical value that is a measure of the variation in the results of the measurements.
  • APV The assumed protective value of a particular protector at a particular frequency. The value is obtained by subtracting one standard deviation from the mean value.
OCDD octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Odorant A substance added to gas to impart a distinctive and unpleasant odour to gas in the atmosphere.
Odour threshold The minimum concentration of a substance in air capable of being detected by the human sense of smell.
OE Original equipment, fitted at the time of manufacture of the vehicle, or a part supplied by the vehicle manufacturer.
Offender In relation to a victim: (a) means a person convicted of the crime or offence that affected the victim; and (b) in sections 17 to 27 (which relate to victim impact statements), includes a person found guilty of, or who pleads guilty to, that crime or offence.
Offending zone The location where luminaires will cause vision problems for office workers. The offending zone is on the ceiling above and in front of the worker.
Offensive trade Any trade, business, manufacture, or undertaking for the time being specified in Schedule 3 to the Health Act 1956. Examples include: blood or offal treating, nightsoil collection and disposal, septic tank desludging and disposal of sludge, fellmongering, wool scouring, tanning.
Off-highway rig Truck designed to operate on private roads.
Official In terms of event management, a person involved in delivering an event, who could be a director, manager, umpire, referee, judge, steward or team manager.
Offshore Beyond the line of high water ordinary spring tides along that portion of the coast that is in direct contact with the open seas and beyond the line marking the seaward limit of inland waters.
Offshore installation Includes any artificial structure (including a floating structure, other than a ship) used or intended to be used in or on, or anchored or attached to, the seabed for the purpose of the exploration for, or the exploitation or associated processing of, any mineral.
Offshore terminal Any place in the sea where cargo is loaded or unloaded.
Ohmmeter An electrical instrument used for testing electrical circuits.
OHS Occupational health and safety.
OHSMS Occupational health and safety management system.
OIA Official Information Act 1982.
OIC Order-in-Council.
Oil Any alcohol or hydrocarbon other than coal, natural gas, or gas as defined in the Gas Act 1992.
Oil fuel unit The equipment used for the preparation of oil fuel for delivery to an oil-fired boiler, or equipment used for the preparation for delivery of heated oil to an internal combustion engine, and includes any oil pressure pumps, filters and heaters dealing with oil at a pressure of more than 0.18N/mm2.
Oil tanker A ship constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil in bulk in its cargo spaces; and includes combination carriers and any 'chemical tanker' as defined in [maritime] rule 141.2 when it is carrying a cargo or part-cargo of oil in bulk.
Oncogenic Causing or encouraging the growth of tumours.
OOS Occupational overuse syndrome.
OP Organophosphate pesticide compound.
Opacity The extent to which a medium is opaque (not allowing light to pass through). Numerically the reciprocal of transmittance.
Open path That part of a building's escape route (including dead ends) not protected by fire or smoke separations, and which terminates at a final exit or exitway.
Open-side carriage Skyline carriage that opens on one side allowing it to travel over intermediate support jacks.
Opencast coal mine (a) Any place where any person works above ground for the purpose of (i) extracting any coal from the earth; or (ii) processing any coal extracted from the earth at that place; and (b) includes any place in which coal so extracted or processed is washed, crushed, or screened.
Operate In relation to equipment: (a) means to use the equipment; and (b) includes making the equipment available for use, whether by hiring or otherwise.
Operate In relation to a vehicle, means to drive or use the vehicle on a road, or to cause or permit the vehicle to be on a road or to be driven on a road, whether or not the person is present with the vehicle.
Operating and maintenance system A documented management system for the operation, maintenance and control of equipment. This system shall incorporate those parts of a quality management system that are appropriate for the equipment concerned and shall be audited by an inspection body.
Operating manual Documentation published by a machine manufacturer that includes its operating range and restrictions, maintenance procedures, general specifications, and other relevant data.
Operating ropes Moving ropes which are reeled in or out during hauling.
Operating speed, 85th percentile speed (V85) The speed at, or below which, 85 percent of vehicles travel under free flowing conditions passing a nominated point. Free flowing refers to a situation when a preceding vehicle has at least six and a half seconds of headway and there is no attempt to overtake a vehicle ahead (speed measurements should be made by unobtrusive means).
Operation The active process of utilising an asset, which will consume resources such as manpower, energy, chemicals and materials. Operation costs are part of the lifecycle costs of an asset.
Operational flight plan The certificate holder's plan for the safe conduct of the flight based on considerations of aeroplane performance, other operating limitations, and relevant expected conditions, on the route to be followed and at the aerodromes concerned.
Operator An employee who controls the use and operation of equipment and who may clean the equipment other than in the course of servicing, maintenance or repair.
Operator certificate A certificate issued to an operator of a business of prostitution under section 35 of the Prostitution Reform Act.
Operator protective structure (OPS) A structure designed to reduce the likelihood of harm to the operator by objects entering the cab of a mobile plant.
Optometrist A health practitioner who (a) is, or is deemed to be, registered with the Optometrists and Dispensing Opticians Board continued by section 114(1)(a) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of the profession of optometry; and (b) holds a current practising certificate.
OR Odds ratio.
Order-in-Council Essentially, an instruction made under the authority of a statute from the Government. Issued by Governor-General on recommendation of Minister under authority of an Act.
Organic material Any material that is or contains (a) material derived from an organism; or (b) an excretion or secretion of an organism (whether or not it also contains material derived from a human being or contains the secretions of a human being).
Organic solvents A group of liquid petroleum-based products, often used as degreasing agents and thinners for example, methylated spirits, kerosene.
Organisation A company, corporation, firm, enterprise or institution, or other legal entity or part thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own function(s) and administration.
Organism Individual animal, plant, bacterium or virus. In the HSNO context, the term:
  • does not include a human being;
  • includes a human cell;
  • includes a micro-organism;
  • includes a genetic structure (other than of human origin ) that is capable of replicating (making copies) of itself;
  • includes an organism defined under the Biosecurity Act 1993;
  • includes a reproductive cell or developmental stageof an organism.
Organochlorine (OC) A chemical molecule with an organic least one bound chlorine atom.
Organotin An organic compound containing bonds to tin.
Originating aircraft Any aircraft about to be used on a regular air transport passenger service from any New Zealand aerodrome, that has been emptied of passengers and goods at the conclusion of a previous flight or flights, but does not include any aircraft transiting New Zealand or any New Zealand airport, in circumstances where passengers and goods are added to an existing load.
OSH Occupational Safety and Health Service of the Department of Labour.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration, US Department of Labor.
OSMS Outdoor safety management system.
Osteoarthritis A chronic degenerative disorder of joints characterised by damage to and loss of articular cartilage. Heavy physical loading, with recurrent kneeling or squatting, is a predisposing factor in an occupational context.
Ottawa Charter A charter for health promotion agreed to at the first International Conference on Health Promotion in Ottawa, Canada in 1986.
Outcome Outcomes are the consequences for the public of the activities of government. Outcomes provide the rationale for government action.
Outcome status The final outcome of a file, for example, settled, withdrawn, not proceeding, etc.
Outdoor air Air as typically comprising by volume. (ai) oxygen 20.94 percent (b) carbon dioxide 0.03 percent (c) nitrogen and other inert gases 79.03 percent.
Outdoor pursuits A subset of outdoor recreation. This term is widely applied to activities that involve moving across natural land and/or water environments by non-mechanised means. For example: biking, orienteering, tramping, rock climbing, cross-country skiing, kayaking, sailing, rafting or caving.
Outdoor recreation Refers to any activity done in the outdoors, spanning the spectrum from gardening, to camping out, to four-wheel driving. It can be mechanised, non-mechanised, involve risk or not involve risk.
Outhaul Segment of a cable logging extraction cycle where the rigging or carriage travels from the hauler or landing, out to the cutover for the next drag.
Outer cordon A physical area surrounding an incident that has been secured by some means to effectively control the entry or exit of people and equipment from that area.
Outer packaging The outer layer of a composite or combination packaging together with any absorbent materials, cushioning and any other components used to contain and protect inner receptacles or inner packaging
Outlier Extreme value of the measured values which exceeds the tabulated value at the chosen significance level.
Output/outcome A good or service produced, for example, providing safety advice. Outcomes are results, for example, safer behaviour.
Outriggers Extendable structural members on a crane carrier used to increase the effective size of the crane base.
Outriggers (needles) Cantilevered beams from which a swinging stage is suspended.
Outwork Refering to the sex industry, is where a sex worker provides commercial sexual services in a client's own home, hotel room or place other than a brothel.
Overall diameter (OD) The diameter of an unloaded tyre, mounted on its recommended rim and inflated to service pressure.
Overcut In felling, where one cut of a scarf is extended beyond the other (potentially dangerous).
Overhand planing machine A machine for planing or smoothing the surface of material by passing it over cutters.
Overhanging pulley A pulley carried on a shaft projecting beyond the last bearing.
Overhead earmuff An earmuff worn with the headband over the head.
Overlay A transparent, translucent or opaque self-adhesive or clinging film that is applied to large areas, or the whole, of a piece of glazing, including anti-glare band overlays and stoneguard overlays.
Overload protection Means a device which prevents the crane from moving into an overload situation by stopping all load moment increasing functions.
Over-pressure protection A device or system for preventing the pressure in gas pipework or in gas appliances from exceeding a predetermined value.
Over run (1) Where rope being spooled off a drum is allowed to go slack; often results in a birdsnest. (2) The tendency for the parts of a machine to continue moving after power has been switched off.
Over spray Paint which during application, will stick to adjacent panels not being painted or that paint which blows into the air during spraying.
Over-wrap In relation to dangerous goods transport means a final, outer layer of packaging that is additional to the packaging required to perform the containment function during transport and is used in addition to outer or sole packaging.
Oxidation Formation of an insulating layer of metallic oxide.
Oxidising Refers to substances that cause or contribute to combustion, generally by making oxygen, and occasionally chlorine or fluorine, available to the combustion.
Oxidising substance and organic peroxides (Class 5.1 Dangerous Goods) Oxidising substances. Substances that are not necessarily combustible, but may cause or contribute to the combustion of other material, usually by yielding oxygen, chlorine or fluorine. Dangerous goods of Division 5.1 are assigned to a packing group according to the degree of danger they present: Packing Group I (high danger); Packing Group II (medium danger); Packing Group III (low danger). Class 5.2 Organic peroxides. Organic substances that contain the bivalent -O-O- structure and may be considered to be derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, in which one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals. Organic peroxides are thermally unstable substances that may undergo exothermic self-accelerating decomposition and may also have one or more of the following properties: (a) be liable to explosive decomposition; (b) burn rapidly; (c) be sensitive to impact or friction; (d) react dangerously with other substances; (e) cause damage to the eyes.
Oxygenates Alcohols and ethers added to fuel.
Oxygenates or oxygenated hydrocarbons Compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, for example alcohols.
Oxygen-deficient atmosphere An atmosphere which does not contain enough oxygen to fully support the body's metabolic processes. It is generally acknowledged that an atmospheric concentration below 18% by volume is deficient in oxygen.
Pacific Island population The population of Pacific Island ethnic origin (for example, Samoan, Cook Island Maori, Tongan, Nuiean, Fijian, and Tokelauan) incorporating people born in New Zealand as well as overseas. Refers to those persons who stated a 'Pacific Island' ethnic group as either their sole ethnic group or as one of several ethnic groups they belonged to at the time of the 1991 Census of Population and Dwellings.
Packaging (1) In relation to hazardous substances, means a container that is a receptacle and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacle to perform its containment function, and includes inner packaging once its outer packaging has been removed. (2) In relation to dangerous goods means any receptacle, container or other material in which a substance may be encased, covered, enclosed, contained or packed, which performs part of the containment function; but does not include a freight container, a skip, a vehicle, a pallet or other article of transport equipment.
Packeting A quantity of timber bound together to form a transportable unit.
Packing group One of three hazard groups into which dangerous goods of Class or Division 3, 4, 5.1, 6.1, 8 and 9 are divided for packaging purposes, and that are ranked in a decreasing order of hazard: Packing Group 'I' (high danger), Packing Group 'II' (medium danger) and Packing Group 'III' (low danger).
PADI Professional Association of Diving Instructors.
PAH Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.
Paint A product in liquid or powder form which, when applied to a surface, forms a dry film having identification, protective, decorative or other specific technical properties.
Pallet Platform on which goods are stacked for storage and/or transportation by fork lift truck.
Pan-life cycle Under the HSNO Act, controls that are applicable to any or all phases of the life cycle of substances - generally irrespective of the substance's hazardous property.
Pan pan Urgency marine radio signal. Used to indicate that the caller has a very urgent message to transmit.
PAR Prescription Animal Remedy, a veterinary medicine registered under the ACVM Act.
PAR Precision approach radar.
Parachute Any device, without a motor in operation, comprising a flexible drag, or lift/drag, surface from which a load is suspended by shroud lines capable of controlled deployment from a packed condition.
Parachute assembly Any parachute and its associated harness and container system and other component parts for use by persons.
Paraesthesia Abnormal sensations in the skin caused by an external stimulus, for example, an insect bite.
Paraglider A hang glider with no rigid primary structure.
Paramedic An ambulance officer with advanced life support skills.
Para-occupational exposure Indirect exposure to a hazardous substance brought from the workplace to another place.
Parenteral Term applied to the administration of drugs by any other route other than by the mouth or by the bowel.
Parking brake A brake readily applicable and capable of remaining applied for an indefinite period without further attention.
Parkinson's disease A neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system associated with damage to the substantia nigra. Persons with the disease characteristically have slow and decreased movement, muscular rigidity, tremor and postural instability. The only known causative occupational exposure is manganese, although pesticides have been strongly implicated.
Particulates A generic term to refer to aerosols such as dust, mists, smoke and fumes.
Parting off The process of cutting off a length from the workpiece in a lathe, using a parting tool.
Pascal The SI unit of pressure. (See also mm Hg). 101.25 kPa = 1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg.
Pascal-squared hours (Pa2h) A measure of the noise exposure of a person. It is an alternative means of stating how much noise to which a person has been exposed. A noise exposure level of 85 dB(A) is the same as 1 Pa2h.
Pass chain A chain which is used to pull or hold a rope.
Pass block Light-weight block hung at the top of a support tree and used to lift the skyline block/jack and other gear in rigging the tree.
Passenger Any person carried on a ship, other than: (a) the master and members of the crew, and any other person employed or engaged in any capacity on board the ship on t he business of the ship: (b) a person on board the ship either in pursuance of an obligation laid upon the master to carry shipwrecked, distressed, or other persons, or by reason of any circumstances that neither the master nor the owner nor the charterer (if any) could have prevented or forestalled: (c) a child under the age of 1 year.
Passenger ropeway A cableway or ropeway: (a) to which the motion of machinery is transmitted; and (b) that is or could be used for conveying in a horizontal or inclined plane persons who are (i) on skis; or (ii) supported by chairs; or (iii) in enclosed cars that are attached to or supported by a moving cable or rope; or attached to a moving cable or rope but supported by a standing cable or rope or some other overhead structure.
Passenger vehicle A vehicle constructed primarily for the carriage of passengers.
Passenger service vehicle (PSV) A vehicle used to carry passengers for hire or reward, or a passenger vehicle with 13 or more seats or any heavy vehicle with 10 seats or more.
Passive inhalation Inhalation of smoke and its contents by individuals not smoking at the time but who take into their airways smoke drifting from other people's cigarettes.
Passive monitor A device which samples the atmosphere by molecular diffusion, with analyte being adsorbed by an adsorbent medium within the sampler; the total mass of analyte collected is proportional to both average analyte concentration in the air and the time for which the sampler is exposed.
Pasteurisation The application of a heat treatment to food that is intended to destroy vegetative forms of pathogenic micro-organisms, reduce or destroy vegetative forms of micro-organisms that cause spoilage or that interfere with desirable fermentations.
Pasting The process in the manufacture of accumulators whereby a mixture containing any oxide of lead or other lead product is added to the plates.
Pathogenicity The quality of producing, or the ability to produce, pathological changes of disease.
Pathology That branch of medicine which treats of the essential nature of disease, especially of the structural and functional changes in tissues and organs of the body which cause or are caused by disease. The structural and functional manifestations of disease.
Pattern Model of a part which is to be made by casting. Must be bigger than the required size to allow for the molten metal to shrink, due to cooling, after it solidifies.
Payload Net weight of the load of a loaded vehicle; gross minus tare weight.
Payload capacity The gross vehicle mass of a vehicle less its unladen mass.
Payload capacity (aircraft) Means: (1) when a maximum zero fuel weight is not prescribed, the maximum certificated takeoff weight of an aircraft, less the empty weight, less all justifiable aircraft equipment, and less the operating load consisting of - (i) the minimum weight of fuel required under the CAR for a flight between domestic points 174 nm apart, assuming VFR weather conditions; and (ii) the lesser of the maximum oil capacity as specified on the Type Certificate Data Sheet or 160 kg of oil; and (iii) required flight crew members at 91 kg per crew member; and (iv) required catering supplies; or (2) when a maximum zero fuel weight is prescribed, the maximum zero fuel weight less the empty weight that, except for disposable fuel and oil, consists of: (i) all justifiable aircraft equipment, and the operating load; and (ii) minimum flight crew at 91 kg per crew member; and (iii) required catering supplies.
Pawl A small pivoted lever which engages in the teeth of a ratchet wheel to prevent it turning backwards.
PbB Lead in blood; measured in microgram of lead per decilitre of blood, µg/dl.
PbD Lead in dust; measured in microgram of lead per gram of dust µg/g (same as mg/kg or ppm).
PbS Lead in soil; measured in microgram of lead per gram of soil, µg/g (same as mg/kg or ppm).
PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls.
PCBU A PCBU is a 'person conducting a business or undertaking'. A PCBU may be an individual person (eg a sole trader) or an organisation, however in most cases a PCBU will be an organisation (eg a business entity such as a company). See The meaning of a PCBU for more information.
PCDDs Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins - a group of structurally related chemicals which resist degradation and include a varying number of chlorine atoms.
PCDD/Fs Collectively the PCDDs and PCDFs.
PCDF Polychlorinated dibenzo furans - a group of structurally related chemicals which resist degradation and include a varying number of chlorine atoms.
PCM Phase contrast microscopy.
PCP Pentachlorophenol, a fungicide used widely as an anti-sapstain treatment on wood from Pinus radiata in the timber industry. PCP contained dioxin and other chlorinated organic impurities.
Peak noise level The highest linear (unweighted) peak sound pressure level in decibels referenced to 20 micropascals determined by sound measuring equipment with 'Peak' time weighting, as specified in the International Standard IEC 651:1979.
PEB Post-election briefing (to the incoming government).
PEC The predicted environmental concentration, being based on an exposure assessment to predict the concentration of the substance which is likely to be found in a particular compartment in the environment.
PEC/PNEC The ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted no effect concentration for the environmental compartment under consideration.
Pedestrian truck (Sometimes called walkie truck.) An industrial truck which the operator is intended to control while NOT riding on the truck.
Pene, peen To burr over or deform the head of a component by hammering.
Peracute Very acute and violent.
Perceived risk The level of risk that is thought to exist by an individual or a group.
Perceptual motor co-ordination (sometimes called motor performance) Refers to the ability to perform skilled movement (for example, tasks involving eye/hand co-ordination).
Percolating hose Fire hose that allows water to weep through it. Weeping helps protect the hose from fire damage. A non-percolating hose does not allow water to weep through it. It has a smooth inner allowing greater pressure and volume, and is used to transport water to fires.
Performance-based approach The performance-based approach [to controls] means that the objective to be achieved by a control is specified in such a way that:
  • it does not limit the technical solutions that can used to achieve the control;
  • a person can measure independently whether or not they are in compliance with the control.
Performance indicator A measure of the quality of a service. This may be numerical or descriptive.
Performance monitoring Continuous or periodic quantitative and qualitative assessments of the actual performance compared with specific objectives, targets or standards.
Performance requirements Controls which say what is to be achieved (including in measurable terms), without being prescriptive.
Performance specification The degree of performance required. 'How much, and of what quality?'
Performance Standard An internationally recognised standard describing the performance of a structure or material in a defined series of tests. Examples are ISO, OECD, SAE, AS, and NZS standards.
Pericardium The fibrous sac surrounding the heart and base of the great vessels.
Peri-conceptional Around the time of birth.
Peripheral neuropathy Term describing a group of disorders characterised by temporary or permanent damage to nerves outside the central nervous system.
Peripheral neurotoxins Substances that result in damage to nerves. In the occupational environment, these include metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic; organic solvents such as n-hexane, carbon disulphide and trichloroethylene; pesticides such as organophosphates; and other substances such as acrylamide.
Peritoneum The membrane lining the abdominal cavity. It is derived from the same type of embryological tissue as the pleura.
Permanent gas A gas that has a critical temperature at or below 0°C, where critical temperature is the temperature above which the gas cannot be liquefied by increasing the pressure.
Permit A written order giving permission to act, especially for entry into a place.
Permit to work (1) Specifies details of the location and type of work to be done, confirms that identified hazards have been evaluated, and specifies the necessary protective measures. (2) See Written authority.
Persistence The quality of remaining for a long period of time (such as in the environment or the body). Persistent chemicals (such as DDT and PCBs) are not easily broken down.
Persistent organic pollutant (POP) (a) Means a substance listed in Schedule 2A [HSNO Act] and (b) includes a substance containing one or more of those substances; but (c) does not include a substance occurring in quantities as unintentional trace contaminants in products and articles.
Person An individual, corporation, partnership, legal entity, or business. Includes the Crown.
Person intending to work A person who has been offered, and accepted, work as an employee; and 'intended work' has a corresponding meaning.
Person-years The number of years that a person in a study population has been observed.
Person who controls a place of work In terms of the HSE Act is a person who, in relation to a place of work, is: (a) the owner, lessee, sublessee, occupier or person in possession, of the place or any part of it; or (b) the owner, lessee, sublessee, or bailee of any plant in the place. A home may be a place of work, but the person whose home it is does not have the duties of a person in control of a place of work in relation to it.
Person with disabilities Any person who suffers from physical or mental disability to such a degree that he or she is seriously limited in the extent to which he or she can engage in the activities, pursuits, and the processes of everyday life.
Personal care Help with personal care, for example, bathing, showering, dressing (also known as attendant care).
Personal flotation device Any serviceable buoyancy aid that is designed to be worn on the body and that is certified by a recognised authority as meeting: (a) type 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, or 408 in NZ Standard 5823:1989 or NZ Standard 5823:2001; or (b) a national or international standard that the Director is satisfied substantially complies with types 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, or 408 of the NZ Standard 5823:1989 or NZ Standard 5823:2001.
Personal grievance Any grievance that an employee may have against the employee's employer or former employer because of a claim: (a) that the employee has been unjustifiably dismissed; or (b) that the employee's employment, or 1 or more conditions of the employee's employment (including any condition that survives termination of the employment), is or are or was (during employment that has since been terminated) affected to the employee's disadvantage by some unjustifiable action by the employer; or (c) that the employee has been discriminated against in the employee's employment; or (d) that the employee has been sexually harassed in the employee's employment; or (e) that the employee has been racially harassed in the employee's employment; or (f) that the employee has been subject to duress in the employee's employment in relation to membership or non-membership of a union or employees organisation.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) Any item of equipment used to protect a person from hazards, for example, safety helmet, safety goggles, safety belt and line.
Personal samples Atmospheric samples collected within the breathing zone of the worker are called personal samples.
Pest (a) Includes any unwanted living organism including micro-organisms, pest agents, and any genetic structure that is capable of replicating itself (whether that structure comprises all or only part of an entity, and whether it comprises all or only part of the total genetic structure of an entity) that may affect plants, animals, or raw primary produce; and (b) Includes any entity declared to be a pest for the purposes of this Act by Order in Council made under subsection (2): (c) Does not include (i) any human being or living organism which affects only human beings; and (ii) any living organism declared not to be a pest by Order in Council.
Pest agent In relation to any pest, means any organism capable of: (a) helping the pest replicate, spread, or survive; or (b) interfering with the management of the pest.
Pest risk assessment Determination of whether a pest is a quarantine pest and evaluation of its introduction potential.
Pesticide Chemical poisons used to kill pests. Includes herbicides, insecticides and fungicides.
P.E.T.N. Penta-erythritol-tetra-nitrate.
Petechial A small red spot caused by a minute haemorrhage into the skin.
Petrol A refined petroleum distillate, normally boiling within the limits of 15°C to 220°C, whether or not it contains additives, that is intended for use as a fuel in spark-ignition internal combustion engines.
Petroleum (a) Means (i) A naturally occurring hydrocarbon (other than coal), whether solid state; or (ii) A naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons (other than coal), gaseous, liquid, or solid state; or (iii) A naturally occurring mixture of 1 or more hydrocarbons (other in a gaseous, liquid, or solid state, and 1 or more of carbon dioxide, sulphide, mercaptan, or nitrogen; and (b) Includes petroleum, as defined in paragraph (a), that has been (i) Mined or otherwise recovered from its natural condition; or (ii) Mined or otherwise recovered from its natural condition and reservoir for storage purposes in the same or an adjacent area.
PFCs Perfluorocarbons.
PFDs Personal floatation devices.
PFV (Plastic-Filled Valley) Wire rope with plastic around the component strands and filling the valleys of the rope.
PGDB Plumbers, Gasfitters and Drainlayers Board.
PGD Act Plumbers, Gasfitters and Drainlayers Act 1976.
PGDipHealMgt Postgraduate Diploma in Health Management.
PGDHealSc Postgraduate Diploma in Health Sciences, endorsed in Occupational Health.
pg/g Concentration units in picograms(pg) per gram(g) where a picogram is 10-12 grams.
pg/kg bw/day Measure of intake in picograms per kilogram body weight per day.
pH A value representing how acid or alkaline a solution is. Pure water is neutral at pH7. Acids have a pH of less than 7. The lower the number, the stronger the acid (minimum 0). Alkalis have a pH greater than 7.
Pharmaceutical (a) A prescription medicine, a restricted medicine, or a pharmacy-only medicine, as listed in Parts 1, 2, and 3 of Schedule 1 of the Medicines Regulations 1984; or (b) a controlled drug as defined in the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975.
Pharmacist A health practitioner who: (a) is, or is deemed to be, registered with the Pharmacy Council established by section 114(5) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of the profession of pharmacy; and (b) holds a current practising certificate.
Pharmacokinetics The quantitative description of the fate of an exogenous substance in an organism. It involves the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (metabolism and excretion equal elimination) of the substance by the organism.
PHO Primary Health Organisation.
Phosphocreatine A compound in muscles that releases energy for muscle contraction.
Photoallergic contact dermatitis A skin condition brought on by exposure to light following skin contact with certain types of chemicals, such as sulphonamides.
Photochemical reactions Chemical reactions that occur in the presence of sunlight.
Physical hazard A workplace hazard such as noise, vibration, extremes of temperature, manual handling movements and postures, and work at heights.
Physical state/form Whether a product is in a solid, liquid, or gaseous state at room temperature (20°C).
Physiotherapist A health practitioner who (a) is, or is deemed to be, registered with the Physiotherapy Board continued by section 114(1)(a) of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 as a practitioner of the profession of physiotherapy; and (b) holds a current practising certificate.
Phytotoxic Poisonous to plants.
Pickling Removal of dirt, rust, etc. by immersion in acid.
Picograms per cubic metre 1 thousand billionth of a gram of a substance in a cubic metre of air, soil or water.
PIEAC Petroleum Industry Emergency Action Committee.
Piezoelectric effect Production of an electric field by applying mechanical strain to crystals such as quartz.
Pigment Insoluble fine particles giving paint colour and opacity.
Pillow mount bearings Bearings supplied with their own housings, adapters and seals. They mostly incorporate self-aligning bearings which do not require precision mounting.
Pilot In relation to any ship, means any person not being the master or a member of the crew of the ship who has the conduct of the ship.
Pilot-in-command In relation to any aircraft, means the pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft.
Pilot vehicle A motor vehicle that escorts an overdimension and/or overweight motor vehicle, and that warns road users of the potential hazard created by the overdimension and/or overweight motor vehicle, or its load, or both.
PIMs Poisons information monographs.
Pinch point A point at which it is possible to be caught between moving parts, or between moving and stationary parts, of a piece of equipment. For an arm, the distance will be less than 100 mm.
Pinching In tree felling, when a cut being made closes on the cutter bar, trapping the saw.
Pinion The smaller of a pair of gear wheels.
Pipe or tubing A tubular material made to dimensional specifications wherein a diameter is specified internally, externally or as a nominal diameter.
Pipeline (petroleum) (a) Means: (i) Any pipeline that was authorised under the Petroleum Act 1937; or (ii) any pipeline or proposed pipeline likely to be permanent and used or intended to be used for the conveyance of any mineral, petroleum, geothermal fluid, natural gas, or any other fluid that, at ambient conditions, has inherent properties that may create a significant hazard; and (b) Includes any part of a pipeline or proposed pipeline, including (i) any directly associated fitting, pig launcher, or receiver; and (ii) any pressure vessel and its associated appurtenances, including any compressor, filter, separator, coalescer, or pulsation bottle; and (iii) any natural gas cooler associated with any pipeline compressor, pump, or tank; and (iv) any appurtenance required for the conveyance of the product or material in the pipeline or for its safe operation; but (c) Does not include (i) any bulk storage installation; or (ii) any pipeline wholly within the boundary of the plant that the pipeline is servicing; or (iii) any pipeline between a bulk storage installation and another form of transport that is not an extension of a pipeline as defined in these regulations; or (iv) any pipeline with a pressure of 2000 kP gauge or less under the control of a gas distributor and used to distribute gas from the boundary of the gasworks or gate station or outlet flange supplying gas for distribution; or (v) any pipeline or part of a pipeline offshore that forms part of an offshore petroleum operation; or (vi) any pipeline 150 mm in diameter or less that is not associated with the production of electricity and that contains geothermal fluids; or (vii) any pipelines solely used for the purposes of conveying water.
Piping components (pressure equipment) Means (a) bolting, fittings, flanges, gaskets, pipes, supports, tubing, and valves; (b) mechanical elements that are or could be assembled or joined to form pressure piping systems; (c) dryers, expansion joints, flexible joints, pressure hoses, strainers, traps, or similar devices (i) that are associated with a kind of pressure equipment the purpose of which is to contain all or any of the following: - gases at pressures exceeding 50 kPag; or - liquids at pressures exceeding 50 kPag; or - team; and (ii) including all items and safety devices that are necessary to maintain the safety of the kind of pressure equipment, whether the kind of pressure equipment stands alone or is part of an operating system.
Pipeline riser A section of pipeline containing petroleum and greater than 40 mm in diameter that (a) connects an installation to a section of pipeline lying in or in close proximity to the seabed; and (b) extends outwards from the installation.
Pitch Distance between centres of similar items, for example, screw thread peaks, gear teeth, chain rollers, rivet holes, etc.
Pitch In human hearing, pitch corresponds to frequency. Frequency is the number of pressure fluctuations or vibrations per second, and is measured in Hertz (Hz). If high frequency tones (for example,, 20,000Hz) predominate, they are regarded as high-pitched sounds with low-frequency tones regarded as low-pitched.
Pitch On a chainsaw, a measure of chain size. Measured as 1/2 the distance between any three rivets.
Pivot steer vehicle A vehicle with a chassis that is split into two dependent parts that are connected by a permanent steering pivot.
PJ Petajoules.
Placard Any of the following attached to the outside of vehicles, tanks, freight containers or containers for bulk quantities of dangerous goods: (a) an enlarged version of a label representing a class or division of dangerous goods; (b) a black and orange horizontally striped label displaying either the word 'DANGEROUS' or 'HAZARDOUS'; (c) an emergency information panel.
Placarding Affixing an enlarged label (a placard) to the exterior surfaces of a cargo transport unit, unit load, or overpack to provide warning that the contents of the unit are dangerous goods and present risks, unless the labels or marks affixed to the packages are clearly visible from the exterior of the unit.
Place of work A place (whether or not within or forming part of a building, structure, or vehicle) where any person is to work, is working, for the time being works, or customarily works, for gain or reward; and, in relation to an employee, includes a place under control of the employer.
Plain bearing A bearing where the moving part is supported by a stationary sleeve made of a bearing metal and lubricated.
Planing machine A woodworking machine that is used either for overhand planing or for thicknessing or for both operations.
Planing speed On a jet boat, a speed of 35 kilometres per hour or more.
Plans and specifications (building) The drawings, specifications, and other documents according to which a building is proposed to be constructed, altered, demolished, or removed, including proposed procedures for inspection during construction, alteration, demolition, or removal, and also including (in respect of construction or alteration) (a) the intended use of the building; and (b) the design features or systems which the applicant considers will be required to be included in any compliance schedule issued in terms of section 44 of the Buildings Act 1991; and (c) the proposed procedures for inspection and routine maintenance for the purposes of that compliance schedule in respect of those design features or systems.
Plant Plant includes any: (a) appliance, equipment, fitting, furniture, implement, machine, machinery, tool, and vehicle; and (b) part of any plant, the controls of any plant, and any thing connected to any plant.
Plasma A body of ionised gas produced when a welding arc generates a temperature high enough to enable a gas to dissociate into positive ions and electrons. The gas in the centre of the arc is dissociated into a plasma. It then flows away from the centre of the arc and reassociates itself to produce neutral atoms, giving up its energy in the form of heat.
Plate magnet A permanently magnetised plate, usually mounted in the bottom of a chute.
Platen The work table of a machine, usually provided with 'tee' slots for attaching jigs, dies, or workpieces. May be fixed or moving.
Play Slack or wear between two parts of a machine.
Playground equipment Equipment and structures, including components and constructional elements, with, or on which, children can play outdoors or indoor, either individually or in groups, according to their own rules or own reasons for playing, which can change at any time.
Playing surface Surface of a playground from which the use of the playground equipment commences.
Pleasure craft A ship that is used exclusively for the owner's pleasure or as the owner's residence, and is not offered or used for hire or reward; but does not include: (a) a ship that is provided for transport or sport or recreation by or on behalf of any institution, hotel, motel, place of entertainment, or other establishment or business: (b) a ship that is used on any voyage for pleasure if it is normally used or intended to be normally used as a fishing ship or for the carriage of passengers or cargo for hire or reward: (c) a ship that is operated or provided by any club, incorporated society, trust, or business.
Pleura The membrane lining the chest cavity and the lungs.
Pleural effusion A collection of fluid in the pleural cavity.
Pleural plaque A non-malignant localised mass of tissue arising from the pleura.
Pleural thickening A more diffuse, non-malignant, mass of tissue arising from the pleura.
Plies Sheets of rubber-coated textile or steel wire cords from which the casing of a tyre is constructed. A single ply consists of a sheet of cord fabric or steel in which the cords run parallel to one another and are insulated from each other by a layer of resilient rubber compound.
Plug A fitting designed to be attached to a flexible cord, which has exposed pins, arranged to enter and fit into a socket or a socket-outlet. A plug will have 2 or 3 pins depending on whether the appliance fed from it has an earth connection or is double insulated.
Plugged cylinder One in which a permanent closure in the base of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.
Ply rating The term 'ply rating' is now used to identify a given tyre with its maximum recommended load for its specific job. It is an index of tyre strength and does not necessarily represent the number of actual plies. The ply rating system is being discontinued in favour of load indices.
PM10 Particulate matter that is: (a) less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter; and (b) measured in accordance with the United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 - Protection of Environment, Volume 2, Part 50, Appendix J - Reference method for the determination of particulate matter as PM10 in the atmosphere.
PMS Patient management system.
PNEC The predicted no effect concentration, being an effect assessment derived from ecotoxicity data to predict the concentration of the substance below which adverse effects in the environmental sphere of concern (ecosystems and communities) are not expected to occur.
PECPR Regulations Health and Safety in Employment (Pressure Equipment, Cranes and Passenger Ropeways) Regulations 1999.
Pneumatic cylinder Similar to a hydraulic cylinder but uses compressed air as a working fluid.
Pneumatic tyre A tyre that, when in use, is inflated by air or gas introduced from time to time under pressure so as to enclose under normal inflation a cushion of air or gas forming altogether at least half of the total area of an average cross-section of a tyre so inflated.
Pneumatic (machines) Machines producing or powered by compressed air or other compressed gases.
Pneumococcal disease A common community infection. It usually causes respiratory tract infection, mainly pneumonia in adults, but may also cause severe, widespread infection. The risk of pneumococcal disease is increased by exposure to tobacco smoke, including environmental tobacco smoke.
Pneumoconiosis Fibrotic lung diseases caused only by occupational exposure to specific mineral dusts. The most important of these are silicosis, asbestosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis, which are caused by exposure to silica, asbestos and coal dust respectively.
Point source emissions Emissions of wastes from significant, fixed sources such as large industrial premises.
Poison Under the HSNO Act means a deadly poison, a dangerous poison, and a standard poison, as listed in the relevant Schedules to the Toxic Substances Regulations 1983.
Poisson distribution A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a time or space continuum.
Pole cap A steel cap fitted to the top of a spar, to which guys and/or blocks are attached.
Pole strap A work positioning strap designed to be placed around a power pole and attached at two points, one on each side of a body belt, whilst the wearer is working on the pole.
Pole trailer A trailer that is attached to a towing vehicle by a telescoping or sliding pole, and is designed to support a common long load spanning between the trailer and the towing vehicle.
Polydipsia Increased water consumption.
Polymer Large molecules built up by the combination of many small molecules through a chemical process called polymerisation. These molecules can consist of many thousands of atoms in chains or networks of repeating units.
Polyurethane A chemical linkage in finishes, plastic parts and flexible parts. Polyurethane paints are known for their durability.
Polyuria Increased urination.
Pooling substance A hazardous substance that (a) is a liquid; or (b) is likely to liquefy in a fire.
POPs Persistent organic pollutants. Organic chemicals which are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, and transported by natural and meteorological processes over long ranges. POPs are the subject of an international effort for global regulation. They include, among other chemicals, PCDD/DFs, PCBs and OC pesticides.
Population attributable risk (PAR) The difference between the incidence (or mortality) rate of a specified disease in the total population and in those not exposed to a given risk factor for the disease.
Population health The health of groups, families and communities. Populations may be defined by locality, biological criteria such as age or gender, social criteria such as socioeconomic status, or cultural criteria such as whanau.
Port A coastal marine area within a harbour occupied by a port company pursuant to a coastal permit issued under section 384A of the Resource Management Act 1991, or pursuant to any other lawful right of occupation, and includes any berth or channel that is agreed by the regional council and the port company to be the responsibility of the port company.
Port company A port company established under the Port Companies Act 1988 and any other operator of a port facility as determined by a regional council.
Port facility A location, as determined by the chief executive, where the ship-port interface takes place, including areas such as anchorages, waiting berths, and approaches from seaward; and includes fixed and floating platforms.
Port facility security officer The person designated by the operator of a port facility as responsible for the development, implementation, revision, and maintenance of the port facility security plan and for liaison with the ship security officer.
Port facility security plan A plan developed to ensure the application of measures designed to protect the port facility and ships, persons, cargo, cargo transport units, and ship's stores within the port facility from the risks of a security incident.
Port Safety Inspector A Port Safety Inspector of the Maritime Safety Director of New Zealand.
Port work or port operation Means and includes all and any part of the work of loading and unloading of any ship as well as any work incidental thereto, including warehousing, clerical, rail and road transport operators and others that are employed within the port confines.
Portable tank A tank having a capacity of more than 450 litreswhose shell is fitted with items of service equipment and structural equipment necessary for the transport of dangerous substances whose vapour pressure is not more than 3 bar (absolute) at a temperature of 50°C. It is a tank that has stabilising members external to the shell and is not permanently secured on board the ship. Its contents should not be loaded or discharged while the tank remains on board. It should be capable of being loaded and discharged without the need of removal of its structural equipment and be capable of being lifted on and off the ship when loaded.
Positive display A method of VDU screen character display that shows dark characters on a bright backgound (like paper).
Positive pressure Condition that exists when more air is supplied to a space than is exhausted, so the air pressure within that space is greater than that in surrounding areas.
Possible carcinogen Compound that has shown some evidence for carcinogenity in animals but for which there is no human data.
Post-border detection Detection of a pest after biosecurity clearance has been completed.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder An anxiety disorder, beyond the normal response to stress, caused by exposure to a highly traumatic event that has been excessively demanding. In an emergency, it can affect both victims and emergency service and other aid personnel.
Postural fixity The task can be carried out in only one working posture, often due to inflexibility resulting from the design of the workplace. This postural fixity results in static loading of the musculoskeletal system and should be avoided. e.g, computer workstation furniture that is non-adjustable and is not the appropriate size and shape for the user. Or, a term used by Grieco (1986) to describe the static postures of the head, neck and trunk that occur in VDT work.
Potable water Water that satisfies health standards with respect to its chemical and biological composition and is agreeable to drink.
Potency Refers to the strength of a drug or preparation. In the case of cannabis, potency is measured by the THC content.
Potential daily exposure (PDE) The amount of a hazardous substance (mg/kg body weight/day) that a person is likely to be exposed to through a particular exposure route.
Potentiometric method Method of analysis by which a known quantity of gas is first passed through a solution, where a specific gas component or a group of components is (are) selectively absorbed, then the absorbed analyte(s) in the solution is (are) evaluated by potentiometric titration. NOTE: The result is a titration curve showing the potentiometric end points for the components being sought versus the titration solutions required. From this data, the concentrations of the various components can be calculated.
Powder-actuated fastening tool A hand tool for driving a pin, stud, bolt, or similar object into or through building materials, by means of an explosive force derived from the detonation of a cartridge containing an explosive.
Powder coating A coating that is applied to the surface as a finely ground powder then heated above its melting point and flows together, creating a consistent film.
Power Rate at which work is done or electrical energy is converted into work.
Power flux density The amount of radiofrequency energy passing through a given area. It is measured in watts per square metre (W/m2) or in microwatts per square centimetre (µW/cm2), the latter being 1/100th of the former. The normal relationship between power flux density and electric and magnetic field strength does not apply within 100-200 m of AM transmitters.
Power grip A type of grip action associated with use of a hand tool, for example, a hammer. In a power grip, the fingers and thumb are used to clamp the object against the palm of the hand. This grip is a more powerful grip than precision as it allows approximately four times more force to be applied.
Powered glider An aircraft equipped with one or more engines which has, with the engine or engines not operating, the performance characteristics of a glider.
Powered industrial lift truck A vehicle drawn, propelled and operated by mechanical, electrical or manual power, designed incorporating a powered lift principally to lift, carry or stack goods by means of: (a) A fork consisting of one or more arms which support the load; or (b) A platform; or (c) Any attachment or other mechanism. Without limiting the above definition this includes forklifts, order pickers, side loaders, reach trucks, platform trucks, powered pallet trucks, straddle trucks and lateral stacking trucks.
Powered swinging stage A temporary working platform suspended on wire ropes from an overhead structure on a building, to provide access to parts of the building.
Power-operated elevating work platform A working platform whose height is adjusted by powered means using articulation, scissors mechanism, telescoping boom or tower, or any combination of these. It may be vehicle mounted, self-propelled, towed, or manually moved. It includes personnel buckets temporarily or permanently attached to truck hoists.
Power supply cord A flexible cord that is connected to an electrical appliance and has a plug for connection to a socket-outlet.
Power take off (PTO) shaft The means by which the power of the tractor is used to drive trailed or mounted rotating equipment (hay baler, rotary hoe, mower, forage harvester, spray pump, etc.)
PPB Parts per billion.
PPE Personal protective equipment.
PPHM Parts per hundred million.
PPL Paid parental leave.
PPM Parts per million - ppm (w/v) in water = mg/l ppm (w/w) in solids = mg/kg.
PRA Prostitution Reform Act 2003.
Pratique Permission for an aircraft, after landing, to disembark and commence operation. The primary purpose of the process of requesting and granting pratique is to help prevent the spread of infectious disease via international travel.
Precautionary approach An approach specified in the HSNO Act requiring all persons exercising powers and functions under the Act to take into account the need for caution in managing adverse effects where there is scientific and technical uncertainty about those effects.
Precision Closeness of agreement between independent measurement results obtained under prescribed conditions NOTE 1: Precision depends only on the distribution of random errors and does not relate to the true value. NOTE 2: Precision is a qualitative term relating to the dispersion between the results of measurements of the same measurand, carried out under specified conditions of measurement. Quantitative measures of precision such as variance or standard deviation critically depend on the variation implied by the specified measurement conditions.
Precision approach procedure (aircraft) An instrument approach procedure utilising azimuth and glide path information.
Precision grip A type of grip action associated with use of a hand tool for example, a pen or a pair of tweezers. In a precision grip, the object is manipulated between the pads of the finger and thumb.
Preclearance Phytosanitary certification and/or clearance in the country of origin, performed by or under the regular supervision of the national plant protection organisation of the country of origin.
Pre-fell Area felled ahead of the extraction phase of the logging operation, usually associated with hauler logging or when shifting to a new stand.
Pre-flight information bulletin A presentation of current NOTAM information of operational significance, prepared prior to flight.
Premature mortality The social burden of fatal health outcomes, measured in terms of years of life lost.
Premises Includes a dwelling, building, aircraft, ship, carriage, vehicle, box, receptacle, and place.
Pre-moulded earplug An earplug that is inserted into the ear canal without the need for prior shaping. They are made from a number of materials and are often available in a range of sizes.
Presbyacusis The gradual loss of hearing that can be attributed to the ageing process.
Preservation In relation to resources under the Conservation Act 1987, means the maintenance, so far as is practicable, of their intrinsic value.
Prescribed electrical work Electrical work prescribed in regulations made under section 169 of the Electricity Act, being work that falls into any of the following categories: (a) the construction or maintenance of electrical installations; (b) the maintenance of electrical appliances; (c) the connection or disconnection of works, electrical installations, and electrical appliances to or from a power supply, other than by means of: (i) a plug; or (ii) an appliance inlet; or (iii) a pin that is inserted into a socket outlet.
Prescription medicine A medicine that is declared by regulations made under this Act [Medicines Act] or by a notice given under section 106 to be one that, except as may be permitted by regulations made under this Act, may be (a) sold by retail only under a prescription given by a practitioner, registered midwife, veterinarian, or a designated prescriber; and (b) supplied in circumstances corresponding to retail sale only (i) under a prescription given by a practitioner, registered midwife, veterinarian, or a designated prescriber; or (ii) in accordance with a standing order; and (c) administered only in accordance with (i) a prescription given by a practitioner, registered midwife, veterinarian, or a designated prescriber; or a standing order.
Presence sensing (machine guard) A guard which, without placing a physical barrier between the operator and the dangerous parts of the machine, senses the approach of a body or part of a body and, ensures that: (a) while any part of an operator's body is within the sensing field of the device, dangerous motion cannot start; and (b) should any part of the operator's body enter the sensing field of the device while the machine is operating, all dangerous motion shall stop before the operator can reach the dangerous parts.
Pressure altitude An atmospheric pressure, expressed in terms of altitude, which corresponds to that pressure in the standard atmosphere.
Pressure containment parts Includes coils, drums, interconnecting parts, tubes, and vessels.
Pressure control device A device that automatically regulates, to a predetermined level, the pressure of the gas passing through it.
Pressure equipment Includes a boiler, boiler piping, compressor, fired heater, gas turbine, hot water boiler, piping component, pressure fitting, pressure piping, pressure vessel, pump, steam engine, or steam turbine.
Pressure fittings (a) Fittings that are associated with a kind of pressure equipment the purpose of which is to contain all or any of the following: (i) gases at pressures exceeding 50 kPag; or (ii) liquids at pressures exceeding 50 kPag; or (iii) steam; and (b) Includes all mountings, pressure gauges, safety devices, valves, and other articles necessary to maintain the safety of the pressure equipment, whether the pressure equipment stands alone or is part of an operating system.
Pressure piping (a) An assembly of piping components the purpose of which is to convey fluid, or transmit a fluid pressure, for any of the following or any combination of them: (i) gases at pressures exceeding 50 kPag; or (ii) liquids at pressures exceeding 50 kPag; or (iii) steam; and (b) Includes all pressure relief discharge piping up to the point of release; and (c) Includes all supports for pressure piping necessary to maintain the safety of the pressure equipment, whether the pressure equipment stands alone or is part of an operating system.
Pressure relief The controlled and automatic relief of pressure to a safe disposal location or system by the operation of a safety valve.
Pressure test A hydraulic or pneumatic test carried out by applying a pressure greater than the safe working pressure to pressure-retaining parts or sections of pressure equipment to prove the pressure integrity of the construction, or, the adequacy of modifications or repairs made to it.
Pressure vessel (a) Means an unfired vessel the purpose of which is to hold, process store, transport, or use all or any of the following: (i) gases at pressures exceeding 50 kPag: (ii) liquids at pressures exceeding 50 kPag: (iii) steam; and (b) Includes all fittings, mountings, piping, and supports necessary to maintain the safety of the pressure vessel, whether the pressure vessel stands alone or is part of an operating system; and (c) Includes vessels heated by electricity or heated by a hot gas or liquid; but (d) Does not include fixed roofed or floating roofed storage tanks.
Pre-stropping Attaching strops to logs for the next drag while the previous drags are being extracted.
Prevalence The number of cases of a disease at a point in time.
Preventable harm Harm caused by action or inaction rather than by an underlying disease or disability, which could have been reasonably foreseeable and prevented given the state of technology and knowledge at the time the harm occurred.
Primary container A container that is in direct contact with the dangerous goods that it contains and may be either the inner packaging of a combination packaging or a sole packaging.
Primary explosive substance A substance that: (a) has the necessary sensitivity to heat, friction, or shock to make it suitable for initiating secondary detonating explosive substances and articles; and (b) when incorporated into an explosive article, is known as a primer or detonator.
Primary health care Essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound, culturally appropriate and socially acceptable methods. It is universally accessible to people in their communities, involves community participation, is integral to, and a central function of, the country's health system, and is the first level of contact with the health system.
Primary prevention (1) Measures taken to prevent hazardous conditions arising. (2) The prevention of any possibility of introduction of disease into a person.
Primary produce Any plant or animal, or any derivative of any plant or animal, intended for sale.
Primary producer Means a farmer, and includes: - any person who (otherwise than as an employee) farms, raises, grows, or keeps animals for reward or for the purposes of trade in those animals or in animal material or products derived or taken from those animals; and - any person who hunts animals for reward or for purposes of trade.
Primary risk The most significant hazard posed by the a substance and is the hazard by which the substance is classified.
Primary standard Standard that is designated or widely acknowledged as having the highest metrological qualities and whose value is accepted without reference to other standards of the same quantity [VIM] [45] NOTE 1: The concept of primary standard is equally valid for base quantities and derived quantities. NOTE 2: A primary standard is never used directly for measurements other than for comparison with duplicate or reference standards. In general the National Standards Laboratory is responsible for the conservation of a primary standard in a country.
Prime contractor A person transporting their own dangerous goods, or a person who is responsible or undertakes to be responsible for the transport of dangerous goods from one place to another; but does not include a subcontractor engaged by that person.
Prime mover An engine, motor, or other appliance that provides mechanical energy derived from steam water, wind, electricity, gas, gaseous products, or any other source, and includes any device which converts stored or potential energy into movement or mechanical energy.
Primer A cartridge of high explosive into which a detonator or detonating fuse has been inserted or attached.
Principal A person who or that engages any person otherwise than as an employee to do any work for gain or reward.
Principal display panel In relation to a label, means the panel on the label on which the trade name of the product is displayed most prominently; and, where the name is displayed equally prominently on two or more panels, includes every such panel.
Privacy The degree to which information is restricted to specific individuals, as defined by the Privacy Act.
Probability of Exceedance Level (PEL) The probability that any event of specific size or larger will occur in a given period of time. If an event has a return time of one in one hundred years, then there is a 1% PEL that the event will occur this year.
Probable carcinogen A compound that has shown some evidence of carcinogenity in humans, or, lacking adequate data on humans, there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenity in animals.
Procedure A collection of techniques that, when used together, enables a total task outcome to be completed.
Product name The brand name, trade name, code name, or code number specified by the manufacturer or importer.
Product specific approval That part of an ACVM registration of an agricultural compound or veterinary medicine trade product that specifies the particular use requirements for that product in regard to manufacture, importation, sale, establishing control, identifying treated plants or animals, avoiding violative residues, notifying purchasers or processors, etc.
Production thinning Cutting selected stems from a stand for extraction and sale.
Professional outdoor instructor A professional who meets best practice standards set down by the national body responsible for the particular outdoor activity (for example, tramping leader/instructor, the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council).
Professional teacher A registered teacher who has been through an annual appraisal process and met the professional standards for a teacher.
Profile Graphic representation of ground configuration.
Programme A group of activities directed towards achieving defined objectives and targets.
Programme evaluation The assessment of policies, materials, personnel, performance, quality of practice or services and other inputs and implementation experiences.
Programmable logic controller An electronic device which continuously accepts inputs from field devices and sensors and controls outputs, in accordance with an internal programme. Device which accepts a series of programming steps to perform logical functions.
Prohibition notice Notice issued by an OSH inspector under the HSE Act, prohibiting a work activity until the hazard is eliminated.
Promulgated information incident An incident that involves significantly incorrect, inadequate, or misleading information promulgated in any aeronautical information publication, map or chart.
Proof load The total load that any lifting appliance or loose cargo gear is subjected to under test.
Proper shipping name In relation to dangerous goods, means the name given as the proper shipping name for a substance in: (a) New Zealand Standard 5433:1999, Transport of Dangerous Goods on Land; (b) United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; (c) International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; (d) Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air of the International Civil Aviation Organisation; (e) Dangerous Goods Regulations of the International Air Transport Association.
Propellant explosive substance A substance that deflagrates (i.e. is capable of a steady high rate of production of gas sufficient to generate a force capable of producing movement or physical change, the rate of gas production under confinement is able to result in a detonation).
Propeller A device, for propelling an aircraft, that has blades on an engine-driven shaft and that when rotated produces by its action on the air, a thrust approximately perpendicular to its plane of rotation. It includes control components normally supplied by its manufacturer, but does not include main and auxiliary rotors or rotating airfoils of engines.
Prophylaxis Treatment or action adopted with a view to warding off disease.
Propping A system of temporary supports to prevent movement or unintended collapse.
Prostitution The provision of commercial sexual services.
Protected path That portion of an exitway within a firecell which is protected from the effects of smoke by smoke separations.
Protected work Means: (a) any dwellinghouse, or any place of worship, public building, university, college, school, hospital, public institution, Court, theatre, or other building in which persons are accustomed to assemble; and (b) any factory, workshop, office, store, warehouse, shop, or other building where persons are regularly employed for the purpose of any trade or business, and any other building which a licensing authority may consider is of sufficient importance or value to warrant protection; and (c) any wooden decked wharf (not being a wharf specifically designed for the transfer of dangerous goods), public railway (not being a siding), or timber yard, and any place where it is customary for ships to berth, moor, or lie, but does not include a small office or other building connected with the storage or use of dangerous goods on premises in which such storage or use is a major function.
Protection In relation to resources under the Conservation Act 1987, means their maintenance, as far as is practicable, in their current state but includes restoration to some former state and augmentation, enhancement or expansion.
Protective eyewear Any eye wear that complies with Australian/New Zealand Standard 1337: 1992 Eye protectors for industrial applications, Amendment 1 Sept 1994: Amendment 2 October 1997, or any other Standard embodying the same or more stringent criteria.
Protective leg-wear (chainsaw) Any leg-wear that meets the Australian/New Zealand standard 4453.3 (1997). Protective clothing of users of handheld chainsaws Part 3 Protective legwear.
Protective fitting A fitting that interrupts the flow of electricity to a circuit or part of a circuit under adverse conditions of over-current, short-circuit,or leakage to earth: and (without limitation) includes circuit-breakers, fuses, RCDs, and fault current limiters.
Proteinuria Protein in urine.
Prothrombin Blood clotting agent.
Protocol The written design of any course of action in experimental service and/or medical intervention. The protocol will summarise the activities of the participants and considers the guidelines that should be followed and outlines the best practices that are generally recognised by professional persons who may be contributing to that course of action.
Protocol Form of international agreement, for example the Biosafety Protocol.
Provisional Improvement Notice (PIN) A written noticed issued by a Health and Safety Representative (HSR) to a person or business, telling them to address a health and safety concern in the workplace. A PIN can only be issued by an HSR who has completed initial or additional HSR health and safety training specified in the  Health and Safety at Work (Worker Engagement, Participation and Representation) Regulations 2016(external link).
Prudonce A marine radio signal which is used to advise that complete silence is no longer needed on a frequency being used for distress traffic, and that restricted working may be resumed with caution.
Pruning gauge A gauge used to establish pruned height from stem diameter.
PSA Public Service Association.
PSNS Parasympathetic nervous system.
Psychoactive Refers to the type of drugs that affect mood, perception, thought processes and consciousness. People generally take psychoactive drugs with the intention of achieving euphoria, to improve their mood, and to relax.
Psychoses A recognised psychiatric condition. It is characterised by marked impairment of behaviour and a serious inability to think coherently and to understand reality.
Psycho-social factors The individual subjective perceptions of work organisation factors. They often have the same names as work organisation factors, but are different in that they carry 'emotional' value for the worker. Thus the nature of supervision can have positive or negative psycho-social effects (emotional stress), while the work organisation aspects are just descriptive of how the supervision is accomplished and do not carry emotional value.
PTO shaft Power-take-off shaft - on a tractor.
Public health Depending on the context, means either the health status of populations (or sections thereof) or, the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health.
Public health nurse (PHN) A registered general or comprehensive nurse attached to DHB public health services.
Public health research Research into factors that influence the health of a population; and includes: (a) research into health systems and health services; and (b) research into the environmental, socio-economic, cultural, and behavioural factors that determine health status.
Public health services Goods, services, and facilities provided for the purpose of improving, promoting, or protecting public health or preventing population-wide disease, disability, or injury; and includes: (a) regulatory functions relating to health or disability matters; and (b) health protection and health promotion services; and (c) goods, services, and facilities provided for related or incidental functions or purposes.
Public Notice [Under HSNO] means a notice published in one or more daily newspapers circulating in the main metropolitan areas together with such other public notice (if any) as the Authority or Minister thinks fit; and 'publicly notify' and 'public notification' have a corresponding meaning:
Public notification Advertising in one or more daily newspapers, or by another method advised by the ERMA, an application for certain types of applications for hazardous substances or new organisms so that people can make submissions on them, or advertising a decision that has been made.
Public organisation Means: (a) a Minister of the Crown; (b) a department of State; (c) a Crown entity (as defined in section 2(1) of the Public Finance Act 1989); (d) a State enterprise (as defined in section 2 of the State Owned Enterprises Act 1986); (e) a local authority.
Public place A place that, at any material time: (a) is open to, or being used by, the public, whether free or on payment of a charge, and whether or not any owner or occupier of the place is lawfully entitled to exclude or reject any person; and (b) includes, without limitation, any aircraft, hovercraft, ship or ferry or other vessel, train or vehicle carrying or available to carry passengers for reward.
Public railway level crossing A crossing of a railway at grade (on the level) that the public has access to (regardless of whether it is on a public or private road or railway). A private crossing that the public is invited to use (for delivery vehicles and customers/clients etc.) is also considered a public railway level crossing.
Public register An information database containing information that is freely accessible to the public. In the context of the HSNO Act, means information databases that ERMA New Zealand maintains on applications and approvals for hazardous substances and new organisms, and on approved test certifiers.
Publicly available In relation to a document, means that the document is promptly provided on request by any person on payment of a charge, if any, that is reasonable.
Puck The input device used at a digitiser tablet. It performs functions almost identical to those of a mouse.
Pulaski A hand tool used for chopping and grubbing.
Pull cord Cord which operates a latching switch to stop motion.
Pulsing Movement of a pressbrake beam in 'steps' of l0mm or less, each movement to be separately activated by a movement of the control pedal. To be used when no other method of guarding is possible for a given operation.
Pumped wells Wells that are fitted with artificial lift devices, which may be surface- or downhole-mounted, to enable geothermal fluid to be extracted.
Punch and forming press An open-front, single-crank press equipped with a ram or slide and with dies for the purpose of punching, blanking, coining, curling, bending, cutting, drawing, redrawing, or trimming material under pressure. It does not include pneumatic and hydraulic presses, heavy power presses, bending brakes, and hot-forging presses.
Purchase agreement The agreement with the Minister on the outputs to be purchased from the Department.
Purchase block Special block used to tighten ropes, usually containing two or more sheaves.
Pure tone audiometry The basis for hearing evaluation. Hearing thresholds are measured for pure tones at different test frequencies.
Purge or purging With respect to consumer piping means: (a) Replacing the air in consumer piping with gas or inert gas; or (b) Removing the gas from consumer piping by replacing the gas with either air or an inert gas. NOTE: The purpose of purging is to prevent the presence in the piping of an explosive mixture of gas and air.
Purging The use of air or inert gas to remove and replace a potentially dangerous atmosphere.
Push-pull attachment A hydraulically powered forklift attachment arranged to enable the load to be pushed off, or pulled on to, the load-supporting forks, platens or platform.
Pusher arm A steel attachment fixed to an extended boom on mechanically operated mobile equipment.
Putlog (or bearer or transom) A horizontal member placed in the transverse direction between ledgers, standards, or other supports and used to support a working platform.
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
Pyrometer Instrument for measuring higher levels of temperature.
Pyrotechnic effect In relation to a substance that is initiated, means the production in that substance of a self-sustaining exothermic chemical reaction resulting in heat, sound, light, gas, smoke, or motion, or a combination of these.
Pyrotechnic substance A substance that produces pyrotechnic effects.
QC Quality control.
QCC valve Quick coupling connection valve.
Quad-axle set A set of four axles where: (a) the centres of the first and fourth axles are spaced not less than 3.75 m, and not more than 4 m, apart; and (b) all axles contain an equal number of tyres of the same size; and (c) none of the axles is a single standard-tyred axle; and (d) the axles are a load-sharing set.
Qualification issuing agency An agency that has the functions of (a) issuing certificates of competence; and (b) advising applicants seeking certificates of competence on the equivalence of qualifications obtained outside New Zealand to certificates of competence.
Quality assurance Formal process of implementing quality assessment and quality improvement in programmes to assure people that professional activities have been performed adequately.
Quality management system In relation to equipment means that: (a) the controller's system is currently certified, to a recognised industry standard, by a body accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand; and (b) the controller has afforded an employee of the department nominated by the Secretary an opportunity of participating in assessments of the system carried out by the body. A controller who has a quality management system in relation to equipment must take all practicable steps to comply with it.
Quality of life An individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture in which they live, and in relation to their goals, expectations and standards. The term incorporates concepts of physical and psychological wellbeing, levels of independence and autonomy, social relationships and support, and spirituality.
Qualified person A person who, by possession of a relevant recognised degree, other tertiary qualification or relevant certificate of professional standing, or who, by extensive knowledge, training and proven experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter and work.
Quench The injection of cold liquid into a well to condense or prevent the formation of steam, or to reduce temperatures for other purposes.
QES Quarterly Employment Survey RBNZ (Reserve Bank of New Zealand).
Quality assurance A comprehensive set of actions or procedures to ensure that all aspects of a service will perform satisfactorily.
Quality control A set of tests routinely performed on a piece of equipment to confirm the satisfactory performance of it.
Quarantinable disease In New Zealand means cholera, plague or yellow fever.
Quarantine (1) Confinement of organisms or organic material that may be harbouring pests or unwanted organisms. (2) The restriction of healthy contacts of an infectious case.
Quarry Any place where any person works above ground for the purpose of extracting or processing any material, other than any coal or any mineral from the earth.
Quick-closing internal valve An internal valve designed and arranged to be closed both automatically by the operation of one or more heat- ensing devices (which may be fusible links) or manually from a remote position, or both, by the release of the means of holding the valve open.
Quick-connect device A two-part mating plug and socket assembly for connecting a gas appliance to a gas supply without the use of tools.
R-value The common abbreviation for describing the values of both thermal resistance and total thermal resistance.
Rack and pinion A rack is a straight bar with gear teeth cut into it. A pinion is a small gear wheel. When meshed together, rotary movement of the pinion causes a linear movement of the rack or vice-versa.
Radar transponder A survival craft radar transponder used to assist search and rescue between ships or aircraft and survival craft.
Radial deviation One of the four classifications of wrist posture, radial deviation is characterised by an inward bend of the wrist. This inward bend reduces the wrist's strength; a 25o radial deviation can reduce grip strength by 20%. Ligaments and tendons are placed under stress which, if maintained for some length of time, can lead to fatigue and injury.
Radial-ply A pneumatic tyre structure in which the ply cords, which extend from bead to bead, are laid at approximately 90 degrees to the centre-line of the tread, the carcass being stabilised by an essentially inextensible circumferential belt.
Radiant heat Heat transfer directly through the air to other objects.
Radiation barrier A shield interposed between a source of radiant heat and an object, and designed to reduce to an acceptable level the amount of radiant heat received by the object.
Radiation dose A general term denoting the quantity of radiation. If unqualified, it refers to absorbed dose.
Radiation Protection Advisory Council (RPAC) A council set up by the Radiation Protection Act 1965 to advise on matters arising from the administration of the Act.
Radioactive decay The spontaneous transformation of the nucleus of an atom into another state, accompanied by the emission of radiation; for a quantity of such atoms, the expectation value of the number of atoms present decreases exponentially with time.
Radioactive material Any article containing a radioactive substance giving it a specific radioactivity exceeding 100 kilobecquerels per kilogram and a total radioactivity exceeding 3 kilobecquerels.
Radioactive substance A radionuclide or mixture of radionuclides, either alone or in chemical combination with other elements.
Radiofrequency Any frequency used for radio transmissions, normally 0.1 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Radio signals are composed of linked electric and magnetic fields which travel away from the transmitter as an electromagnetic wave. The electric and magnetic fields can be referred to as radiofrequency fields, and the energy they carry as radiofrequency radiation.
Radiologist A medical practitioner who holds a licence, appropriate to the treatment for which payment is sought, under the Radiation Protection Act 1965.
Radionuclide An isotope of any element which spontaneously emits ionising radiation.
Radiopharmaceutical A medicinal drug which is also a radioactive material.
Radiotherapist A medical practitioner having special knowledge in the safe use or application of irradiating apparatus or radioactive materials for the purpose of treating or alleviating any abnormal condition of the human body.
Raft Any moored floating platform which is not self-propelled; and includes platforms that provide buoyancy support for the surfaces on which fish or marine vegetation are cultivated or for any cage or other device used to contain or restrain fish or marine vegetation; but does not include booms situated on lakes subject to artificial control which have been installed to ensure the safe operation of electricity generating facilities.
Rahui Embargo, quarantine, traditional Maori sanction to stop people using natural resources.
Rail safety system A documented management system developed by a rail service operator, which defines the standards, practices and procedures for safe operation of the operator's railway.
Rail service As defined in Section 2 of the Transport Services Licensing Act 1989, means the operation of rail service vehicles on a railway line.
Rail service vehicle (a) Any vehicle that operates on, or uses, a set of rails having a gauge of 550 mm or greater between them; and (b) includes a locomotive, carriage, railcar, tram, tramcar, light rail vehicle, self-propelled rail vehicle, or wagon used on a rail service; but (c) does not include a vehicle designed to operate both on and off rails, while it is not operating on rails.
Rail service operator A holder of a Rail Service Licence granted under Section 8 of the Transport Services Licensing Act 1989. Responsible for the safe operation of the railway, including the safety of staff, volunteers, customers, visitors, the deterrence of trespassers, and for establishing and maintaining compliance with a Rail Safety System, ensuring annual audits, and acting on audit recommendations and LTSA requirements.
Railway Means the railway infrastructure, rail vehicles, and other property (other than railway premises), including property specified by regulations made under section 59(j) and vehicles prescribed under section 59(k), that together are being used for the purpose of transporting people or goods by rail; but excludes: (a)a railway used as an amusement device as defined in section 21A(1) of the Machinery Act 1950: (b)a railway that operates on a set of rails with a gauge of less than 550 mm between them, unless that set of rails is designated as a railway line under section 59(l): (c)a railway that operates on a railway line excluded by regulations made under section 59(m): (d)a private cable car.
Raker An inclined load-bearing member.
Ram Hydraulically-operated steel shaft, usually double-acting, which can raise or lower, push or pull implements or parts of a machine.
Ramicorn A large high-angled branch that often occurs when one leader of a fork is suppressed by another.
RAMS Risk analysis management system.
Ranch hand 'Ranch hand' refers to the US military servicemen who served as Air Force Operation Ranch Hand or Army Chemical Corps members in Vietnam, and were directly involved in the application of Agent Orange (and other herbicides).
Random lays Wind-thrown trees that have fallen in varying directions.
Rapidly degradable In relation to a substance in water, means that: (a) 28 days after a solution containing the substance is inoculated with micro-organisms, there is at least: (i) a 70% reduction in dissolved organic carbon in the solution; or (ii) a 60% depletion of oxygen in the solution, when compared with the maximum depletion of oxygen that would occur if the substance were completely degraded; or (iii) a 60% generation of carbon dioxide in the solution, when compared with the maximum generation of carbon dioxide that would occur if the substance were completely degraded; or (b) if only COD and BOD5 data is available, the ratio of BOD5 to COD is greater than or equal to 0.5:1 or (c) at least 70% of the substance can be degraded biotically or abiotically, in the aquatic environment within 28 days.
Ratchet A toothed wheel with angled teeth used with a pawl to allow rotation in one direction only.
Rate In epidemiology, the frequency with which a health event occurs in a defined population. The components of the rate are the number of events (numerator), the population at risk (denominator) and the specified time in which the events occurred. All rates are ratios, calculated by dividing the numerator by the denominator.
Rave rail The loading edge of the hopper on a rear-loading compaction collection truck. It is produced as a cross-beam or the edge of a guide flap.
RBC Red blood cell (erythrocyte).
RC Regional Council.
RCCNZ Rescue Coordination Centre New Zealand.
RCT Randomised controlled trial.
Reach truck A self-loading truck, generally high lift, having load-engaging means mounted so that it can be extended forwardly under control to permiit a load to be picked up and deposited in the extended position and transported in the retracted position.
Reassessment (HSNO) A re-evaluation available only for a substance that has previously been approved or a new organism in containment. A reassessment can only occur when some combination of significant new information has become available about effects, or (in the case of hazardous substances) a better substance has become available or there have been significant changes in the way it is being used or the quantity used. The re-evaluation proceeds in the same way as for an original application for approval. See also Assessment.
Reactivity A substance's susceptibility to undergoing a chemical reaction or change that may result in dangerous side effects, such as explosion, burning, and corrosive or toxic emissions. The conditions that cause the reaction, such as heat, other chemicals, and dropping, will usually be specified as 'Conditions to Avoid' when a chemical's reactivity is discussed on a MSDS.
Rear-loading compaction collection truck A type of truck used for collecting waste for recycling and other connected purposes. Waste is loaded into the hopper, where it is compacted and placed into the transfer body (normally part of the truck). Once the body is full, the compacted waste materials are removed by raising the tailgate and operating an ejection plate or by tipping.
Rear overhang (a) For pole trailers transporting a long load, means the distance from the rear axis or centre of the bolster to the rear of the vehicle or its load, whichever is greater; (b) for all other vehicles, means the distance from the rear axis to the rear of the vehicle or its load, whichever is the greater.
Rear trailing unit distance The maximum distance from the centre of the fifth wheel or tow coupling on the towing vehicle to the rear of the combination.
Receiver A pressure vessel, usually cylindrical, used to store compressed air from a compressor before use.
Reclose block A means by which a network operator prevents protective switch gear from manually or automatically relivening power lines after tripping on a fault. (See also Auto recloser.)
Recognised branch of medicine Any of the following branches of medicine: (a) anaesthetics: (b) cardiothoracic surgery: (c) dermatology: (d) diagnostic radiology: (e) emergency medicine: (f) general surgery: (g) internal medicine: (h) neurosurgery: (i) obstetrics and gynaecology: (j) occupational medicine: (k) ophthalmology: (l) orthopaedic surgery: (m) otolaryngology head and neck surgery: (n) paediatric surgery: (o) paediatrics: (p) pathology: (q) plastic and reconstructive surgery: (r) psychological medicine or psychiatry: (s) public health medicine: (t) radiation oncology: (u) rehabilitation medicine: (v) sexual health medicine: (w) urology: (x) venereology.
Reconstruction The disassembly and reassembly of equipment, generally for the purpose of placing the equipment back into full operation and substantially extending the service life beyond the normal life cycle contemplated at the time of original manufacture. Reconstruction, rebuilding, or overhaul can result in the equipment being repaired or modified or both.
Recorded Settlement (ERS Mediation Service) Applications where a settlement has been reached prior to reaching the Mediation Service and only need to be stamped by a Mediator.
Recreational diving Diving carried out by individuals or groups for their own pleasure and does not involve any commercial activity for gain or reward, and an at work situation does not apply.
Redesign (a) To make an alteration to a design, affecting the structural strength or safety of equipment, in the course of manufacture; or (b) to design a repair or alteration affecting the operational safety of the equipment repaired or altered or any other equipment. Redesign as a noun has a corresponding meaning.
Reduced duties A reduction in the amount of work performed on a daily basis by an employee.
Reeving To place the rope or webbing sling through a block or eye.
Reference dose (RfD) An estimate of a daily oral exposure to the human population that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. A RfD can be derived from a NOAEL, LOAEL or benchmark dose, with uncertainty factors applied to reflect limitations of the data used. RfDs are generally used by the US EPA in their non-cancer health assessments. In this context, a RfD is not itself an action level, nor does it establish an acceptable daily dose. Their primary use is to evaluate increments of exposure from specific sources above background when background exposures are low and insignificant.
Reference material (RM) Material or substance, one or more of whose property values are sufficiently homogeneous and well established to be used for the calibration of an apparatus, the assessment of a measurement method, or for assigning values to materials [ISO Guide 30[43]]. NOTE: A reference material may be in the form of a pure or mixed gas, liquid or solid. EXAMPLES: Several kinds of reference materials exist. An internal reference material is an RM developed by a user for its own internal use. An external reference material is an RM provided by someone other than the user. A certified reference material (CRM) is an RM issued and certified by an organisation recognised as competent to do so.
Reference measuring system Represents not only a measuring instrument but the set of procedures, operators and environmental conditions associated with that instrument.
Reference Standard Standard generally having the highest metrological quality available at a given location or in a given organisation, from which measurements made there are derived [VIM] [45].
Reference toxicant A standard chemical used to measure the sensitivity of the test organisms in order to establish confidence in the toxicity data obtained from the test material. In most instances a toxicity test with a reference toxicant is performed to assess the sensitivity of the test organisms at the time the test material is evaluated, and the precision of results obtained by the laboratory for that chemical.
Reflectance The ratio of the amount of light reflected from a surface to that falling on it.
Reflective material Any material or surface that reflects a beam of light generally parallel to the path of the beam and in an opposite direction to that path.
Reflective target Object which reflects sufficient light to allow a receiver to determine whether a target is present or absent.
Refuelling unit A tank wagon or tank trailer or any other type of mobile container specifically designed and used for the dispensing of dangerous goods of Class 3 into the fuel tanks of aircraft, hovercraft, vehicles, or vessels.
Refuse Any type of solid waste (except human wastes), including garbage,rubbish, ashes, incinerator residues, street cleanings, plant trimmings, and residential, commercial, and industrial solid wastes, including recyclable materials.
Regenerative brake A device on an interlocking hauler which induces a retarding force on an outgoing rope drum and transfers a portion of the power absorbed to an incoming rope drum.
Regional council A regional council as defined under the Local Government Act 2002.
Register length or length In relation to any vessel, means the length of the vessel measured from the foreside of the head of the stem to the afterside of the head of the stern post, or to the foreside of the head of the rudder stock if no stern post is provided.
Registered health professional (a) Means a chiropractor, clinical dental technician, dental technician, dentist, medical laboratory technologist, medical practitioner, medical radiation technologist, midwife, nurse, occupational therapist, optometrist, pharmacist, physiotherapist, or podiatrist; and (b) includes any person referred to in paragraph (a) who holds an interim practising certificate but only when acting in accordance with any conditions of such interim certificate; and (c) includes a member of any occupational group included in the definition of 'registered health professional' by regulations made under section 322 IPRC Act.
Registered engineer An engineer registered under the Engineers Registration Act 1924.
Registered nurse A nurse registered with the Nursing Council of NZ.
Registry (ERS Authority, Tribunal, Court) The formal name for each office of the Tribunal, Authority and Court.
Regulation The setting and enforcing of standards.
Regulations Regulations issued by Governor-General under authority of an Act.
Regulator A government agency responsible for setting and enforcing standards.
Regulatory authority A Minister of the Crown, a government department, a commission or other authority having power to issue regulations, orders or other instructions having the force of law.
Regulatory signs Signs containing instructions with which failure to comply constitutes either an offence at law, or a breach of standing orders, safety procedures or other directions, depending on which kind of control has been imposed at the work site or workplace. They are subdivided as follows:
  1. Prohibition signs. Signs that indicate that an action or activity is not permitted.
  2. Mandatory signs. Signs that indicate that an instruction must be carried out.
  3. Limitation or restriction signs. Signs that place an numerical or other defined limit on an activity or use of a facility.
Rehabilitation (a) Means a process of active change and support with the goal of restoring, to the extent provided under section 70 [IRPC Act], a claimant's health, independence, and participation; and (b) comprises treatment, social rehabilitation, and vocational rehabilitation.
Rehearing (ERS Authority, Tribunal, Court) If the case was heard and facts come to light which would have affected the outcome, then either party can apply for a rehearing. Parties must apply within 28 days of a decision.
Reinjection well A well that is drilled for the purpose of reinjecting geothermal fluids into the ground.
Relative density In relation to any substance, means the density of the substance divided by the density of water at a temperature of 20°C.
Relative humidity The ratio of actual vapour pressure to the saturated vapour pressure at that temperature in the atmosphere. It is commonly expressed as a percentage. It is calculated from the dry bulb (air temperature) and the wet bulb of the whirling hygrometer. It forms one factor of the calculation required to determine whole-body thermal discomfort. Kroemer and Grandjean (1997) recommend that relative humidity in offices in summer should be between 40-60 % and in winter no less than 30%.
Relative measurement Measurement of a property by means of comparison or difference from a normal value of the property taken from an accepted reference material. NOTE: For example, determining gas density from the quotient of the mass of gas contained in a given volume to that of air contained in the same volume at the same temperature and pressure and multiplying by the density of air at that temperature and pressure.
Relative risk The ratio of the risk (or rate, or odds) of a disease (or other health event or condition) among those exposed to a given risk factor to that among those unexposed.
Release Relates to an approval granted for a hazardous substance or new organism for release into the environment. Approvals for release for hazardous substances are generally with controls, whereas no controls apply to the release of new organisms.
Relevant regulatory authority In relation to the transport of dangerous goods means the authority having statutory control over, or obligation to control, a particular class of dangerous goods. The term 'regulatory authority' or similar terms used in documents incorporated by reference in this rule have the same meaning.
Reliable information Information that is derived from: (a) a valid and relevant animal study conducted in accordance with internationally accepted test guidelines and principles of good laboratory practice; or (b) an epidemiological study in humans that is statistically sound and has undergone peer review; or (c) any other study whose relevance and validity can be demonstrated according to internationally accepted criteria and scientific practice.
Relocatable Building Any structure designed or adapted for human occupation that is designed to be relocatable; but does not include any tent.
Remediation Correction or improvement of a problem, such as work that is done to clean up or stop the release of chemicals from a contaminated site. After investigation of a site, remedial work may include removing soil and/or drums, capping the site or collecting and treating the contaminated fluids.
Remote connection A filling connection located remotely from the tank and which may be complemented with a vapour recovery connection for use with a tanker loading or unloading operation. The remote connection is anchored to prevent movement.
Remote hook The cargo hook at the end of a long line with pilot-controlled release capability.
Rendering The breaking down of animal tissues into constituent fat and protein elements, whether by the application of heat and pressure or otherwise.
Rental service vehicle A vehicle used or available for use in a rental service for letting or hire for the carriage of passengers or goods, or both, to a person who drives the vehicle or provides a driver for the vehicle.
Repair To restore equipment to an operating condition but does not include alterations, replacements or routine maintenance.
Repeatability limit Value below which the absolute difference between two single measurement results obtained using the same method, on identical measurement material, by the same operator, using the same apparatus, in the same laboratory, within a short interval of time, (repeatability conditions), may be expected to lie with a specified probability. NOTE: In the absence of other indication the probability is 95%.
Replicable In the case of an experiment, if other researchers come up with the same results after repeating all the exact details of the first experiment, then the experiment is said to have been successfully replicated. Successful replication is an essential consideration when comparing several lots of experimental data, as even miniscule differences in detail can lead to differing results.
Reporting point A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft can be reported.
Representative zample Sample having the same composition as the material sampled when the latter is considered totally homogeneous.
Reproducibility limit Value below which the absolute difference between two single measurement results obtained using the same method, on identical measurement material, by different operators, using different apparatus, in different laboratories, (reproducibility conditions), may be expected to lie with a specified probability NOTE: In the absence of other indication the probability is 95%.
Reproductive hazard A chemical or physical agent that affects the ability of males and females to reproduce normally, for example, causing infertility, impotence, spontaneous abortion, or birth defects.
Reproductive toxicity A toxic effect related to reproductive performance. This broad term includes effects on fertility and reproductive outcomes such as birth deformities or behavioral/development effects which result following exposures of parents. Exposures may be prior to mating (to both males and females), and/or during gestation and lactation (to mothers of the offspring examined).
Reserve parachute A parachute assembly designed and intended to be used as a secondary parachute in the event of the failure of the main parachute.
Reservoir The ultimate and/or immediate human, animal arthropod, plant, soil, substance or combination of these that is the source of infection for a susceptible host.
Residential disability care Residential care provided in any premises for 5 or more people with an intellectual, physical, psychiatric, or sensory disability (or a combination of 2 or more such disabilities) to help them function independently.
Residential work In relation to the occupier of a home, means: (a) Domestic work done or to be done in the home; or (b) Work done or to be done in respect of the home, by a person employed or engaged by the occupier solely to do work of one or both of those kinds in relation to the home.
Residual Current Device (RCD) A device for isolating supply to protected circuits, socket-outlets, or electrical appliances in the event of a current flow to earth that exceeds a predetermined level.
Residual risk The remaining level of risk after mitigating measures have been taken.
Resiliency Less resilient people are those who are more at risk (in the context of harm from manual handling) than others for some reason. This may be because they are, for example, younger, older, different in size or strength or disabled. Each situation requires evaluation on its own merits.
Resistance (Ohm) The opposition or resistance to current flow in an electrical circuit. The unit of resistance is the 'Ohm' or 'Ω'.
Resistor Circuit element which dissipates heat.
Resolution A solution, answer or outcome.
Respirable fibre A particle with a diameter less than 3 micrometres and a length greater than 5 micrometres and a length to width ratio of greater than 3:1. These fibres can reach the deepest part of the lung.
Respirator Device to give protection against breathing hazards such as dusts, gases or vapours, poisonous contaminants, or lack of oxygen. There are three types: (a) Air-purifying respirator: This draws inhaled air through a purifying filter to remove dusts, or certain gases or vapours. (b) Supplied-air respirator: This supplies clean air from a source outside the contaminated area. (c) Self-contained breathing apparatus: This supplies air from a compressed air bottle worn by the user.
Respirator protection factors (RPFs) A measure of the degree of protection provided by a respirator to a wearer. It is defined as the ratio of the concentration of air contaminant outside the respirator to that inside the respirator.
Respiratory disease Disease of the airways and lungs (for example, pneumonia, emphysema, also coughs).
Respiratory protective device Any device fitted to someone for the purpose of filtering the air they breathe.
Respondent (ERS Authority, Tribunal) The legal entity against whom an application regarding an employment relationship problem is made.
Responsible person A person who is appointed by the employer, or the owner of gear, as the case may be, to be responsible for the performance of a specific duty or duties and who has sufficient knowledge and experience and the requisite authority for the proper performance of the duty or duties.

Restrained fall

Any fall where the person suffering the fall is under less than the full influence of gravity due to the action of a restraint device such as a pole strap, or is sliding down a slope less than that described for a free fall.
Restraint belt A body belt designed for attachment to a restraint line and not designed for free fall or restrained fall.
Restraint device (1) Includes all equipment such as headboards, sideposts, tail gates, anchor points, webbing and chains used to restrain a load on a vehicle. (2) A term used to describe safety equipment in motor vehicles which includes safety belts, child restraints and infant safety seats.
Restraint line A line used to restrict the horizontal movement of the wearer and not designed for either free fall or restrained free fall.
Restricted access area An area that all personnel are prohibited from entering during plant operation, with the exception of authorised personnel, who may enter the area for short periods to carry out process inspections and checks, sampling of product, and during emergency procedures.
Restricted organism Any organism for which a containment approval has been granted in accordance with the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996.
Restricted visibility Under maritime rules means any condition in which visibility is restricted by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, sandstorms, or other similar causes.
Restricted work Work in 1 or more of the following categories: (a) Work involving asbestos, if the asbestos concerned is friable and is or has been used in connection with thermal or acoustic insulation, or fire protection, in buildings, ships, structures, or vehicles: (b) Work involving asbestos, if the asbestos concerned is friable and is or has been used in connection with lagging around boilers, ducts, furnaces, or pipes: (c) The demolition or maintenance of any thing, including a building or a part of a building, containing friable asbestos: (d) The encapsulation of materials containing friable asbestos: (e) The use, on asbestos cement or other bonded product containing asbestos, of- (i) A power tool with any kind of cutting blade or abrasive device, except when it is used with dust control equipment; or (ii) Any other equipment whose use may result in the release of asbestos dust, except when it is used with dust control equipment: (f) Dry sanding of floor coverings containing asbestos.
Retail sale Includes sale by a wholesaler except when the sale is to a person who buys those goods to sell again; and 'retail' has a corresponding meaning.
Retractor A device to accommodate parts, or all, of the webbing of a seatbelt.
Retrograde Condensation Phenomenon associated with the non-ideal behaviour of a hydrocarbon mixture in the critical region wherein, at constant temperature, the vapour phase in contact with the liquid may be condensed by a decrease in pressure; or at constant pressure, the vapour is condensed by an increase in temperature. NOTE: Retrograde condensation of natural gas is the formation of liquid when gas is heated or pressure is reduced.
Reversing lamp A lamp designed to illuminate the area behind a vehicle while it is reversing and to warn other road users that the vehicle is reversing or about to reverse.
RF Radio frequency.
RH Right hand.
RHOL Right Hand Ordinary Lay.
Rhodamine A red dye.
Rhythm Movements with a regular beat or cycle of strong and weak elements.
RIA Radioimmunoassay.
Rigger/Dogger A person who has been instructed in the proper selection of slings and the slinging of loads, and who understands the capabilities of the crane with which he/she is working. A dogger is competent to carry out elementary slinging or lifting tasks and the directing and positioning of loads.
Rigging The use of mechanical load-shifting equipment and associated gear to move, place or secure a load including plant, equipment, or members of a building or structure and to ensure the stability of those members, and for the setting up and dismantling of cranes and hoists, other than the setting up of a crane or hoist which only requires the positioning of external outriggers or stabilisers.
Rigid - inflatable boat An open or decked boat that: (a) has a rigid bottom structure; and (b) has inflatable sides that chiefly ensure the intact buoyancy of the boat; and (c) is propelled by an engine.
Rigid vehicle A vehicle with motive power, driver's position and steering system, that does not have any pivot points to allow any part of the chassis of the vehicle to move or rotate in relation to any other part of the chassis of the vehicle; but includes a pivot steer vehicle.
Rim width The section of a wheel on which the beads of a pneumatic tyre are fitted.
Rim fitting line A narrow rib, part of the sidewall rubber running circumferentially around a tyre just above the bead, used as a guide line to check that a tyre when fitted to its wheel is correctly seated on the rim.
Rim flange The shoulders of the rim of a wheel which fit against the face of the bead and which hold the tyre on the rim.
Ripping Pulling a steel tine through the soil to cultivate it.
Ripping-mounding A combination of ripping and mounding to create a mound of loose soil over a rip line; can be a continuous line or in spots.
Risk The probability and magnitude of harmful consequences arising from a hazard. The likelihood of a specified undesired event occurring within a specified period or in specified circumstances. The probability of harmful consequences arising from a hazard. In quantitative terms, risk can be expressed in values from zero (no possible harm) to one (certainty that harm will occur). In relation to human health effects, risk is usually expressed as the probability (or likelihood) of dying or developing a disease or injury as a result of exposure to a hazard. For example, an acceptable health risk may be regarded as a one in a million lifetime risk of developing cancer.
Risk analysis The systematic use of available information to determine how often specified events may occur and the magnitude of their likely consequences.
Risk assessment A widely used model to evaluate health hazards and conditions of human exposure to it in order to both ascertain the likelihood that exposed humans will be adversely affected, and to characterise the nature of the effects they may experience.
Risk behaviour Specific forms of behaviour that are proven to be associated with increased susceptibility to a specific injury, disease or form of ill health.
Risk characterisation A combination of information obtained from the hazard identification, dose-response assessment, and exposure assessment to estimate the risk associated with each exposure scenario considered, and to present information on uncertainties in the analysis for risk management to proceed.
Risk communication The process of establishing two-way communication, recognising that people's feelings and emotions are legitimate, involving people in making decisions that directly affect them, informing and advising Maori and other communities or people about risks and their impact, and involving them in plans for managing the risk.
Risk factor An aspect of personal behaviour or lifestyle, an environmental exposure or an inborn inherited characteristic that is associated with an increased risk of a person developing a disease.
Risk factor for carcinogens The extra risk of getting cancer due to exposure substance; set by the USEPA or the WHO.
Risk goods Any organism, organic material, or other thing, or substance, that (by reason of its nature, origin, or other relevant factors) it is reasonable to suspect constitutes, harbours, or contains an organism that may (a) cause unwanted harm to natural and physical resources or human health in New Zealand; or (b) interfere with the diagnosis, management, or treatment, in New Zealand, of pests or unwanted organisms.
Risk management A process of setting priorities based on risk assessment, establishing efficient and consistent risk reduction policies (taking into account public perception of risk), evaluating the range of risk reduction alternatives (including the social, economic and cultural implication of options), identifying cost-effective risk reduction measures, and identifying risk mitigation and contingency measures.
Risk perception Risk as seen by individuals or societal groups. Risk perception cannot be reduced to a single parameter of a particular aspect of risk, such as the product of the probabilities and consequences of any event. Risk perception is inherently multi-dimensional and personal, with a particular risk or hazard meaning different things to different people, and different things in different contexts.
Risk reduction The selective application of appropriate techniques and management principles to reduce the likelihood and/or the consequence of an occurrence.
Risk species A risk species can be prescribed through regulations under the HSNO Act, and applies only to situations where a species is not already present in New Zealand and may have adverse effects on the health and safety of people or the environment.
Risk-specific dose (RsD) A chronic daily intake of a chemical that can be interpreted to result in a specific cancer risk, for example, one in one million. In the derivation of a RsD, the US EPA use probabilistic estimates of cancer potency (such as the linearised multistage model), treating cancer as a nonthreshold effect.
Rivet A pin with a head formed at one end which is inserted into a hole drilled through two or more components, then deformed at the other end to hold the components together.
RMA Resource Management Act 1991: an effects-based statute focusing on sustainable environmental management. It is administered by the Ministry for the Environment and largely implemented by local authorities.
RMP Risk Management Programme.
Road Includes: (a) a street; and (b) a motorway; and (c) a beach; and (d) a place to which the public have access, whether as of right or not; and (e) all bridges, culverts, ferries, and fords forming part of a road or street or motorway, or a place referred to in paragraph (d): (f) all sites at which vehicles may be weighed for the purposes of this Act [Land Transport Act] or any other enactment.
Road controlling authority In relation to a road, means the authority, body or person having control of the road; and includes a person acting under and within the terms of a delegation or authorisation given by the controlling authority.
Roadworks zone A road or part of a road approved by a road controlling authority as a site for carrying out road works, and that is protected by temporary warning signs as specified in Part 1 of Schedule 4 of the Traffic Regulations 1976.
Robot (industrial) A position-controlled, reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator capable of handling materials, parts, tools, or specialised devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
ROC Photochemically-reactive organic compound. ROCs are those VOCs which are precursors to ozone.
Rocket A class 1 category G pyrotechnic that is propelled or designed to be propelled into the air on ignition; but does not include model rockets or rockets propelled by a rocket motor with a category C, J, or L classification.
Rockwool A fibrous product manufactured by a process of blowing or spinning from a molten mass of rock, usually basalt. The resultant fibres are subsequently collected as a mat of fibrous product. See also SMF.
Rodenticide A rodent poison.
Roll A technique involving positioning a strop in such a way that it causes a log to roll in a desired direction when the rope is pulled (usually to clear an obstruction or to remove branches).
Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS) A structure designed to be attached to, or form part of, mobile plant for the purpose of reducing the possibility of an operator, when also wearing a seatbelt, from being injured should the plant roll over.
Roller bearing A rotary bearing composed of two steel rings separated by steel rollers, to allow them to turn relative to each other.
Rongoa Traditional healing practice.
Root wad (Synonym: Root plate, root ball) The mass of roots and soil which is exposed when a tree is wind-thrown or pushed over without being severed or broken off from the stump.
Ro-ro cargo spaces On a ship, spaces not normally subdivided in any way and extending to either a substantial length or the entire length of the ship in which goods (packaged or in bulk, in or on rail or road cars, vehicles (including road or rail tankers), trailers, containers, pallets, demountable tanks or in or on similar stowage units or other receptacles) can be loaded and unloaded normally in a horizontal direction.
Ro- ro passenger ship A passenger ship with ro-ro cargo spaces or special category spaces.
Rotorcraft Any heavier-than-air aircraft which derives its lift in flight from the reaction of the air on one or more rotors on substantially vertical axes.
Rotor wash The down draft caused by a helicopter's main rotor blades.
Roundwood Wood in the form of logs. Generally refers to material to be used for poles or posts.
Routine diagnostic specimen A diagnostic specimen that has a low probability of containing pathogens of risk group 2 or 3 (as defined by the World Health Organisation) and is transported for routine screening tests or initial diagnosis and includes specimens that are defined as routine diagnostic specimens in guidelines issued by the relevant regulatory authority.
RNP performance A containment value, expressed as a distance in nautical miles from the intended position, within which flights would be for at least 95% of the total flying time.
RPM Revolutions per minute.
RR Relative risk.
RTECS Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, published by NIOSH.
RTFEL Rubber-tyred front end loader.
RTI Road traffic injury.
Runner The groove in a plastics injection mould which connects the sprue and the cavity gate. This term also names the plastic piece formed in this channel.
Runners People who deliver written or verbal instructions during a fire operation.
Running rigging Rope that passes around a sheave.
Running surface The part of a track or road which vehicles travel on.
Runoff (1) A chainsaw cut curving to one side - generally the result of incorrect sharpening. (2) Surface water that runs off a hillside or down a track.
Runway A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft.
Runway visual range The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface markings, or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centreline.
Rustband See Flap.

S – T

Term or acronym


SADT Self-accelerating decomposition temperature. The lowest temperature at which self-accelerating decomposition of the substance occurs in the packaging in which it is tested, as prescribed in the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria.
Safe Not exposed to a hazard, or free from hazards.
Safe by position So positioned that any person cannot reach or gain access to the dangerous parts. A dangerous part that is beyond an upward reach of 2.5m is regarded as notionally safe by position unless the particular facts destroy that possibility.
Safe haven A place where a vessel can safely anchor or berth to enable measures to be taken to forestall or minimise the effects of damage (eg, to minimise the leakage of oil).
Safe load indicator A device which, when fitted to a crane, gives a warning of the approach to the safe working load of the crane, and further warning when a the safe working load has been exceeded.
Safe oxygen range A minimum oxygen content in air of 19.5 percent by volume under normal atmospheric pressure (equivalent to a partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) of 19.8 kPa (148 mm Hg)), and a maximum oxgygen content in air of 23.5 percent by volume under normal atmospheric pressure (equivalent to a partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) of 23.9 kPa (179 mm Hg).
Safe path That part of an exit way which is protected from the effects of fire by fire separations, external walls or by distance when exposed to open air.
Safe place A place of safety in the vicinity of a building, either outdoors or in another building, from which people may safely disperse after escaping from the effects of fire.
Safe ship management (SSM) system A structured and documented system enabling ship and shore-based personnel to implement the owner's safety and pollution prevention policy in accordance with the New Zealand Safe Ship Management Code.
Safe slope The steepest slope at which an excavated face is stable against slips and slides.
Safe stopping distance The minimum distance required for a driver of normal vision, driving at a safe operating speed for the road, to recognise a hazard and decelerate with normal braking to stop completely before reaching the hazard.
Safe systems of work The design of work in which the health and safety risks to employees have been controlled. This can include the process, pace and flow of the work, the work practices used, the design and use of plant and equipment, and the effect of environmental factors.
Safe tolerance In relation to a vehicle means the tolerance within which the safe performance of the vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment is not compromised, having regard to any manufacturer's operating limits.
Safe working load (SWL) The maximum load, calculated in accordance with sound and accepted engineering practice, that can be supported safely under normal working conditions, eg, on a scaffold.
Safety A state in which the risk of harm (to persons) or damage is limited to an acceptable level.
Safety administration (land transport) As a classification: (a) means all outputs (other than those of construction and maintenance) the primary purpose of which is to improve public safety in relation to land transport; and (b) includes (i) education; and (ii) enforcement.
Safety Alert In the Australian jurisdictions, refers to a brief description of a work practice or thing that has proved to be very dangerous and which needs immediate remedial action. The published document is no more than 2 A4 pages, and a single page is preferred. It includes specific guidance on how to eliminate or reduced the risk described in the Alert.
Safety ammunition Ammunition consisting of a cartridge case fitted with a centre or rim fire primer and containing both a propelling charge and a solid projectile, designed to be fired in weapons of a calibre not larger than 19.1 mm; and includes shotgun cartridges of any calibre.
Safety belt A belt secured around the waist which may include butt or groin straps but which is not suitable to arrest a free fall.
Safety boots Working boots fitted with protective steel toecaps.
Safety colour In relation to safety signs is any one of the colours specified in Appendix A of NZS/AS1319: 1994 Safety signs for the occupational environment to which a safety meaning is attributed.
Safety container [Under the Medicines Regulations] means a container, whether or not part of a strip of containers, that: (a) encloses a single tablet or other single item of a medicine that is a solid or a class of medicines that are solids (including a medicine or class of medicines in powder form); and (b) is made of aluminium foil or laminated plastic, or such other material as may be approved by the Director-General in relation to the packaging of any solid medicine to which regulation 37 of these regulations applies, either by notice in the Gazette or in writing addressed to a particular manufacturer, packer, importer, or seller of medicines; and (c) is reasonably resistant to attempts by young children to open it.
Safety critical element Any part or parts of an installation or plant (including computer programmes) designed to isolate or minimise a significant hazard, the failure of which could result in serious harm to any person:
Safety device Any kind of device, item, or system that is used in or on equipment and that controls or monitors any aspect of the safety of the equipment and includes a safety relief device.
Safety extra-low voltage Extra-low voltage in a circuit that is isolated from the electricity supply mains by means such as a safety isolating transformer.
Safety factor The number of times below the harmful range at which the public exposure limit is set . A set safety factor of 50 means that a person can be exposed to 50 times that amount before there is an reasonable expectation of hazard. Use of safety factors is not the same thing as minimising unnecessary exposure.
Safety factor The ratio of the breaking strength of a component (for example, a winch cable) to the maximum designed load or stress when used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Safety frame (tractor) Frame to prevent a tractor rolling over if it tips.
Safety frame, safety cab Synonym for Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS). Safety frames may be two-post or four-post types.
Safety glass A glass so treated or combined with other materials as to reduce the likelihood of injury to persons when it is cracked or broken.
Safety glasses / goggles Glasses or goggles with toughened lenses to protect the eyes from flying particles or objects. Goggles completely enclose the eye and are secured by a strap around the back of the head.
Safety guy An additional guy set below the operating ropes to carry the rigging away from working areas in the event of rigging failures.
Safety harness Any type of harness, including full-body harness, lower body harness, work positioning harness, and sit harness.
Safety helmet Headgear designed to protect the wearer's head.
Safety isolating transformer An isolating transformer designed to supply safety extra-low voltage circuits.
Safety line A line attached to a worker's safety belt or harness at one end and to a secure anchorage point at the other.
Safety Management Certificate Means: (a) in relation to a New Zealand ship, a maritime document issued under Part V of the Maritime Transport Act 1994 in accordance with rules 21.7(4) and 21.7(5); 31 July 1997 Part 21 Safe Ship Management Systems; (b) in relation to a foreign ship, the safety management certificate or equivalent referred to in rule 21.8.
Safety management system A structured and documented system enabling ship and shore based personnel to implement the owner's safety and pollution prevention policy in accordance with the ISM Code.
Safety mitt (chainsaw) Glove attached to forward handle of chainsaw, to prevent hand slipping off handle if saw kicks back.
Safety shut-off system An arrangement of valves and associated controls which shut off the supply of gas when required by a device which senses the approach of an unsafe condition.
Safety sign An inscribed board, plaque or other delineated space on which a combination of legend and symbolic shape is used to convey a message. As specified in NZS/AS 1319:1994 Safety signs for the occupational environment.
Safety stop A stop taken by ascending divers to assist 'gassing off'. To be taken at 5 metres for 3 minutes on last dive of day, as diving plan indicates.
Safety strop Strop attached to a guy near the top of a spar to prevent blocks and ropes falling on to a landing in the event of an equipment failure.
Safety system (rail) In relation to a rail participant, means a written record of all the rail participant's management and operational policies and practices that relate to the safe conduct of its rail activities; and includes the rail participant's operational and training manuals.
Safety switch A switch which operates the motor of a machine only while the switch is held in the ON position by the operator.
Safe tolerance The tolerance within which the safe performance of a vehicle, its structure, systems, components or equipment is not compromised, having regard to any manufacturer's operating limits.
Safety trousers Trousers or chaps with ankle to groin protective padding for chainsaw operators.
Safety valve As defined in AS 1210 and AS 1271, i.e. a type of pressure relief valve intended for the release of excessive vapour pressure.
Safety Watch Scheme with 0800 number for public reporting of visitor safety concerns.
Safety zone A portion of roadway: (a) indicated by a structure erected on the roadway; and (b) that has, near the end first met by approaching vehicles travelling along the side of the roadway on which the safety zone is established, a device displaying to approaching drivers the words 'Safety Zone'.
Safe working pressure In relation to any equipment, means the pressure for which the equipment has been designed to safely operate in accordance with the specific requirements of the design code, or lower pressure assigned to the equipment for safety reasons.
Sailer A broken limb or tree crown hanging precariously, which could fall on workers below it.
Salt bath A receptacle containing the salt (or mixtures of salts) which when heated melt to form a liquid medium for heat treatment processes.
Salute A class 1 category G pyrotechnic designed to produce a loud report.
Salvage (a) Recovery of logs left during a previous logging operation (b) Harvesting of trees which have been damaged or put on the ground by natural causes.
Sampling The process of talking microbiological, chemical, or other specimens as part of a public health programme in order to test or monitor quality or public health risk.
Sanitary Any condition that has a direct or indirect bearing on hygiene, including the condition of the plant, the equipment and the facilities.
Sanitary appliance An appliance which is intended to be used for sanitation, but which is not a sanitary fixture. Included are machines for washing dishes and clothes.
Sanitary convenience Includes a urinal, a water closet, earth closet, toilet, a chemical toilet, a privy, and any similar convenience.
Sanitary fixture Any fixture which is intended to be used for sanitation.
Sanitation The term used to describe the activities of washing and/or excretion carried out in a manner or condition such that the effect on health is minimised, with regard to dirt and infection.
Sanitising The application of an authorised chemical or physical agent to a clean surface, with the intention of reducing microbial contamination to an acceptable level.
SAP Safety action plan.
SAR Specific absorption rate, measured in watts per kilogram (W/kg). This number expresses the rate at which radio-frequency energy is absorbed in the body. In the New Zealand exposure Standard, the maximum SAR level permitted over any 10 gm of body tissue is 2 W/kg, provided the average SAR over the whole body is less than 0.08 W/kg.
SART An emergency beacon which sends a signal detectable by radar.
SARTIME The time nominated by a pilot for the initiation of alerting action.
Saturation temperature The boiling point temperature of a liquid at the corresponding pressure.
Scaffold register A written record of inspections carried out for scaffolding.
Scaffolding (a) Any advanced scaffolding, basic scaffolding, or suspended scaffolding or any framework or structure, of a temporary nature, used or intended to be used (i) for the support or protection of persons carrying out construction work or work connected with construction work, for the purpose of carrying out that work; or (ii) for the support of materials used in connection with any such work; and (b) includes any scaffolding constructed as such and not dismantled, whether or not it is being used as scaffolding, and (c) includes any coupling, device, fastening, fitting, or plank used in connection with the construction, erection, or use of scaffolding.
Scarf A notch cut in a tree stem near the base to establish its direction of fall.
Scene lamp A work lamp designed to provide a fixed or moveable beam of light to illuminate the area around a vehicle, or the vehicle itself.
Schedule A table in a State Regulation. It usually follows the main text (clauses) of the Regulation.
School premises Premises that are: (a) a registered school; or (b) facilities, grounds, structures, or other premises, controlled and managed by the managers of a registered school, and used principally for (i) the enjoyment, recreation, or relaxation of the young people attending the school; or (ii) cultural or sporting activities (or both) involving, or undertaken for the benefit of, the young people attending the school.
Scleroderma (Also known as progressive systemic sclerosis) A rare autoimmune disorder involving the connective tissue and damage to microvessels. It is characterised by fibrosis of the skin and sometimes the internal organs. Occupational exposures have been linked to scleroderma include silica, hand-arm vibration, organic solvents and other hydrocarbons.
Screen wall A wall or other barrier of such substance and so constructed or placed as to be efficient for the purpose of preventing the spread of fire from any one place to another or to divert flammable vapours; and includes the wall of a protected work if the wall is adequate for that purpose.
Scrub General term describing unusable vegetation, eg, secondary growth, understorey.
SCUBA Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. Open-circuit diving equipment that supplies the diver with the breathing gas from a cylinder carried by the diver.
Seafarer (a) Means any person who: (i) is employed or engaged on any ship in any capacity for hire or reward; or (ii) works on any ship for gain or reward otherwise than under a contract of employment; but: (b) does not include a pilot or any person temporarily employed on a ship while it is in port.
Seatbelt An assembly of straps made of webbing or metal with a securing buckle, adjusting devices and attachments, including any device for absorbing energy or for retracting the webbing, that: (a) is able to be anchored to the interior of a vehicle; and (b) is designed to diminish the risk of injury to its wearer in the event of a collision or abrupt deceleration of the vehicle by limiting the mobility of the wearer's body.
Seatbelt anchorage The parts of the vehicle structure, seat structure or any other part of the vehicle to which a seatbelt assembly is attached.
Seclusion The placing of a person, at any time and for any duration, alone in an area where he/she cannot exit.
Secondary detonating explosive substance A substance designed to detonate that requires stimulation equivalent to the detonation of a primary explosive substance to initiate it.
Second crop New Zealand term for second rotation of a planted forest.
Secondary or acquired resistance Drug resistance developing during treatment.
Secondary containment system In relation to a place: (a) means a system or systems: (i) in which pooling substances held in the place will be contained if they escape from the container or containers in which they are being held; and (ii) from which they can, subject to unavoidable wastage, be recovered; and (b) includes a system or systems that comply with a code of practice approved by the Authority under section 78 of the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996.
Secondary hazard A hazard that occurs as a result of another hazard or disaster. eg, fires and landslides may follow earthquakes, epidemics may follow food shortages or floods.
Secondary prevention (1) Measures taken to remove a hazard and correct or reverse harmful effects. (2) The appropriate treatment of a disease to prevent its adverse effects.
Secondary Standard Standard whose value is assigned by comparison with a primary standard of the same quantity [VIM] [45].
Second-hand smoke The smoke breathed out by a person who smokes, and smoke from the end of a burning cigarette.
Section height (SH) The distance from the bead seat to the outer tread contour of the inflated tyre - at the centreline.
Section width (SW) The width of the inflated tyre section, excluding any lettering or decoration.
Secure footing The combination of the type of shoes worn and the slope and surface friction of the surface being walked on to prevent the possibility of the person slipping or needing a handrail to assist balance.
Securely fenced Guarded in such a way that the dangerous part is no longer dangerous in that there is no longer a reasonably foreseeable risk of injury to any person employed or working in the place of work, even a person who is careless or inattentive while in the vicinity of a machine or using a machine.
Securing device Includes chains, webbing, twitches and other components used for tying down a load.
Sécurité A marine radio signal which is used to indicate that the caller is about to transmit a message containing an important navigational or meteorological warning.
Security control Measures by which the introduction of weapons or articles likely to be utilised to commit an act of unlawful interference can be prevented.
Security incident (SEC) ([Aircraft] An incident that involves unlawful interference.
Sediment traps Holes or other structures designed to capture water and allow sediment to settle out before the run-off reaches a stream.
Seelonce feenee A marine radio signal which is used to advise that distress communications have ceased and normal working may be resumed.
Segregation devices In relation to dangerous goods transport means containers that comply with the specified performance standards and are used to provide an additional level of protection and containment of packages.
SEIFR passenger operation An air transport operation carrying passengers in a single-engine aeroplane under IFR.
Selected duties A change in the type of duties normally undertaken by an employee so as to avoid tasks that will aggravate symptoms.
Selective logging Extracting selected trees from a stand managed under a selection system.
Self-checking system (boiler) A sub-circuit within the boiler management system, designed and arranged to automatically and regularly test the integrity of low water and flame-failure devices by dynamic testing of each and every component on which safe and correct operation is dependent, usually by creating a change of state.
Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) A portable respirator which supplies oxygen, air or other respirable gas from a source carried by the user.
Self-discharging well A well which discharges geothermal fluid and/or steam from a pressurised reservoir without the aid of continued artificial lift.
Self-erecting tower crane A tower crane with the capability of self-erection. Self-erecting cranes are not to be confused with self-climbing cranes.
Self-climbing tower crane A tower crane using its own motive power to extend its height. Self-climbing cranes are not to be confused with self-erecting cranes.
Self-contained compactor-container A powered machine that remains stationary during operation, designed to compact refuse into an integral container. The entire unit may be moved for placement and unloading of refuse.
Self-monitoring system (boiler) A sub-circuit within the boiler management system that continually monitors the integrity of the control components and their interconnections.
Self-propelled mobile mechanical plant Any mobile mechanical plant designed to move under its own motive power with an operator at its controls.
Sell Includes to barter; and also includes offering or attempting to sell, or having in possession for sale, or exposing, sending, or delivering for sale, or causing or allowing to be sold, offered, or exposed for sale; and also includes any disposal by way of gift (which includes the giving or distribution, in the course of business, as a sample or otherwise without charge), loan, prize, reward, or otherwise; and 'sale' has a corresponding meaning.
Semi-trailer See Articulated vehicle
Sensitisation To become sensitised/allergic to the effects of even minute quantities of a substance.
Sensitiser A substance that can cause an allergic sensitisation, usually affecting the skin or respiratory system.
Sensitivity Diagnostic sensitivity is the conditional probability that a person having a disease could be correctly identified by a clinical test (i.e. the number of true positive results divided by the number of true positive and false negative results).
Separation fillet Small-section timber used to separate layers of timber to facilitate drying.
Separation distance The distance from the edge of the area where hazardous substances are used, stored or otherwise handled to the edge of the area exposed to defined adverse effects.
Serious harm The HSE Act defines serious harm as follows: (a) Death. (b) Any of the following conditions that amounts to or results in permanent loss of bodily function, or temporary severe loss of bodily function: respiratory disease, noise-induced hearing loss, neurological disease, cancer, dermatological disease, communicable disease, musculoskeletal disease, illness caused by exposure to infected material, decompression sickness, poisoning, vision impairment, chemical or hot-metal burn of eye, penetrating wound of eye, bone fracture, laceration, crushing. (c) Amputation of body part. (d) Burns requiring referral to a specialist registered medical practitioner or specialist outpatient clinic. (e) Loss of consciousness from lack of oxygen. (f) Loss of consciousness, or acute illness requiring treatment by a registered medical practitioner, from absorption, inhalation, or ingestion, of any substance. Any harm that causes the person harmed to be hospitalised for a period of 48 hours or more commencing within 7 days of the harm's occurrence.
Seroconversion The appearance of specific antibodies in a person as a result of infection or immunisation.
Serotype The range of antibodies possessed by an individual, usually based on sampling from blood, serum or saliva.
Serpentine One of the two main types of asbestos, also referred to as chrysotile. A magnesium silicate, white in colour. The fibres are relatively easily separated from the parent ore and form bundles which are soft and curly.
Serum The clear straw-coloured portion of whole blood without the clotting factors.
Service opening An opening into the interior of plant or equipment that is designed to permit access to the interior for the purpose of service or maintenance, but not of a size to permit a person to pass through it.
Service pressure Used for gas cylinders designed to DOT and CTC specifications as a pressure rating for the cylinder. Has no defined meaning for cylinders to other specifications.
Service protective fitting A fitting that can interrupt the supply of electricity to an electrical installation.
Service spaces On a ship are those spaces used for galleys, pantries containing cooking appliances, lockers and store-rooms, workshops other than those forming part of the machinery spaces, and similar spaces and trunks to such spaces.
Service wires The electrical cable or overhead conductors which are attached to the customer's premises.
Setting Portion of a stand to be logged to one skid.
Settled (ERS Mediation Service) A conclusion to a dispute reached by mutual agreement by the parties involved, facilitated by a Mediator.
Severity factor

[Aviation industry] The following definitions apply to the severity accorded to occurrences and to findings as the result of investigation of occurrences:

Critical (CR) - An occurrence or deficiency that caused, or on its own had the potential to cause, loss of life or limb;

Major (MA) - An occurrence or deficiency involving a major system that caused, or had the potential to cause, significant problems to the function or effectiveness of that system;

Minor (MN) - An isolated occurrence or deficiency not indicative of a significant system problem.

Sex worker A person who provides commercial sexual services.
Sexual harassment An employee is sexually harassed in that employee's employment if that employee's employer or a representative of that employer: (a) directly or indirectly makes a request of that employee for sexual intercourse, sexual contact, or other form of sexual activity that contains (i) an implied or overt promise of preferential treatment in that employee's employment; or (ii) an implied or overt threat of detrimental treatment in that employee's employment; or (iii) an implied or overt threat about the present or future employment status of that employee; or (b) by: (i) the use of language (whether written or spoken) of a sexual nature; or (ii) the use of visual material of a sexual nature; or (iii) physical behaviour of a sexual nature; directly or indirectly subjects the employee to behaviour that is unwelcome or offensive to that employee (whether or not that is conveyed to the employer or representative) and that, either by its nature or through repetition, has a detrimental effect on that employee's employment, job performance, or job satisfaction. [Employment Relations Act 2000]
Sexually transmissible infection (STI) An infection or disease spread by the transfer of organisms from person to person during sexual contact.
SFE Act Smoke-free Environments Act 1990.
SGS Societe Generale de Surveillance.
Shackle A length of steel rod bent into a 'U' shape, provided with eyes at each end through which a bolt is passed to close the loop. Used for connecting chains to hooks, etc.
Shaft A machine component, usually round in cross section, rotating in bearings and used to transmit rotary motion from one point to another or support rotating components.
Shaft An opening in a mine having an inclination above the horizontal of 15° or more (a) through which employees or materials are transported; or (b) that is used as a main intake or outlet for ventilation.
Shall, should, may 'Shall' indicates that a requirement is mandatory. 'Should' indicates an advisory statement. 'May' implies the right to use discretion.
Sharps Hypodermic needles, syringes, (with or without the attached needle), pasteur pipettes, scalpel blades, suture needles, blood vials, needles with attached tubing, and culture dishes (regardless of presence of infectious agents). Also included are other types of broken or unbroken glassware that were in contact with infectious agents, such as used slides and cover slips.
Shay swivel A fitting used to attach a slack pulling rope to the main rope.
Shear Hydraulically operated cutting knives in a felling head, which severs stems from stumps.
Shear stress A stress which tends to shear a material.
Shearing point Place where part of the equipment can move past a fixed or other moving part, or past a fixed area, so that persons, or parts of their body, can be cut.
Sheave A grooved wheel or pulley. A component of a block or carriage.
Sheeting Vertical timber boards or steel trench sheets placed against the face of an excavation to give it support, and held in place by struts and walings as required.
Shield A device attached to the muzzle end of a powder-actuated handheld fastening tool, designed to prevent the escape of the fastener and flying particles or material that could ricochet.
Shift work Work that forces sleep to be displaced. It is associated with a range of work-related disorders.
Shift work sleep disorder The symptoms and signs of insomnia or excessive sleepiness that occur as transient phenomena in relation to work schedules. Additional problems can be reduced alertness and problems with personal relationships away from work. An associated condition is irregular sleep-wake patterns, characterised by temporally disorganised and variable episodes of sleeping and waking behaviour.
Ship Means every description of boat or craft used in navigation, whether or not it has any means of propulsion; and includes: (a) a barge, lighter, or other like vessel; (b) a hovercraft or other thing deriving full or partial support in the atmosphere from the reaction of air against the surface of the water over which it operates: (c) a submarine or other submersible.
Ship station Any mobile radio station in the maritime radio service located onboard a vessel which is not permanently moored. These vessels can range in size from runabouts to cargo and passenger ships.
Shipping casualty Means any of the following: (a) a collision of ships: (b) the loss, stranding, or abandonment of a ship: (c) any other event occurring on board, outside, or to a ship, resulting in material damage or the risk of material damage to a ship, or cargo, or both.
Shipping container (a) Includes a standardised device: (i) of a permanent character strong enough to be suitable for repeated use; and (ii) used to contain or hold goods (A) while being loaded or unloaded for carriage by rail, road, or sea; or (B) carried by rail, road, or sea; but (b) does not include: (i) a shipping container that is a fumigation cell; or (ii) a vehicle, ordinary packing case, crate, box, or similar item used for packing.
Ship security officer The person on board the ship who is accountable to the master and designated by the company as responsible for the security of the ship, including the implementation and maintenance of the ship security plan, and for liaison with the port facility security officer.
Ship security plan A plan developed to ensure the application of measures on board the ship designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units, ship's stores, or the ship from the risks of a security incident.
Shipper Any person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf a contract of goods by sea has been concluded with a carrier, or any person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf the goods are actually delivered to the carrier in relation to the contract of carriage by sea.
Shock A condition in which there is a sudden fall in blood pressure (fainting). It may be caused by loss of blood, severe pain, fear, or an unpleasant sight.
Shock currents Electrical currents that pass through the body of a person or animal, and that have characteristics that are likely to cause disorders of physiological processes of the body.
Shock-loading The sudden loading of a rope or structure which exceeds the safe working load. Can result in premature wear or failure of the rope, chain, or structure.
Shock sensitivity Tendency of a substance to explode if dropped or roughly handled.
Shore That area of the land adjacent to the water that is above the high-water mark and excludes land areas that are intermittently under water.
Shoring Any material that is or can be used to provide effective support for the exposed face of an excavation; and 'shored' has a corresponding meaning.
Short (skinny) bite Choker set close to end of log.
Short repetitive diving Dive with short time surface interval (refer to tables being used, eg, less than 30 minutes) before descending again.
Shotgun system An uphill skyline logging system using only two ropes. The carriage is returned by gravity.
Should Indicates a recommendation.
Shoulder An increase in diameter on a shaft used for locating a bearing, pulley, etc. on the shaft.
Shovel Primary forestry fire hand tool.
Shovel logging An extraction system using an excavator-loader. Stems are successively swung and deposited in rows or bunches from the felling site to a destination, usually a road. A single swing movement can be termed bunching, usually for grapple skidder extraction.
Shut-in wellhead pressure The pressure at the wellhead, at equilibrium, when the well flow is shut-off.
Sick building syndrome Term that refers to a set of symptoms that affect some number of building occupants during the time they spend in the building and diminish or go away during periods when they leave the building. These cannot be traced to specific pollutants or sources within the building. (Contrast with 'Building-related illness').
Side lamp A vehicle lamp of lower power than the head lamps used for the purpose of indicating the presence of the vehicle when seen from a distance and also of indicating the approximate width of the vehicle; and includes: (a) a forward-facing side lamp, being a lamp indicating primarily the front end of the vehicle; (b) a rearward-facing side lamp (rear lamp, red tail-lamp), being a lamp emitting a red light indicating primarily the rear end of the vehicle; (c) a sideways-facing side lamp, being a lamp mounted between the front and rear extremities on the side to indicate primarily the side of the vehicle.
Side loader truck A self-loading truck, generally high lift, having load-engaging means mounted so that it can be extended laterallly under control to permiit a load to be picked up and deposited in the extended position and transported in the retracted position.
Sidelights A green light on the ship's starboard side and a red light on the port side each showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 112.5 degrees and fixed to show the light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees (2 points) abaft the beam on its respective side.
Side shift An attachment, usually hydraulically powered, which enables lateral movement of the load or load-holding attachment (forks, clamp, etc.) to facilitate picking up and placement of the load.
Sideboard The substantially vertical part of the side of a flat deck body of a vehicle.
Sievert (Sv) The SI unit of dose equivalent, effective dose, and equivalent dose, being equal to an absorbed dose of one Gray multiplied by the appropriate weighting factor to represent the amount of risk associated with the absorbed dose.
Sight The front handle of a chainsaw, or a mark on the body perpendicular to the bar, to aid the feller in correctly lining up the direction in which the tree will fall.
Significant adverse biological effect A toxicologically significant change in an organ or in an animal observed during the the study where the probability that the change is different from any recognised background history of change ,or from the value in a recognised unexposed control organ or animal group in the test animal strain, is greater than 0.95 (equivalent to P (probability) of 0.05 or less).
Significant ecotoxic effect An ecotoxicologically significant change in an organism or organism population observed during the study where the probability that the change is different from any recognised background history of change or from the value in a recognised unexposed control organism or organism population is greater than 0.95 (equivalent of P (probability) of 0.05 or less.
Significant hazard A hazard that is an actual or potential cause of (a) serious harm; or (b) harm (being harm that is more than trivial) the severity of whose effects on any person depend (entirely or among other things) on the extent or frequency of the person's exposure to the hazard; or (c) harm that does not usually occur, or usually is not easily detectable, until a significant time after exposure to the hazard.
Silence period A period of 3 minutes beginning at each hour and at 30 minutes after each hour of each day, reckoned according to Coordinated Universal Time, during which no transmission other than for distress may be made, on the frequency of 2182kHz.
Silicosis Fibrosis of the lungs due to the inhalation of silica dust.
Silo A building or other structure used principally for the bulk storage of: (a) cereal; or (b) products of cereal; or (c) animal feedstuffs; or (d) other loose material.
Silviculture Work that includes the establishment and tending of tree crops, i.e. land preparation, planting, blanking, releasing from ground or air, protection, pruning, thinning, seed collection, nursery work, use of agricultural chemicals, controlled burning and fire fighting.
SIGMET information Information issued by a meteorological office concerning the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified enroute weather phenomena that may affect the safety of aircraft operations.
Signs Evidence of disease or injury that is perceptible to the examining physician, as opposed to the sensations (symptoms) experienced by the patient. Signs of OOS conditions include tissue swelling, grip strength, restriction of joint range, and nerve tension tests.
Simple trailer A trailer (other than a semi-trailer) that has only one axle set.
Single axle set Either one axle or two axles having their centres spaced less than 1 m apart.
Single-sensitive emergency-locking retractor A seatbelt retractor that, during normal driving conditions, does not restrict the freedom of movement by the wearer of the seatbelt by means of length adjusting components that automatically adjust the seatbelt to the wearer, and that comprises a locking mechanism activated in an emergency by deceleration of the vehicle.
Sino nasal carcinoma A malignant disease of the lining tissues of the nose and upper airways. It has various forms, with adenocarcinoma probably the type most commonly associated with occupational exposures. Exposure to wood dust has been consistently implicated as an occupational cause of sino-nasal cancer. Exposure to leather dust, and work with welding, flame cutting and soldering, has also been associated with an increased risk.
SIR Standardised incidence ratio.
SISIR Singapore Institute of Standards and Industrial Research.
Sit back A tree which settles back on its stump,closing the back-cut.
Sit/Stand A workstation that enables the worker to perform tasks at a standing position while still providing some support of a seated workstation.
Site (construction) Any place, or area within a place, where construction work is being (or is to be) carried out. This includes parts of the place where plant and materials are being stored temporarily, and where vehicles and people may pass for the purpose of doing the construction work.
Site management system The means of ensuring the ongoing safety of a hazardous facility through sound management. A site management system should include safety policy, provide a description of organisational structure and responsibilities, include operating, emergency and monitoring procedures, and carry out regular performance auditing.
Sitework Work on a building site, including earthworks, preparatory to or associated with the construction, alteration, demolition, or removal of a building.
SITO NZ Seafood Industry Training Organisation.
Sitting day A sitting day of the House of Representatives.
Skid Area to which logs are extracted and where they are sorted or loaded.
Skid plate The plate structure forming part of the semi-trailer that houses the kingpin and that mounts on the coupler plate to form the connection between the towing vehicle and the semi-trailer.
Skid tank A transportable tank used to convey dangerous goods of Class 2, and which may also be used for the temporary storage of those goods.
Skidder A self-propelled extraction machine with wheels or tracks specifically designed to partly support logs during skidding.
Skidding or snigging The process of dragging logs from stump to skid.
Skiddy Person who works on skids, unhooking drags and crosscutting logs.
Skyline In cable logging, a rope extended between the hauler and the tailhold to provide lift to a drag of logs and on which the carriage travels.
Skyline carriage Wheeled device that rides back and forth on the skyline for hauling.
Skyline road Area bounded by the length and lateral yarding width of any given skyline setting.
Slab Waste wood from a lateral split in a log being cut.
Slabbing Undesirable splitting in logs occurring during felling or crosscutting.
Slack Section of rope which is free of tension.
Slack-pulling carriage Carriage designed to feed out slack to facilitate breaking out, or to pull laterally a distance from the skyline path.
Slack-pulling line A rope used to pull out the mainrope or a dropline through a slackpulling carriage.
Slackline system Live skyline system employing a carriage, mainrope, and tailrope. Strops are connected directly to the carriage.
Slagwool A fibrous product manufactured by a process of blowing or spinning from a molten mass of metallurgical furnace slag. See also SMF.
Slash Branches, bark, tops, chunks, cull logs, uprooted stumps and broken trees left on the ground after logging.
Slasher A hand tool used for chopping standing (light) vegetation.
Slewing The rotary motion of a crane, boom or load in a horizontal plane.
Slop tank On a ship, means a tank specifically designated for the collection of tank drainings, tank washings, and other oily mixtures.
Slotting The use of existing live trees for river and stream protection works where they are removed and placed in excavated trenches.
Sloven Remains of holding wood and/or scarf left on a log after felling.
Slow blow fuse Fuse which allows current flow in excess of the nominal value to continue. As much as 10 times the nominal value for a few milliseconds.
Small boiler A boiler with a total volume less than 1500 litres, an operating pressure not exceeding 1000 kPa and an output less than 500 kW.
Small end diameter Diameter measurement of the small end, or top end of a log, on which many volume tables and log specifications are based.
Small owner-operated brothel Defined by the Prostitution Reform Act as a brothel: (a) at which not more than four sex workers work; and (b) where each of those sex workers retains control over his or her individual earnings from prostitution carried out at the brothel.
Smallwood Loose term commonly applied to fencing materials.
SMART With reference to health and safety objectives, means that objectives that are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-bound.
Smoke Consists of carbon or soot particles or tarry droplets less than 0.1 micrometer in size, and suspended in air, which results from the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials such as coal or oil.
Smoke (tobacco) To smoke (a) means to smoke, hold, or otherwise have control over an ignited tobacco product, weed, or plant; and (b) includes to smoke, hold, or otherwise have control over an ignited product or thing whose customary use is or includes the inhalation from it of the smoke produced from its combustion or the combustion of any part of it; but (c) does not include to hold or have control over an ignited product or thing customarily used as incense.
Smokecell A space within a building which is enclosed by an envelope of smoke separations, or external walls, roofs, and floors.
Smoke control door A doorset with closefitting single or multi-leaves which are impermeable to the passage of smoke, fitted with smoke seals and installed within a smoke separation. The door, in the event of smoke, if not already closed, will close automatically and be held closed.
Smoke-free officer An officer in a Public Health Unit designated as a smoke-free officer.
Smoke separation Any vertical, horizontal or inclined building element with known smoke-stopping or smoke-leakage characteristics.
Smoking accessory Any article or substance that is used in conjunction with smoking, including cigarette papers, pipe cleaners, cigarette lighters, lighter fuel, and ashtrays; and includes the packaging, carton, wrapping, or other container in which smoking accessories are customarily sold at retail.
SMOU Safe Method of Use.
SMR Standardised mortality ratio.
Snag (a) Any dead or dying standing tree or part of a tree; (b) A hidden, unknown or unexpected difficulty or obstacle.
SNFTAAS Support Network for the Aldehyde and Solvent Affected.
Snipe End of a log rounded by means of sawing or chopping to allow it to ride over or around obstacles during skidding.
Snotter A rope strop with an eye spliced in both ends.
SNS Sympathetic nervous system.
Soak bore A shallow well for disposal of geothermal fluid to zones of permeability at depths above the geothermal reservoir.
Soak hole A hole in the ground dug to trap water and allow it to soak into the ground (common in areas with pumice soils).
Social dialogue Sharing of information among and consultation between groups with a common interest.
Social rehabilitation All the rehabilitation unrelated to the ACC claimant's return to work, for example being helped by a nurse, or childcare.
Socket A fitting that attaches to a flexible cord and is designed to accept the pins of a plug.
Socket outlet A fitting that forms part of the electrical installation and is designed to accept the pins of a plug.
Software The programs and other operating systems used in a computer.
Soil fixture A sanitary fixture constructed to receive solid and/or liquid excreted human waste. It includes bedpan disposal units, slop sinks, urinals, water closet pans, and water-flushed sanitary towel disposal units.
Solar UV radiation The ultra-violet component of the sun's rays that can damage the skin.
SOLAS Safety of Life at Sea.
SOLAS appliance In relation to a life-saving appliance, means an appliance that is required by maritime rules to meet the requirements for that type of appliance contained in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.
SOLAS ship Any ship to which the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974 applies; namely: (a) a passenger ship engaged on an international voyage: or (b) a non-passenger ship of 500 tons gross tonnage or more engaged on an international voyage.
Solenoid Electric coil whose flux causes movement of a ferromagnetic core.
Sole packaging In relation to dangerous goods transport means packaging that does not require inner packaging to perform its containment function during transport; and includes a composite packaging.
Sole plate A timber, concrete or metal bearer on a scaffold used to distribute the load from a standard or base plate to the ground.
Solid A substance that is neither a liquid nor a gas.
Solid bulk cargo Any material, other than liquid or gas, consist ing of a combination of particles, granules or any larger pieces of material, generally uniform in composition, that is loaded directly into the cargo spaces of a ship without any intermediate form of containment.
Solid wood processing The processing of logs into rough finished product including work of a portable nature such as sawmilling, chipping, peeling, splitting, drying, mulching and treatment plants.
Solubility A measure of how soluble a substance is. Solubility in water is usually expresses as g/l. Other units include g/100cm3, or % w/v or ppm of water.
Soluble concentrate A liquid, homogeneous formulation to be applied as a true solution of the active ingredient after dilution in water.
Solvent (1) A substance that dissolves or dilutes another. (2) A volatile substance composed of hydrocarbons, for example, methylated spirits, petrol, kerosene.
Solvent degreasing A degreasing process generally involving the use of the chlorinated hydrocarbons (usually trichloroethylene or perchloroethylene) in either heated liquid or hot vapour form (vapour degreasing).
Solvent neurotoxicity Damage to the central nervous system caused by exposure to organic solvents, leading to fatigue, memory impairment, irritability, difficulty in concentration, and personality and mood change.
SOP Standard Operating Procedure.
SOP Supplementary Order Paper, a late addition to a parliamentary bill.
Sound and accepted engineering practice Engineering practice generally regarded as sound by those members of the engineering profession mainly concerned with the practice and accepted as such by the Secretary of Labour.
Sound power level The total sound energy radiated per unit time, measured in decibels referenced to 1 picowatt using octave bands or A weighting.
Sound transmission class (STC) A single number rating derived from measured values of transmission loss in accordance with classification ASTM E 413Determination of Sound Transmission Class. It provides an estimate of the performance of a partition in certain common sound insulation situations.
Source Any person, animal, object or substance from which an infectious agent can pass to a host.
Spacer Large-section timber used to separate individual packets of timber.
SPAD (railways) Signal passed at danger.
SPAN The Safety Profiling System used by Maritime New Zealand to assess the risk profile of a vessel in Safe Ship Management.
Span The distance measured along the scaffold member between the centrelines of adjacent supports of the member.
Spar Tree or pole, supported vertically by guys, on which blocks and rigging are hung for cable logging systems.
Spark arrestor Means of preventing hot carbon particles being emitted from an exhaust.
Special forklift attachments These include side-shifts, fork extensions, booms, crane jibs, clamps and rotators etc. i.e. an additional piece of equipment added to the forklift to enable a specialised operation to be carried out. Such equipment may call for additional job-specific training to be undertaken.
Special purpose vehicle A vehicle that is a street sweeper, refuse collector, weed sprayer or road marker.
Special scaffold A scaffold which differs from the standard requirements for standing and suspended scaffolds.
Specialist panels (NODS) Panels of medical and non-medical specialists set up by OSH to review notifications under NODS. There are four panels, covering: asbestos, cancer, chemicals and solvents.
Specialist seatbelt A seatbelt that is designed for specialist purposes; and includes a full harness seatbelt used for motor sport activities.
Specific absorption rate (SAR) The fundamental unit of dose of radiofrequency actually absorbed by a body exposed to radiofrequency fields. Although difficult to measure or calculate, it is useful in comparing exposures at different frequencies (or when trying to extrapolate to people the results of experiments on the exposure of animals to radiofrequency fields). The maximum SAR in publicly accessible areas around most transmitters is about 0.005 W/kg of body weight, but generally less than this figure. The body generates 1-4 W/kg heat from its own metabolism.
Specific gravity A measure of the density of a liquid or solid compared with water.
Specification A description of goods, services, processes, or practices by reference to their nature, quality, design, finish, performance, strength, purity, composition, contents, quantity, dimensions, weight, grade, durability, origin, age or other characteristics, and includes: (a) a description of goods by reference to a mark on the goods; (b) a model form of bylaws; (c) a code of practice; (d) a glossary of terms; (e) definitions or symbols.
Specificity Diagnostic specificity is the conditional probability that a person not having a disease will be correctly identified by a clinical test (i.e. the number of true negative results divided by the number of true negative and false positive results.
Specular Reflective, especially from a metal surface.
Special VFR flight A VFR flight cleared by an ATC unit to operate within controlled airspace in meteorological conditions below visual meteorological conditions.
Spikes Fitted to safety footwear to give better traction and grip. Spikes are generally made from steel and are pointy.
Spill containment facilities These facilities can be permanent or temporary and are designed to collect hazardous material, generally released as a result of a traffic accident, to prevent the material entering the environment.
Spindle A shaft, usually part of a machine, on which a removable component or cutting tool is mounted.
Spindle moulder or shaper A machine that moulds or shapes timber to a required shape or design. The shape is determined by the shape of the high-speed cutter fitted into the machine.
Splice Section of rope (hemp, wire, etc.) woven into another piece of rope (eg, long splice) or back into itself (eg, eye splice).
Spline A shaft with teeth or serrations formed on the surface running along the shaft (similar to gear teeth), for transmitting rotary motion to a component (eg, a gear wheel) sitting on the shaft with matching teeth formed on the inside of the bore. May be fixed or sliding on the shaft.
Spool To wind cable smoothly on a drum.
Sport and recreation sector Includes any person or orgganisation involved in sport and recreation in New Zealand.
Spot gun Sprayer used to apply chemicals to individual tree spots.
Spot welding Welding of two or more overlapping sheets of metal, by pressing them together and passing a large electric current through a small area of the sheets, thus heating them and welding them together in a small 'spot'.
spp. Species (multiple).
Sprag A broken wire protruding from worn or damaged rope.
Spray booth A mechanically ventilated structure designed to enclose or accommodate a spray coating operation, and confine and limit the escape of spray vapour and residues by conducting them to an exhaust system. Spray booths are manufactured in a variety of forms, including cabinet, room, tunnel or conveyor types.
Spray coating The process in which any paint, lacquer, adhesive or resinous material containing a flammable liquid is converted into a mist or aerosol and directed on to a surface to produce an evenly distributed film of the required thickness and texture. It does not include chopped-strand spraying or gel coating.
Spraydrift Any unintended off-target migration of an agrichemical.
Spread of flame index (SFI) That index number for spread of flame which is determined according to the standard test method for measuring the properties of lining materials.
Spreader A short length of wire rope, or chain links, between the butt plates or barrel swivels on butt rigging.
Spreader bar A bar used to keep ropes separated.
Sprocket A chainwheel or chain pulley for transmission chain (eg, those on a push bike).
Sprocket nose Toothed wheel incorporated in the tip of a chainsaw's guide bar.
Sprue The main feed channel in a plastics injection mould which connects the moulding orifice with each runner. This term also names the plastic piece formed in this channel.
Spun cylinder A gas cylinder in which the end closure in the base of the finished cylinder has been forge welded by the spinning process.
Squirrel block Block carrying a counterweight, running on a guy, used to pull rope off a loading drum.
SRR Survival Risk Ratio.
SS Act State Sector Act.
SSB Single side band mode of transmission as used on MF/HF maritime frequencies.
SSBA (Surface Supplied Breathing Apparatus) Diving equipment that supplies breathing gas at the required pressure for the depth, through a diver's hose to a diver, from equipment at the surface.
SSC State Services Commission.
SSM Safe Ship Management.
Stability The condition when the total restoring moments exceed the overturning moments. (See also Instability.)
Stakeholders In relation to an event, those people and organisations who may affect, or be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by, a decision or activity - including members, staff and volunteers, event organisers and participants.
Stanchion The upright(s) attached to the bolster or bunk ends, which constrain the load within the width limits of the vehicle. There are three types: Fixed: The stanchion is attached to the bolster or bunk ends in a fixed permanent position (usually welded) and cannot move relative to the bolster or bunk ends. Drop: The stanchion is pinned to the bolster or bunk end and can be swung down to release the load. It is held in place by a 'wrap-around strop'. Drop-in: The stanchion is held in position by two pins. To facilitate piggyback loading of the trailer, one pin may be removed and the stanchion swung inwards, rotating around the other hinge pin.
Stand-by person In relation to a confined space, means a competent person assigned to remain on the outside of, and in close proximity to, the confined space and capable of being in continuous communication with and, if practical, to observe those inside. In addition, where necessary initiate emergency response procedures and operate and monitor equipment used to ensure safety during entry and work in the confined space.
Standard An upright member used for transmitting the weight of the load from the working platforms to the base of the scaffolding.
Standard A specification relating to goods, services, processes, or practices approved or adopted by the Standards Council or another standards organisation, and includes modifications to any such specification. Standards define quality and establish safety criteria. Standards are varied and exist for things (eg, safety helmets) and activities (eg, services).
Standard air Air containing 20.9% oxygen (by volume).
Standard conditions A temperature of 15 oC and an absolute pressure of 101.325 kilopascals. Sometimes referred to as base conditions.
Standards Council, Standards New Zealand The New Zealand Standards Council oversees the development and adoption of Standards and Standards-related products. Standards New Zealand is the trading arm of the Standards Council and represents New Zealand in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
Standard lift A lift that requires no special rigging or load equalisation procedures, i.e. not more than two anchors must be capable of carrying the applied load with the required factor of safety.
Standard mark A mark adopted by the Standards Council in relation to any goods, services, processes, or practices to identify those goods, services, processes, or practices as conforming to a standard.
Standard precautions With reference to infection control procedures, means precautions designed to reduce the risk of spreading organisms from both recognised and unrecognised sources of infection. Standard precautions: apply to all clients; are designed to protect employees; ensure protective attire and equipment is provided and used when in contact with potentially infectious body fluids; are used in conjunction with transmission-based precautions for specific pathogens.
Standard year For the purposes of determining natural lighting, the hours between 8am and 5pm each day with an allowance being made for daylight saving.
Standardised rates Rates that have been statistically adjusted to enable valid comparisons despite differences (such as age and gender) in the structures of the populations being compared.
Standards organisation An international, national, or regional organisation with functions similar to those of the New Zealand Standards Council.
Standing rigging Ropes and guys which are fixed and do not move during an operating cycle.
Standing scaffold A working platform which is supported wholly or partly from its base.
Statement in reply (ERS Authority) The name of the form a respondent must file or lodge with the Authority in response to the applicant's statement of problem. A statement in reply should be filed within 14 days of the respondent receiving the statement of problem. Also called Form 3.
Statement of Problem (ERS Authority) The name of the form an applicant must file or lodge with the Authority (along with a filing fee of $70) if the applicant wishes the Authority to resolve or determine their employment relationship problem. Also called Form 1.
Static and dynamic work Static or isometric work occurs when a muscle contracts but does not vary in length. eg, data entry. Dynamic work involves rhythmical changes in the length of the muscle as it alternatively contracts and relaxes, so that when sufficient body movement occurs, dynamic movement occurs eg, running.
Static delimber A delimber consisting of a hydraulically operated knife-set through which trees are pulled. The pulling machine may be a Bell loader, or an excavator loader. The knife-set may be mounted on a trailer, or on skids.
Static line In relation to fall protection means a rope, wire strop or rail secured between two points and possibly at various points along its length in order to support anchor lines, fall arrestors or other fall protection devices.
Static load Stresses on the body increase as a function of body parts remaining immobile for extended periods.
Static Roll Threshold (SRT) The maximum level of steady turning lateral acceleration a vehicle can tolerate without rolling over, which is expressed as a proportion of 'g' where 'g' is the acceleration constant due to gravity (9.81 m/s/s).
Static work Work performed when muscles contract, but where no or little motion occurs in the body.
Static loaded radius (SLR) The standing height from the road surface to the axle centre under nominal load/inflation conditions.
Stationary compaction equipment, self-contained compactor-container equipment (Also referred to as stationary compactors, stationary compaction equipment) Powered machines that remain stationary when in operation, and that are designed to compact refuse into either a detachable or integral container or into a transfer vehicle. Commercial/industrial stationary compactors are stationary compactors used in commercial businesses; industrial plants; or waste processing, disposal, transfer, and recycling facilities.
Statutory Related to legislation or prescribed in law or regulation.
Statutory reporting The reporting to authorities of statistical and other information about events and incidents significant to public health and which is required by law.
STD Standard.
Steam Water vapour at a pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric and a temperature equal to or greater than 100°C.
STEL Short-Term Exposure Level as described in the WES booklet.
Stellite A hard alloy of cobalt, chromium and tungsten.
Stepped pulley A belt pulley (or series of pulleys) of differing diameters mounted on a shaft. When the belt is shifted from one 'step' to the next, the speed ratio between the driving and driven shafts is changed.
Sterile area That area at an aerodrome between the passenger inspection and screening station and the aircraft into which access is strictly controlled.
Sterilisation A physical or chemical procedure to destroy all microbial life, including highly resistant endospores.
Sterilisation value F0 ('F nought') The time in minutes, at 121.1°C (250°F), that gives the same kill of Clostridium botulinum as the process under evaluation. It includes the sum of all the lethal effects within the container during the process that is equivalent to the period, in minutes, of instantaneous heating and cooling.
Sternlight A white light placed as close as practicable to the ship's stern showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 135 degrees and so fixed to show the light from right aft for 67.5 degrees (6 points) on both sides of the vessel.
Sticker A self-adhesive or clinging film, with or without print on it, that is applied for purposes such as advertising, identification, information, decoration or legal reasons.
Stiction Force holding electric contacts together.
Stinger lift truck A vehicle recovery service vehicle with an arm that partially lifts the vehicle to be recovered, which is then towed in this position.
Stockholm Convention (a) Means the Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants done at Stockholm on 23 May 2001 and the Annexes to the Convention, a copy of the English text of which is set out in Schedule IAA [HSNO Amendment Act 2003]; and (b) includes any amendments to, or substitutions of, the Convention or the Annexes that are, or will become, binding on New Zealand.
Stockcrate A container designed for transporting livestock, which can be secured to a vehicle
Stockcrate retention device One or more restraining devices or lashings to facilitate the attachment of the stockcrate to the deck or chassis of a vehicle.
Stockpile Stacked logs.
Stoneguard overlay A clear overlay that is transparent and that is applied along the bottom edge of a windscreen for the purpose of preventing damage to the windscreen from stones and other debris thrown up by other vehicles.
Storage cabinet In relation to hazardous substances means a cabinet or cupboard with close fitting door(s). Specific guidance on storage cabinet construction can be obtained from AS/NZS 2982 (1987 and/or 1997).
STPD Standard temperature and pressure dry.
Straddle truck A general class of cantilever truck with horizontal, structural wheel-supported members extending forward from the main body of the truck, generally high lift, for picking up and hauling loads between its outrigger arms.
Strain A change in a material's dimensions when a stress is applied.
Strand A component of wire rope consisting of wires wound spirally together, which is then helically laid around a core to form the rope.
Strain (muscular) A strain constitutes those changes indicative of homeostatic disturbance that appear when the stress responses become in sufficient to cope with the imposed load. While stress responses continue to be evoked, they are accompanied by a disturbance or dislocation of a steady or equilibrium state eg, , increase in muscle strain beyond ability to maintain a steady state aerobic metabolism is indicated by an increase in lactic acid output.
Stress The load transmitted per unit area of cross-section, usually expressed in MPa (megapascals).
Stress An interaction between the person and their (work) environment and is the awareness of not being able to cope with the demands of one's environment, when this realisation is of concern to the person, in that both are associated with a negative emotional response.
Stress management Used here to refer to three ways of dealing with workplace hazards that lead to stress and fatigue: eliminate, isolate and minimise. The HSE Act requires that these strategies be considered, in that order of priority. Examples of each are: - Eliminate: replacing level crossings with bridges so that it is impossible for trains and cars to collide. - Isolate: confine the work to special purpose areas; confine the performance of the work to specially trained people or teams. - Minimise: reduce the time of exposure to the stressor, provide prompt performance feedback and training if necessary, select the right people for the work and provide support.
Stress prevention - Primary Prevention: creating a healthy place of work and controlling stressors so that the work is interesting, rewarding and paced within the person's capabilities (i.e. elimination of the hazard). - Secondary Prevention: improving the fit between the person and the job by selection, on-the-job training, performance feedback and monitoring of problems (i.e. isolation of the hazard to adequately trained and equipped personnel). - Tertiary Prevention: helping the person suffering from stress (also called minimisation or stress management).
Stressor Events or circumstances which may lead to the perception that physical or psychological demands are about to be exceeded.
Strike An act that (a) is the act of a number of employees who are or have been in the employment of the same employer or of different employers (i) in discontinuing that employment, whether wholly or partially, or in reducing the normal performance of it; or (ii) in refusing or failing after any such discontinuance to resume or return to their employment; or (iii) in breaking their employment agreements; or (iv) in refusing or failing to accept engagement for work in which they are usually employed; or (v) in reducing their normal output or their normal rate of work; and (b) is due to a combination, agreement, common understanding, or concerted action, whether express or implied, made or entered into by the employees.
Strings Long portions of plastic for dicing or granulation.
Strip burning A fire-lighting pattern where successive strips are lit up-wind of each other.
Stroke (1) The distance travelled by a reciprocating component between the extreme ends of its travel. (2) Of a simple crank-driven slide equals twice the throw.
Stroke delimber A machine in which delimbing is accomplished by the stroking action sliding a mobile boom through a stationary boom.
Strong back A member connected to a precast concrete element to provide additional strength or support during handling.
Strop Short length of wire rope, chain, or synthetic fibre rope, furnished with hooks or other connecting devices, which forms a noose round the end of the log and which is used for connecting logs to the main extraction rope.
Strut A timber or steel member usually horizontal in compression, resisting thrust or pressure from the face or faces of an excavation.
STS Soft-tissue sarcoma.
Stud A length of rod with a screw thread formed on each end.
Studs Prongs fitted to safety footwear to give better traction and grip. Studs are generally made of steel and are rounded.
Stump The base of a tree, and its roots, left in the ground after felling.
Subcontractor A person engaged otherwise than as an employee by a contractor to work for gain or reward.
Subcutaneous Beneath the skin but not involving muscle.
Subendocardial Under the heart.
Subepicardial Under the membrane that covers the heart.
Submersible craft Any craft that operates with its hull and superstructure fully submerged below the water.
Submission Includes a briefing or paper to the Minister.
Subsidiary risk Any additional hazard posed by a substance that is less significant than the primary risk.
Substance Any element or compound (or their mixtures) of either natural or synthetic origin; any recognised variation of an element of a compound (such as an isotope, allotrope, isomer, congener, radical or ion); any manufactured article comprising hazardous substances with explosive properties. Under the HSNO Act, a single substance may include a number of distinct products (eg, paint of different colours may be considered as a single substance).
Substantive (ERS Authority, Tribunal, Court) The substantive application is the core of the proceedings setting out pleadings and seeking remedies. In the Authority, the employment relationship problem itself is the substantive application.
Success story A positive story resulting from an intervention with the Services.
Summary measure of population health (SMPH) A population health indicator that integrates both quantity of life (mortality) and quality of life (morbidity or disability) dimensions of health into a composite index. May be a health expectancy or a health gap measure.
Sump A chamber which is installed in the drain and incorporates features to intercept and retain silt, gravel and other debris.
Sun visor Any attachment mounted above the inside of the windscreen and provided for the purpose of shielding the eyes of the driver and other front seat passengers from solar glare.
Super skid A large more-permanent landing which often collects wood from more than one extraction operation.
Superstructure A decked structure on a ship's freeboard deck, extending from side to side of the ship or with the side plating not being inboard of the shell plating more than 4 percent of the breadth (B). A raised quarterdeck is regarded as a superstructure.
Supervise, supervision Having effective control over the related operations or functions.
Supplier (a) A person who supplies or imports equipment that could reasonably be expected to be operated in a place of work; and (b) includes a person who sells or hires, or offers for sale or hire, equipment that could reasonably be expected to be operated in a place of work.
Supplier Under HSNO refers to the last person in the chain who supplies hazardous substances to a place of work. It may be the importer, manufacturer, wholesaler or distributor, but excludes the person who transports the hazardous substances.
Support person In relation to a victim, means: (a) a spouse of the victim, or de facto partner of the victim (whether the partner and victim are of the same sex or different sexes): (b) a parent or another close relative or a legal guardian of the victim: (c) a Social Worker (as defined in section 2(1) of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989) if (i) the victim is a child or young person who is in the custody or under the guardianship or in the care of the chief executive or another person under that Act; or (ii) the victim is an unmarried child placed under the guardianship of the Court by an order under section 10B(1)(a) of the Guardianship Act 1968, and the Social Worker is appointed the agent of the Court by an order under section 10B(1)(b) or section 10D(1)(c)(ii) of that Act: (d) a welfare guardian of the victim, or manager of the property of the victim, appointed under the Protection of Personal and Property Rights Act 1988: (e) an attorney appointed by the victim under a power of attorney described in section 95 of the Protection of Personal and Property Rights Act 1988 if (i) the matter is one relating to the personal care and welfare of the victim in relation to which the attorney is authorised to act under the power of attorney; and (ii) the occasion for the attorney to act has arisen under section 98(3) of that Act.
Support tree Tree rigged as either a tailtree or intermediate support.
Support vessel Any vessel used for coaching, marshalling and rescue attendance for training, regattas and competitions.
Surface water All naturally occurring water, other than sub-surface water, which results from rainfall on the site or water flowing onto the site, including that flowing from a drain, stream, river, lake or sea.
Surfactant In fire fighting, an additive to the water flow (such as foam or soap) which increases the ability of the water to spread and wet fuels.
Surveillance Ongoing scrutiny, generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than complete accuracy. Its main purpose is to detect changes in trends or distribution in order to initiate investigative or control measures.
Susceptible Not having immunity to an infectious disease and thus at risk of infection.
Suspended scaffold A working platform suspended from overhead that can be raised and lowered while in use. Includes: (a) a boatswain's chair, whether hand-hauled or mechanical; and (b) a swinging stage, whether hand-hauled or mechanical.
Suspension concentrate A stable suspension of active ingredient(s) in a fluid, which may contain other dissolved active ingredient(s), intended for dilution with water before use.
Suspension notice Notice issued under section 37 of the HSE Act by a departmental medical practitioner, suspending an employee from work because of harm suffered, eg, if poisoned by lead.
Suspension system A system that allows controlled and limited movement of an axle relative to the chassis or body of a vehicle; and includes a spring and damping system and any associated controls.
Swarf Metal removed from a workpiece during machining usually on a lathe. May be in the form of small chips, tightly curled strips, or long ribbons.
Sweep Curvature or deviation of a tree's or log's longitudinal axis from a straight line.
Swim A slow, possibly wavy, movement or distortion of the VDU screen image.
Swing yarder Cable logging machine that can swing the boom around from side to side whilst operating the haul ropes.
Swivel coupler A coupler for joining scaffold tubes at an angle other than a right angle.
SWL Safe working load.
Symbolic shape In relation to a safety sign, a a characteristic shape and safety colour combination used to identify the function of a sign, and which may have a symbol superimposed, or may be used without a superimposed symbol as an element of a larger sign.
Symbolic sign A sign comprising the combination of a graphic element and a symbolic shape, which may either stand alone, or may form an element of a composite sign containing text, other symbols, symbolic signs or a combination of these.
Symptoms Any evidence of disease or disorder which is experienced by an individual and often reported as a subjective observation, such as pain. What a patient describes about their condition.
Syncope Fainting or a temporary loss of consciousness.
Synergistic Where the combined effects of two or more substances is greater than the sum of their individual effects.
Synthetic mineral fibres (SMF) A group of materials that include (SMF) glass fibre, mineral wool and ceramic fibre, used as insulation and as a reinforcing agent. These may be classified into three categories depending on their fibre diameter:
  • Mineral wool (a) rockwool, slagwool; and (b) fibreglass with a mean fibre diameter greater than 3 micrometres, used for general insulation purposes.
  • Ceramic fibre with a mean fibre diameter of between 1 and 3 micrometres, typically used for high-temperature insulation and fireproof expansion joints in the building industry and for general insulation.
  • Superfine fibres with a mean fibre diameter of less than 3 micrometres. Superfine fibres are used in highly technical applications such as aircraft manufacture and are rarely encountered in New Zealand.
Systemic Spread throughout the body; affecting many or all body systems or organs; not localised in one spot or area.
Swage To shape a component (usually tubular) by deforming it by pressure or hammering with the aid of a special form or anvil.
Swarf Metal removed from a workpiece during machining usually on a lathe. May be in the form of small 'chips' tightly curled strips, or long 'ribbons'.
Swing yarder In cable logging, an integral tower yarder capable of swinging the tower relative to the car body.
Switch Device by which a small amount of force, which may be mechanical or electrical, is used to allow the flow of a much larger force, for example, electric current, into a circuit.
Switchgear Fittings for (a) controlling the distribution of electricity; or (b) controlling or protecting electrical circuits and electrical equipment.
2,3,7,8-TCDD 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Also abbreviated simply as TCDD.
2,4,5-T Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a phenoxy-herbicide used widely for control of bushy weeds on hill pasture.
2,4-D 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.
TA Territorial Authority (eg, a district council, city council or regional council).
Tachycardia Rapid heart rate.
Tachyponea Rapid respiratory rate.
Tactile click A method of signalling that the key has made contact. The operator feels a click as the key is depressed.
Tagging See Accident prevention tag.
Taking up Adjusting for wear, removing play or backlash.
Tackle A system of blocks and ropes arranged to give mechanical advantage in lifting or pulling. Any sling, shackle, swivel, ring, hook or other appliance used in connection with a lifting machine or from the hook of a crane.
Tag line or steady rope A rope fastened to a crane hook or load to restrain spinning and to make handling easier.
TAGS Tungsten arc gas-shielded. Alternative names: TIG tungsten inert gas, GTAW gas tungsten arc welding, Argonarc welding.
TAIC Transport Accident Investigation Commission.
Tailboard The substantially vertical part of the rear end of a flat deck or curtain-sided body of a vehicle.
Tailhold The anchor for the skyline and/or tailrope. Most often a stump, deadman, or machine.
Tailspar In cable logging, a rigged spar on the back line used to elevate the skyline.
Tailtree Tree to which the back end of the skyline is elevated using a block or shoe to provide additional lift over the back portion of the span.
Take-off weight The weight of the aeroplane at the commencement of the take-off run and includes everything and everyone carried in or on the aeroplane at the commencement of the take-off run.
Tandem axle set Two axles having their centres spaced not less than 1 m and not exceeding 2 m apart and are load sharing.
Tang A prong; the shank of a tool (eg, a file).
Tank An enclosed receptacle permanently fixed to the chassis of a tank wagon; and includes: (a) any compartments and all components or materials (including coatings) necessary for the tank to perform its containment function; and (b) all parts affecting the structural integrity of the tank and the means of closing the tank.
Tank trailer A vehicle which does not have its own means of propulsion and is used for the conveyance of liquid dangerous goods carried in one or more fixed tanks; but does not include the trailer of an articulated vehicle or a railway tank unit.
Tank wagon A vehicle, including (but not limited to): (a) a tank truck or refuelling unit, that (i) has its own means of propulsion; and (ii) contains a tank; and (iii) is constructed for the primary purpose of the bulk transport of hazardous substances as a liquid or gas by road or rail; or (b) a tank semi-trailer, tank trailer, or rail wagon that (i) contains a tank; and (ii) is constructed for the primary purpose of the bulk transport of hazardous substances as a liquid or gas by rail or road.
Tanker A road tank vehicle that meets the requirements of AS 2809.3, or with earlier Standards superseded by AS 2809.3, or with the NZ LPG Tankwagon Code.
Tanker A cargo ship constructed or adapted for the carriage in bulk of liquid cargoes of an inflammable nature.
Taonga Things deemed to be of cultural or spiritual significance to Maori.
Tap (1) a tool for cutting an internal (female) screw thread in a hole. (2) a valve for regulating or stopping the flow of a fluid.
Taping (Synonym: tucking or strapping) Refers to the practice of securing the male genitals up between the legs using surgical tape or tight undergarments.
Tapu Sacred, forbidden, confidential.
Tare or service weight (vehicle) The weight of the unladen vehicle. Usually referred to in specification and data sheets as service weight. On a battery electric-powered forklift this is often shown as without battery, the battery weight being shown separately. (See also gross weight.)
Tare weight (cylinder) In relation to a gas cylinder, means the weight of the cylinder shell with all removable fittings removed.
Target A specific and measurable aim relating to an objective.
Task design Deliberate attention given to the way a person's individual work tasks are designed.
Taxi The movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome or on water, excluding take-off and landing, but including, in the case of helicopters, operation over the surface of an aerodrome within a height band associated with ground effect and at speeds associated with air taxiing.
Taxonomic classification In relation to an organism, means the genus, species, subspecies, infrasubspecies, variety, strain, cultivar, or other appropriate classification that the organism belongs to.
TBT Total Bottom Time (in diving).
TCAD Traffic alert and collision avoidance device.
TCAS Traffic alert and collision avoidance system.
Te Ratonga Oranga Maori name for the Occupational Safety and Health Service (OSH).
Technical name In relation to dangerous goods, means a recognised chemical or other name currently used in scientific and technical handbooks, journals and textbooks that clearly identifies the nature of the hazard; but does not include a trade name.
Tee-head bolt A bolt with a specially shaped head designed to fit in tee slots. Used for clamping jigs, tools or workpieces to machine tables and plattens.
Tee-slot A slot cast or cut in the bed, platen or slide of a machine, shaped to accept a tee-head bolt.
TEF Toxic equivalent factor. The proportional toxicity rating of an individual congener.
TEQ Toxic equivalents. The TEF-weighted concentration of congeners.
Te Tari Mahi Maori name for the Department of Labour.
Technique A documented basic skill or competency that enables a specific task to be completed, for example: carry out a live line job risk assessment.
Technological disaster A disaster arising from other than natural causes, including biological, chemical, nuclear, transport and terrorist-instigated disasters. Also 'man-made' disasters.
Terrestria Living or growing on the land.
TDI Toluene diisocyanate (see Isocyanate).
TDI Tolerable daily intake.
Tee-head bolt A bolt with a specially shaped head designed to fit in tee slots. Used for clamping jigs, tools or workpieces to machine tables and plattens.
TELARC Testing Laboratory Registration Council of NZ.
Telecommunication The conveyance by electromagnetic means from one device to another of any encrypted or non-encrypted sign, signal, impulse, writing, image, sound, instruction, information, or intelligence of any nature, whether for the information of any person using the device or not.
Telecommunications installation Includes any equipment, apparatus, structure, tunnel, manhole, pit, pole, wire, cable, tube, conduit, fibre, waveguide, or other physical medium used or intended to be used for or in connection with a telecommunications service.
Telescopic boom A crane boom which incorporates telescopically extendable elements in the boom structure.
TEM Transmission Electron Microscopy.
Temperature Measure of the hotness or coldness of a body.
Template An outline pattern usually made of thin sheet material, used to determine by comparison whether a workpiece is of the exact shape required.
Temporary impairment Circumstances that affect an employee's health or behaviour in the short term and can even lead to longer periods of incapacity. These can include family or relationship problems, the abuse of alcohol or other drugs, mental or physical fatigue, traumatic shock, or medical conditions or treatments.
Temporary threshold shift A temporary raising in the threshold of detection of sound. The person notices a dullness or a difficulty in hearing (speech discrimination in noisy environments, etc.) over this period of time.
Tender, tendering The process for obtaining work, including prices, bids, quotations and proposals.
Tenosynovitis Inflammation of the tendon sheaths of the wrist often associated with continual ulnar deviation, such as during rotational movements (eg, , screw-driving) or by other over work and trauma.
Tensile strength Resistance to breaking under tension.
Tension wood Where a tree or log bends outwards. Can result in splitting or sudden movement of the tree or log if not cut correctly.
Tensioned (of chainsaw) Correctly adjusted.
Tensioning device Includes twitches, load binders, winches, etc., used to tighten securing devices to tie down a load.
Teratogen An agent that causes an abnormality in the developing embryo or foetus, i.e. causes a birth defect.
Teratogenesis The causing of abnormalities in a developing embryo or foetus, i.e. causing birth defects.
Teratogenic Able to produce abnormalities in a developing embryo or foetus, that is, causing birth defects.
Terpenes A class of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons.
Territorial authority A city council or a district council named in Part 2 of Schedule 2 of the Local Government Act 2002.
Tertiary prevention This deals with the prevention of long-term sequelae after a disease has occurred eg. monitoring after hepatitis B for active hepatitis with view to treatment by interferon to prevent cirrhosis etc. It also includes follow-up eg, if a surgeon has hepatitis B or AIDS, do his or her patients need to be checked?
Test certificate (HSNO) A certificate formally verifying that required HSNO specifications have been met. Test certificates can be issued to either a person (to certify competence as an approved handler) or to a specific site or location (to certify compliance with certain safety and procedural requirements).
Test certifier (HSNO) An individual who is authorised under the HSNO Act by the Authority to issue test certificates.
Test series When followed by a letter or number, means one or more tests as prescribed in the UN manual Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Manual of Tests and Criteria (1999).
Tests Investigative techniques that can be used in the periodic assessment of individual workers to assist in determining their degree of exposure to or effect from hazardous substances.
THC Abbreviation for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, which is the specific cannabinoid responsible for most of the psychoactive effects of cannabis. The cannabinoids are substances unique to cannabis.
Theatre A place of assembly intended for the production and viewing of performing arts, and consisting of an auditorium and stage with provision for raising and suspending stage scenery above and clear of the working area.
Thermal discomfort A state where a person is very conscious of being either too hot or too cold. It is very subjective.
Thermal resistance The resistance to heat flow of a given component of a building element. It is equal to the [air] temperature difference (°C) needed to produce unit heat flux (W/m2) through unit area (m2) under steady conditions. The units are °Cm2/W.
Thermal screen A wall or other screen constructed and placed to protect people and the environment from the effects of short duration fires and heat radiation. A firewall satisfies the requirements of a thermal screen.
Thermodisc Thermally-operated switch, used to detect excess temperatures.
Thermoregulation Reaction of people's bodies to thermal environment stimuli or changes in a manner which attempts to preserve their internal body (core) temperature within an optimal range of ~ 37°. If the body becomes too hot, the blood flow is increased to the skin surface, if too cold there is decreased blood flow to the skin surface, eg, , shivering or sweating.
Thimble A metal ring formed with a groved outer edge so that it fits within an eye splice to maintain its shape and to protect the rope from chafing.
ThinkSafe Umbrella brand for ACC's injury prevention initiatives, which include FarmSafe and RiverSafe.
Thinning Felling selected trees in a stand to a prescribed pattern, to waste or for extraction.
Thinnings Trees or logs extracted in a thinning operation.
Third party inspection body An inspection body independent of the designer, manufacturer, or controller for whom design verification or equipment inspection is carried out.
Threats/abuse Any situation that you feel uncomfortable or concerned about your safety. This may range from verbal threats, aggressive inappropriate language to physical threats to violence.
Three-point linkage For a tractor or agricultural trailer, means a towing connection that has three points of attachment.
Threshold The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing.
Threshold effect concentration (TEC) Calculated as the geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC.
Threshold level A defined level of hazardous effect or quantity of hazardous substance that needs to be exceeded before a substance is classified as being hazardous or specified controls apply. Also called a minimum degree of hazard in regulation.
Thrombocytopenia A persistent decrease in the the number of blood platelets, usually associated with haemorrhagic conditions.
Throttle lock (chainsaw) Locking mechanism that holds throttle at fast idle when not activated by hand on rear handle.
Throw The offset of the centre of the crank pin (of a crank) from the axis of rotation. Equals half the stroke.
Throw over strop/chain Wire rope or chain that passes across the top of the load, through guides, and is attached to the bolster or bunk end on both sides.
Thrust Force directed along a shaft or member.
Thrust bearing A bearing specially designed to resist thrust.
Thrust collar A collar on a shaft to locate against a thrust bearing.
Tie The attachment by which scaffolding is attached to a structure; it also means 'tie and spreader' and includes the attachments used in conjunction with the spreader or putlog extension to secure a scaffold to a building or structure to prevent movement.
Tieback A rope used to tie back a hauler to a stump or deadman or to tie one stump back to another to give added strength.
TIG Tungsten inert gas. See also TAGS.
Tight lining Holding tension on the tailrope to increase lift while hauling in the main rope.
Tikanga Maori Maori customs, lore. traditions.
Tilt slab A concrete element, normally cast in a horizontal position at or near its final location. It is lifted to the vertical position with one edge remaining on the casting floor.
Timber Sawn wood or lumber, cants, logs, poles, pulpwood, and all other types of timber in loose or packaged forms. The term does not include wood pulp or other similar cargo.
Timber deck cargo A cargo of timber carried on an uncovered part of a freeboard or superstructure deck. The term does not include wood pulp or similar cargo.
Timberjack A manually operated tool incorporating a rack and pinion, designed to lift or manoeuvre large logs.
Tines Refer to Forks. Generally referred to as forks or fork arms. The Australian forklift standards discontinued the use of the term tines in favour of the term fork arms in 1988.
Tinnitus A ringing or roaring sound in the ears.
Tip over protective structure (TOPS) A structure designed to be attached to, or form part of, a machine for the purpose of reducing the possibility of an operator when wearing a seatbelt, from being injured should the machine tip over.
TISTR Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research.
TLV Threshold Limit Value (See Workplace Exposure Standards).
TLA Territorial local authority.
TNP Trade name product.
Tobacco product Any product manufactured from tobacco and intended for use by smoking, inhalation, or mastication; and includes nasal and oral snuff; but does not include any medicine (being a medicine in respect of which there is in force a consent or provisional consent given under section 20 or section 23 of the Medicines Act 1981) that is sold or supplied wholly or principally for use as an aid in giving up smoking.
Toe board A board at floor level designed to retain loose objects on a working platform.
Toggle A removable bar placed in the eye of a rope to prevent an object (eg, a hook) from sliding off. A retaining device, linked to an operating rope by a short length of chain, to facilitate the attachment and removal of rings.
Toggle joint A system comprising two levers, hinged together. The outer end of one lever is pivoted on a fixed pin, the outer end of the other lever is pivoted to a slider arranged to slide towards/away from the fixed pivot. if the two levers start at an angle to each other, a force tending to bring them in line applied at their hinge will force the slider to move away from the fixed pivot, and when nearly in line, a small sideways force will cause a large outwards force on the slider.
Tolerable daily intake (TDI) An estimate of the amount of a contaminant in food or drinking water that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without a significant health risk. The term is used frequently in WHO health assessments. The term 'tolerable' is used as contaminants do not serve an intended function and as intake is unavoidably associated with the basic consumption of food and water. Tolerable does not generally indicate 'acceptable'. TDIs are usually derived using the NOAEL/LOAEL plus safety factor approach.
Tolerable exposure limit (TEL) The maximum concentration of a substance (or toxic component of a substance) in an environmental medium that will present a low risk of a toxic effect occurring in people exposed to that substance.
Tolerance Signifies allowable variation from nominal size on a machined component, i.e. a statement of allowable inaccuracy.
Tommy bar A rod used to turn a shaft or flywheel by hand. Tommy holes are provided in the shaft or flywheel for the rod to fit into.
Tonal noise Noise that produces a definite pitch sensation in a listener.
Tongs A pair of curved arms with sharp inward facing points, pivoted like scissors, used for gripping logs.
Tonnage convention Means: (a) the International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships 1969; and (b) the Regulations annexed to that Convention and any amendments of those Regulations.
Tools-of-trade (for use as) Means that the goods will be used in carrying out a trade or profession.
Top cut The upper cut, usually angled, of a scarf.
Topically Applying a substance externally to a part of the body of a human or animal.
Topography The shape of the ground, whether it is steep or flat.
Topping positions On machines with adjustable stroke, eg, hydraulic presses, this is the uppermost position to which the tool rises. Equivalent to top dead centre on a mechanical press.
ToR Terms of Reference.
Torque Force tending to rotate the body on which it acts.
Torque converter A fluid transmission which acts as an infinitely variable gear.
Torsion The application of torque.
Tough plastic sheathed (TPS) A cable with an outer sheath of flexible plastic over 1, 2, 3 or 4 insulated wires.
Towbar The part of the towing vehicle to which a coupling for a light trailer is connected.
Towed arch A towed two-wheeled structure of 'A' frame configuration, fitted with a fairlead. For use with tractors without an integral arch and fairlead.
Tower A portable steel mast, usually part of a mobile hauler.
Towing connection The combination of components that enables one vehicle to tow or be towed by another vehicle; and includes a towbar, drawbar, drawbeam and coupling.
Towing light A yellow light having the same characteristics as the ship's sternlight.
Toxic Capable of having an adverse effect on human health.
Toxic effect The property of an agent to produce damage to an organism. Usually refers to functional (systemic) damage but may be developmental in respect of tissue and skeleton in the case of the embryo. The damage may be permanent or transient.
Toxic equivalency factor (TEF) The relative toxicity of a dioxin-like compound compared to the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD.
Toxic equivalents (TEQ) The toxic potency of a mixture of dioxin-like compounds in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. The TEQ of a mixture is the sum of the products of the concentration of each congener present in the mixture with that congener's TEF.
Toxic (poisonous) substances (Class 6.1 Dangerous goods) Substances liable to cause death, serious injury or harm to human health if swallowed, inhaled or by skin contact.
Toxic substance A substance that meets the minimum degree of hazard prescribed by Schedule 4 of the Hazardous Substances (Minimum Degrees of Hazard) Regulations 2001 for a substance with toxic properties.
Toxicant A synthetic man-made poison, eg, 1080, cyanide.
Toxicity Ability of a substance to cause injury once it reaches a susceptible site in the body, eg, the skin, brain, intestinal tract.
Toxicity test The means to determine the toxicity of a chemical or an effluent using living organisms. A toxicity test measures the degree of response of an exposed test organism to a specific chemical or effluent.
Toxicovigilance A function which involves the active identification and evaluation of toxic risks and phenomena in the community; an activity which should result in measures aimed at reducing the risks. Poisoning statistics form the basis of toxicovigilance.
TOXINZ An Internet database containing information regarding toxic compounds and the management of poisoned patients. It was developed jointly by the University of Otago and the New Zealand National Poisons Centre.
Toy tobacco product An object that (a) looks like a tobacco product or a smoker's pipe, and can be used to simulate smoking; but (b) cannot be smoked, is not confectionery, and has a primary purpose other than to help people stop smoking.
Trace component Component present at very low levels.
Traction engine A motor vehicle propelled by steam power and designed for use on roads and not for the carriage thereon of goods or of passengers other than the driver.
Tractor A self-propelled crawler or wheeled machine used to exert a push or pull force through a mounted attachment or drawbar.
Tractor unit The part of the machine comprising the engine, driving wheels and driver's compartment that is connected to the other parts of the machine by a gooseneck or universal joint, or a drawbar.
Trackball An alternative to a mouse. Instead of moving the mouse bodily, a large ball in the trackball is rotated with the thumb or fingers.
Tracking System for recording the person in charge, the quantity and whereabouts of highly hazardous substances.
Trade name A company product name which may, or may not, be registered.
Trade mark Includes any trade mark whether or not it is registered or registrable as such under the Trade Marks Act 2002; and also includes: (a) any brand name; (b) any company name, where that name is used for advertising or promotional purposes; (c) any name, word, or mark, that so resembles any trade mark that it is likely to be taken as, or confused with, that trade mark.
Trading name The known name that an entity trades by.
Traffic calming device A device that is intended, generally in association with other traffic control devices, to moderate the volumes or speeds of traffic in an area so they are consistent with the road environment and its use.
Traffic control device Includes any: (a) sign, signal, or notice; or (b) traffic calming device; or (c) marking or road surface treatment used on a road for the purpose of traffic control.
Traffic information Information issued by an ATS unit, to alert a pilot to other known or observed air traffic which may be in proximity to the position, or intended route of flight, and to help the pilot avoid a collision.
Traffic offence Means: [(a) Any offence against the Transport Act 1962 or the Land Transport Act 1998, or against any regulation or bylaw made under either of those Acts:] (b) Any offence against any regulation or bylaw made under any other Act if the offence relates to the use of vehicles or parking places or transport stations.
Traffic officer An enforcement officer under the Land Transport Act 1998.
Traffic separation scheme A scheme published by the International Maritime Organization that separates traffic navigating in one direction in an area from traffic navigating in the opposite or approximately opposite direction in that area.
Traffic sign A board, plate, screen or other device, whether or not illuminated, displaying words, figures, symbols or other material intended to instruct, advise, inform or guide traffic on a road; and includes a 'children crossing' flag, a hand-held stop sign, a parking control sign and variable message signs; but does not include a traffic signal.
Traffic signal A set of illuminated displays complying with section 6 of the Land Transport Rules and that are steady, flashing or pedestrian displays.
Trailer A vehicle without motive power that is capable of being drawn or propelled by a motor vehicle from which it is readily detachable; but does not include (a) a sidecar attached to a motor cycle; or (b) a vehicle normally propelled by mechanical power while it is being temporarily towed without the use of its own power.
Trailing cable A cable that is used or placed in position for the conveyance of electricity from an electrical system to mobile electrical plant.
Trained health and safety representative A health and safety representative who has achieved a level of competency in health and safety practice specified by the Minister by notice in the Gazette or who has completed an appropriate course approved under section 19G of the HSE Act.
Trans-dermal Through the skin.
Transfer of substances The progressive process of moving existing hazardous substances controlled under previous legislation into the HSNO Act regime.
Tansferable permit Any permit to import or manufacture a hazardous substance issued in accordance with a transferable permit scheme.
Transferable permit scheme Any scheme established in accordance with section 87 of the HSNO Act.
Transhipment Under the HSNO Act, means the importation into New Zealand of a hazardous substance or new organism solely for the purpose of export within 20 working days to another destination outside New Zealand.
Transmission In relation to a motor vehicle, means the gearing system and related components, including a driveshaft, by which power is transmitted from the flywheel or the engine output shaft to the input shafts of the powered axles.
Transmission-based precautions Infection control isolation precautions required to manage clients with infectious, communicable diseases and the management of those pathogens of clinical significance, eg, multi-resistant organisms. Transmission-based precautions should consider: admission; placement; transfer; discharge; notification requirements, eg, diseases that are required to be notified under Section 74 of the Health Act 1956.
Transmission machinery Any shaft, wheel, drum, pulley, system of fast and loose pulleys, gearing, coupling, clutch, driving belt, chain, rope, band, or other device by which the motion of a prime mover is transmitted to or received by any machine or appliance.
Transmitter Equipment used to generate and broadcast radiofrequency electromagnetic waves for communication purposes. The transmitter power is expressed in watts (W) or in kilowatts (kW = 1000 W).
Transom A lube or beam spanning across ledgers of a scaffold to form the support for boards forming the working platform or to connect the outer standards to the inner standards (see Putlog).
Transport Accident Investigation Commission (TAIC) A Crown Entity established by the Transport Accident Investigation Act 1990, to investigate accidents and incidents and to determine the circumstances and causes with a view to the avoidance of similar occurrences in the future. TAIC reports are available to the public in written and Internet format.
Transportable vessels Pressure vessels designed for the transport of fluids under pressure. They include road tanker vessels, rail tanker vessels, portable vessels, portable tanks and tank shipping containers.
Tranz Rail The major Rail Service Operator in New Zealand.
Travel distance The length of the escape route as a whole or the individual lengths of its parts, namely: (a) open paths; (b) protected paths; and (c) safe paths.
Travel restriction system System to prevent a person reaching a place from which they could fall. May consist of a safety belt and anchorage line.
Trawling The dragging through the water of a dredge net or other apparatus used as a fishing appliance.
TRC Transport Registry Centre of the Land Transport Safety Authority.
Tread The wearing surface of the tyre, i.e. that part of the tyre which makes contact with the road.
Tread wear indicators Various devices incorporated in the base of the tread pattern of a tyre, usually in the form of small raised platforms spaced at intervals around the base of the circumferential grooves of the pattern.
Treatment The management and care of a patient (including diagnosis) to combat disease or disorder. It relates to first aid, or medical, surgical or dental care. It includes: (a) physical rehabilitation; (b) cognitive rehabilitation; (c) an examination for the purpose of providing a certificate.
Treatment provider (a) Means an acupuncturist, audiologist, chiropractor, counsellor, dentist, medical laboratory technologist, nurse, occupational therapist, optometrist, osteopath, physiotherapist, podiatrist, medical practitioner, or speech therapist; and (b) includes a member of any occupational group included in the definition of ``treatment provider'' by regulations made under section 322 [IPRC Act].
Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) Has the same meaning as the word 'Treaty' as defined in section 2 of the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975.
Tree Any vegetation, shrub, twig or branch.
Tree felling Felling trees by manual or mechanical means for any purpose: (a) other than extracting logs, poles, and posts; but (b) including the purposes of (i) harvesting firewood commercially: (ii) land clearance: (iii) maintaining shelter belts for horticulture: (iv) maintaining or removing trees in the vicinity of overhead power lines: (v) managing and caring for trees in the general community: (vi) silviculture: (vii) willow layering and any other work in catchment or soil erosion operations.
Tree plate A steel plate with a hook at the bottom, spiked to a wooden spar at the point where guys and straps are hung, designed to prevent ropes cutting into the wood.
Tree shoe Device in the shape of a segment of a circle used to support the skyline from a support tree.
Tree work Any work on trees outside a forest situation including willow layering and other work with trees in catchment or soil erosion operations; maintenance of shelter belts for horticulture, agriculture or farming; maintenance of trees in the vicinity of overhead power lines; and arboriculture, which is the management and care of trees in the general community.
Tremolite A type of asbestos.
Trench A long narrow excavation.
Trench shield A steel-framed box with two vertical side plates permanently braced apart by cross frames or struts, to provide a safe working place for employees while work in an excavation is being carried out.
Trenching The use of existing live trees for river and stream protection works where they are removed and placed in excavated trenches.
Tribunal The Employment Relations Tribunal was established by the Employment Contracts Act.
Trickle-fill In relation to the filling of a vehicle cylinder with gas, means that the vehicle cylinder filling is completed in a period exceeding 30 minutes.
Trim To cut branches from a felled tree.
Trivalent An atom able to bond with three other atoms.
Trueness Closeness of agreement between the average value obtained from a large series of measurement results and the true value of the measurand. NOTE: The measure of trueness is usually expressed in terms of bias.
Trunnion A bearing upon which a container or vessel swings or pivots.
TSD agent/TSDA A transport service delivery agent, i.e. the NZ Automobile Association, On Road NZ, Vehicle Testing NZ, or Vehicle Inspection NZ.
TSI Thermal system insulation (eg, lagging around boilers, pipes and ducts) to improve (hot or cold) thermal insulation.
TSL Act Transport Services Licensing Act 1989.
TSP Trisodium phosphate (or sodium tripolyphosphate).
TSP Total suspended particles.
TST Tuberculin skin test. The only TST used in New Zealand is the Mantoux test.
Tube (tyre) An inflatable elastic liner, in the form of a hollow ring fitted with an inflation valve assembly, designed for insertion into certain tyre assemblies to provide a cushion of air or gas, that, when inflated, supports the wheel. (Also known as an 'inner tube'.)
Tuberculin A sterile solution containing growth products of the tubercle bacillus used in skin tests for tuberculosis.
Tuberculin-positive reactor The individual with a positive Mantoux (see Mantoux test).
Tuberculin skin test, or purified protein derivative (PPD) test, or Mantoux test A delayed hypersensitvitiy skin test which uses an intradermal injection of a small dose of antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with the reaction measured (48-72 hours later) as the diameter of the resultant induration.
Tuberculosis An infection caused by Mycobacterium bacilli (usually Mycobacterium tuberculae). It can affect many organs, but respiratory tuberculosis is the most common form of the disease. Health care workers are the occupational group at highest risk of developing tuberculosis from a work-related exposure.
Tuberculosis notification Tuberculosis is notifiable to the medical officer of health under the Tuberculosis Act 1948. There is a specific TB case report form.
Tumour A swelling, enlargement, or an abnormal mass of tissue in which the growth of cells is uncontrolled. A tumour can either be benign (not malignant) or malignant (cancerous). A tumour is also called a 'neoplasm'.
Tunnel Any place where any person works with ground cover overhead for the purpose of constructing an excavation intended to be more than 15 metres long, or with or without ground cover overhead for the purpose of constructing a shaft deeper than 4 metres.
Turbine A device for extracting useful energy from moving fluid, either liquid or gas. In one type, a jet of fluid at high pressure is directed onto a series of scoops or buckets fixed to the rim of a wheel, causing the wheel to turn (Pelton wheel). Another type has a series of angled blades arranged radially on a shaft (like a fan), and the fluid passing through them causes the shaft to turn. Commonly found in hydro-electric power stations, 'jet' engines, and high-speed steam-powered machinery.
Turbine powered Powered by turbojet, or turbofan, or turboprop, or turboshaft.
Turbofan A turbojet core engine that uses a proportion of the residual gas flow energy to drive a compressor ducting gas flow around the core engine as additional propulsion.
Turbojet A gas turbine engine that uses the residual gas flow energy directly as propulsion.
Turboprop A gas turbine engine that uses the residual gas flow energy to drive a propeller.
Turboshaft A gas turbine engine that uses the residual gas flow energy to drive a shaft.
Turn A helicopter's load of logs.
Turnbuckle A device used for tightening ropes, stays, etc. It consists of a central portion tapped in each end with a screw thread, one left-hand, one right-hand. Matching bolts (usually eyebolts) are fitted, so that when the bolts are held still and the central body is turned, both bolts will be pulled inwards towards the centre of the device or vice versa.
TVOCs Total volatile organic compounds.
TWA Time-Weighted Average (See Workplace Exposure Standards).
Two-pack paints A paint or lacquer supplied in two parts which must be mixed together in the correct proportions before being used. The mixture will then remain useable for a limited period only.
Two-point linkage Means, for an agricultural trailer, a towing connection that has two points of attachment.
Type fault A fault inherent in a particular type of equipment, resulting from deficiencies in the design or manufacturing process,that may cause the equipment to cause serious harm to any person.
Tyre carcass The structural part of a pneumatic tyre other than the tread and outermost rubber of the sidewalls that, when inflated, contains the gas that supports the load.
Tyre load rating The maximum load a tyre can carry at the corresponding cold inflation pressure prescribed by the tyre manufacturer and the speed indicated by its speed category symbol
Tyre pressure control system A system designed to maintain, monitor or vary tyre pressure while the vehicle is in operation.
Tyre rolling radius The distance from the centre of the wheel to the road.
Tyre safety cage, cage guard A cage-type guard to contain a tyre while it is being inflated after being dismantled or repaired. It protects the operator from being hit by parts of a wheel assembly in the event of the tyre exploding.
Tyre tread The portion of a tyre that contacts the road.

U – Z

Term or acronym


U-bolt A stud threaded at both ends and bent into a 'U' shape so both threads are parallel.
UEL Upper explosive limit. The concentration of flammable gas, vapour or mist in standard air, above which an explosive gas atmosphere will not be formed.
UHF Ultra high frequency.
UL The Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
ULD See Upper Limb Disorder.
Ullage The air space left in a container when it is nominally full so that any expansion of the liquid will not cause overflow or excessive hydraulic pressure.
Ulnar deviation A position of the hand in which the wrist is bent towards the little finger. It is a poor working position for the hand and may cause nerve and tendon damage. It reduces the ability of arm to pronate or supinate by 50%, eg, chopping wood.
Ultimate strength A property of a material that corresponds with the maximum stress that a material can withstand before failing.
Unattended boiler A boiler which can only start up, operate and shut down under the control of the boiler management system and monitoring of the safety system.
Uncertainty Estimate attached to a measurement result which characterizes the range of values within which the true value is asserted to lie.
UNCETDG The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.
Uncontrolled hazard A hazard which has been identified in a hazard analysis, and for which the operator has no control measures available, and there is not a regulatory requirement to control that hazard.
UN/ECE An abbreviation for a regulation of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
UNRTDG United Nations Recommendations for the Transport of Dangerous Goods.
Under cut (1) A back-cut lower than the horizontal scarf cut (a dangerous practice). (2) In crosscutting, the cut made from the underside of a log.
Underground coal mine (a) Any place where any person works below ground for the purpose of: (i) extracting any coal from the earth; or (ii) processing any coal extracted from the earth at that place; and (b) includes any place in which coal so extracted or processed is washed, crushed, or screened.
Underground service All underground electricity, gas, water (including piped sewage), telecommunications plant, and liquid petroleum services and oil pipelines.
Underground tank (petroleum storage) A tank capable of storing hydrocarbon products, which is installed below the surface of the ground and entirely covered with backfill and as defined in the Dangerous Goods Regulations 1985.
Undergrowth Layer of vegetation growing under the canopy of crop trees.
Underway Means that a vessel is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore, or aground.
UNICOM Service A ground radio communications service in the aeronautical mobile service providing local aerodrome information for the facilitation of aviation, and, for the avoidance of doubt, a UNICOM service is not an air traffic service.
Unintentional release Unplanned or unwanted release of a hazardous substance or substances that may or may not be detected immediately.
Union A society of employees lawfully associated for the purpose of protecting or furthering the employment interests of employees (whether incorporated or not).
Unisex facilities Facilities available for use by either sex.
Unit standard A unit standard approved by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority. A unit standard is not a training course.
Unitary authority A territorial authority that has the responsibilities, duties, and powers of a regional council conferred on it under: (a) the provisions of any Act; or (b) an Order in Council giving effect to a reorganisation scheme.
United Nations (UN) number The identification number assigned to dangerous goods by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and as published in the latest edition of: (a) New Zealand Standard 5433:1999, Transport of Dangerous Goods on Land; (b) United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods; (c) International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code; (d) Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air of the International Civil Aviation Organisation; (e) Dangerous Goods Regulations of the International Air Transport Association.
Universal earmuff An earmuff that can be worn with the headband over the head, behind the head or under the chin.
Universal joint A coupling between two shafts, capable of transmitting rotary motion from one to the other even when the shafts are placed at an angle to each other. Usually used between shafts which may change their orientation during operation.
Unladen weight In relation to a vehicle, means the weight of the vehicle together with the fuel in its fuel system (if any) and the equipment and accessories on it that are necessary for its operation for the purpose for which it was designed.
Unprotected area In relation to an external wall of a building means: (a) any part of the external wall which has less than the required FRR. For example, a non fire rated window, door or other opening, or sheet metal; (b) any part of the external wall which has combustible material more than 1.0mm thick attached or applied to its external face, whether for cladding or any other purpose.
Unprotected electrical equipment Electrical equipment which, because of its design or manufacture, is not suitable for use in a potentially explosive atmosphere.
Unsealed radioactive material A radioactive material in a form that allows it to be readily removed from its container and subdivided or dispersed.
Upper deck The uppermost complete deck exposed to weather and sea: (a) which has permanent means of weathertight closing of all openings in the weather part thereof; and (b) below which all openings in the sides of the ship are fitted with permanent means of watertight closing. In a ship having a stepped upper deck, the lower line of the exposed deck and the continuation of that line parallel to the upper part of the deck is taken as the upper deck.
Upper limb disorders A range of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders associated with work. Some have clear clinical and pathological diagnostic criteria. These include rotator cuff syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, ulnar nerve entrapment, radial nerve entrapment, tendonitis in the hand and fingers, Raynaud's phenomenon or peripheral neuropathy related to upper limb vibration, De Quervain's tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. In addition, there are many cases of upper limb pain without associated objective signs. These cases have been given many labels, including repetitive strain injury, occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) and non-specific musculoskeletal disorder of the upper limb. Usage in New Zealand ACC review and appeal cases has favoured the term 'regional pain syndrome'.
Uproot Tree blown or pushed over with the root wad attached.
UPSS Underground petroleum storage system.
uPVC Un-plasticised polyvinyl chloride.
Urethane A type of paint or polymer which results from the reaction of an isocyanate with hydroxyl containing component. Urethanes are noted for their toughness and abrasion resistance.
URL Universal Resource Locator (worldwide web or internet address/location of file).
Urupa Maori burial site.
Use In relation to hazardous substance, use includes handling, storage, labelling, tracking and disposal.
User formable earplug An earplug that is shaped by the user before insertion into the ear canal.
Useful life May be expressed as either: (a) The period over which a depreciable asset is expected to be used; or (b) The number of production or similar units (i.e. intervals, cycles) that is expected to be obtained from the asset.
USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency.
UTC Co-ordinated universal time.
UV radiation Solar UV radiation is waves of energy generated from the sun which can cause sunburn, pre-mature ageing of the skin and cancer. Splar UV radiation can be divided into three wavelength bands: UVA (315 nm - 400 nm), UVB (280 nm - 315 nm) and UVC (100 nm - 280 nm). The earth's ozone layer absorbs all of the UVC and much of the UVB.
UV Index An international system for reporting ultraviolet radiation intensity. The index is defined as the UV spectral irradiance weighted by the CIE action spectrum, and is given in units of watts per square metre, multiplied by 40. Simply stated, the UV Index is a measure of the amount of skin-damaging (and eye-damaging) UV radiation that reaches the earth's surface. As the UV Index number increases, so does the potential risk.
V Volts.
Vaccine A suspension of killed or attenuated organisms (bacteria or viruses) designed to protect the body against a specific disease by stimulating the formation of antibodies.
Vaccinate To inoculate with a vaccine to provide immunity to a corresponding infectious disease.
Vacuum cleaning equipment Equipment complying with the requirements of the Australian Standard numbered AS 3544-1988 and entitled 'Industrial Vacuum Cleaners for Particulates Hazardous to Health'.
Valid, in relation to a study (a) The design of the study methodology accurately reflects the matters the study seeks to measure; and (b) the study findings can be extrapolated from the sample used in the study to a broader population.
Valuation Estimated asset value which may depend on the purpose for which the valuation is required, it replacement value for determining maintenance levels or market value for lifecycle costing.
Valve A device for the purpose of controlling or shutting off the flow of gas.
Valve train An assembly of valves, pressure control devices, and other fittings that form an integrated system for flow or pressure control and safe operation of a burner.
Vapour The gaseous form of a substance that is normally a liquid or solid, eg, mercury, organic solvents.
Vapour barrier A wall or other barrier constructed and placed with the objective of preventing the passage of vapour from any one place to some other place.
Vapour degreasing The process in which a cold metal object contaminated with oil or grease is immersed in the vapour above a boiling chlorinated hydrocarbon. The solvent condenses on the object and any oil or grease contamination is washed off. The process continues until the object reaches vapour temperature, at which point no more vapour is condensed and the degreasing action of the solvent ceases.
Vapour density The ratio of the density of the vapour compared to the density of air. The density of air is assumed to be 1.0. Vapours with a vapour density greater than 1.0 will have a tendency to stay close to the floor, whereas vapours with a vapour density less than 1.0 will tend to rise.
Vapour pressure The pressure created when a substance evaporates. This is the pressure of the vapour of the substance, at a given temperature, in equilibrium with its solid or liquid form. The higher the vapour pressure, the more the substance tends to evaporate.
Vault An underground structure, with a minimum volume of 1.0m3, which may be entered, and which is designed to contain piping and piping components (such as valves and pressure regulators).
VCU Vehicle Certification Unit of the Land Transport Safety Authority.
VDU Visual Display Unit. The monitor, keyboard and mouse and computer housing.
Vector A living carrier which transfers an infectious agent from an infected individual (or their waste) to another individual, their food, or their immediate surroundings.
Vector control Measures taken to decrease the number of disease carrying organisms (vectors) and to diminish the risk of their spreading infectious diseases.
Vehicle (a) A contrivance equipped with wheels, tracks, or revolving runners on which it moves or is moved; and (b) includes a hovercraft, a skateboard, in-line skates, and roller skates; but (c) does not include (i) a perambulator or pushchair: (ii) a shopping or sporting trundler not propelled by mechanical power: (iii) a wheelbarrow or hand-trolley: (iv) a child's toy, including a tricycle and a bicycle, provided, in either case, no road wheel (including a tyre) has a diameter exceeding 355 mm: (v) a pedestrian-controlled lawnmower: (vi) a pedestrian-controlled agricultural machine not propelled by mechanical power: (vii) an article of furniture: (viii) an invalid wheel-chair not propelled by mechanical power: (ix) any other contrivance specified by the rules not to be a vehicle for the purposes of this definition.
Vehicle axle index (VAI) A system for indicating the extent to which the axles of a motor vehicle are loaded, so that the effect of the axle weights on roads and bridges can be determined, and that is established by a road controlling authority when the vehicle is issued with an overweight permit.
Vehicle identification number (VIN) A group of letters and numbers consisting of 17 characters that: (a) is affixed to a vehicle in accordance with the relevant standard prescribed under the Traffic Regulations 1976, and (b) is capable of being decoded to provide identifying information about that vehicle.
Vein A vessel carrying blood to the heart.
Velocity sensor Device which senses speed of an object or fluid.
Venereal disease Under the Health Act defined as gonorrhoea, gonorrhoeal ophthalmia, syphilis, soft chancre, venereal warts, or venereal granuloma.
Ventilation The supply of sufficient clean air to ensure that releases of harmful substances do not accumulate to a concentration that affects people's health and safety.
Verification Process to specify procedures and equipment for limited tests performed over a restricted range with traceable materials or instruments on a regular basis or upon indication of need in order to detect whether the system is behaving normally or erratically with no adjustment or correction of the measurement system
Verification scheme A documented scheme that provides a basis for ensuring that safety critical elements: (a) remain in good repair and condition; and (b) where they are yet to be provided, will be suitable.
Vermin Any free-living animal which is not part of the normal operation of any premises. The term includes, but is not restricted to, birds, rodents, other mammals and insects.
Vertebrate toxic agent A trade name product used to kill or reduce the viability of vertebrate animals. It does not include attractant or repellent substances that are not toxic.
Vessel Every description of boat or craft used in navigation, whether or not it has any means of propulsion; and includes: (a) a barge, lighter, or other light vessel; (b) a hovercraft or other thing deriving full or partial support in the atmosphere from the reaction of air against the surface of the water over which it operates; (c) a submarine or other submersible.
Veterinary medicine Any substance, mixture of substances, or biological compound used or intended for use in the direct management of an animal.
Veterinary surgeon A person for the time being registered as a veterinary surgeon under the Veterinary Surgeons Act 1956; and includes a person who uses the title or description of a 'veterinary practitioner' under the authority of that Act.
VFR flight A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules.
VHF Very High Frequency. Used to describe frequencies or channels in the range 30 - 300 MHz.
Vibration disorders Disorders associated with whole-body vibration (caused by vehicle operating, especially forklifts, tractors, loaders, trucks and buses) or hand-transmitted vibration (caused by hammer drills, hand-held portable grinders and jigsaws.
Vibration white finger A condition where the blood vessels in the hand constrict, resulting in decreased blood flow. This disease is associated with the long-term use of vibrating tools (or in general exposure to vibration). Also referred to as secondary Raynaud's phenomenon.
Victim Under the Victims' Rights Act: (a) means: (i) a person against whom an offence is committed by another person; and (ii) a person who, through, or by means of, an offence committed by another person, suffers physical injury, or loss of, or damage to, property; and (iii) a parent or legal guardian of a child, or of a young person, who falls within subparagraph (i) or subparagraph (ii), unless that parent or guardian is charged with the commission of, or convicted or found guilty of, or pleads guilty to, the offence concerned; and (iv) a member of the immediate family of a person who, as a result of an offence committed by another person, dies or is incapable, unless that member is charged with the commission of, or convicted or found guilty of, or pleads guilty to, the offence concerned; and (b) for the purposes only of sections 7 and 8, includes: (i) a person who, through, or by means of, an offence committed by another person, suffers any form of emotional harm; and (ii) a parent or legal guardian of a child, or of a young person, who falls within subparagraph (i), unless that parent or guardian is charged with the commission of, or convicted or found guilty of, or pleads guilty to, the offence concerned; and (c) despite paragraphs (a) and (b), if an offence is committed by a person, does not include another person charged (whether as a principal or party or accessory after the fact or otherwise) with the commission of, or convicted or found guilty of, or who pleads guilty to: (i) that offence; or (ii) an offence relating to the same incident or series of incidents as that crime or offence.
Victim impact statement (VIS) A document that advises the Court what the impact of the offence has been on the victim. It considers: (a) any physical injury or emotional harm suffered by the victim through, or by means of, the offence; and (b) any loss of, or damage to, property suffered by the victim through, or by means of, the offence; and (c) any other effects of the offence on the victim.
Vienna Convention The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances adopted in Vienna on 19 December 1988.
Vigilance Having to pay attention or concentrate for long periods of time. This state of sustained alertness or vigilance is required in some jobs such as driving or flying and is especially demanding mentally.
Violence Any action, incident or behaviour in which an employee is assaulted, threatened, harmed, injured or humiliated in circumstances related to their work, including commuting to and from work, because of the action of another person. This can involve:
  • intentional behaviour aimed at physically injuring or assaulting an employee, leading to actual physical or psychological harm;
  • verbal abuse, including swearing, insults or condescending language;
  • aggressive body language indicating intimidation, contempt or disdain;
  • harassment, including mobbing, bullying and racial or sexual harassment;
  • expression of the intent to cause harm, including threatening behaviour, verbal and written threats.
Viral hepatitis An infection of the liver caused by one of a wide range of viruses. Typical symptoms are fever, malaise and jaundice, although hepatitis C is often asymptomatic. In an occupational context, hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) are the most important. The main routes of exposure are percutaneous (puncturing the skin) through needle stick injuries, and across mucous membranes or damaged skin, through contact with contaminated body fluids.
Virulence The degree of pathogenicity of a micro-organism, as indicated by the severity of the disease produced and its ability to invade the tissues of a host.
Viscera Body organs.
Viscosity The resistance of a fluid to flow.
Visibility The ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of measurement, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night.
Visible light transmittance (VLT) The proportion of visible light that passes through glazing, measured perpendicular to the glazing. Overall VLT is the VLT of the glazing together with any overlays.
Vision A declaration of the ideal conditions: how things would look if the issue important to you was perfectly addressed.
Visor Shield (made from plastic or mesh) that encloses the front and sides of the wearer's face. Visors are generally fitted to safety helmets.
Visual acuity The ability to focus the eyes clearly.
VOC Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted directly (for example, fuel evaporation from vehicles and service stations) and during combustion processes. Biogenic VOCs are naturally emitted by vegetation.
Vocationally independent An injured person who has the ability following rehabilitation to get a job.
Vocational medical assessment Assessment of an injured claimant's suitability to return to work, including alternate employment if they are unable to return to their old job.
Vocational rehabilitation ACC help for a claimant to maintain employment, obtain employment, or maintain or obtain vocational independence (able to get a job after an injury).
Volatile Able to pass readily into the vapour state.
Volatile organic compounds Large and diverse group of chemicals, including hydrocarbons oxygenates and halocarbons, including 1, 3-butadiene, benzene toluene, xylenes, styrene, some PAHs, formaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, dichloromethane, dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and acrylonitrile.
Volatility The tendency of a solid or liquid material to pass into the vapour state at a given temperature in °C. Specifically, the vapour pressure of a component divided by its mole fraction (gram molecular weight) in the liquid or solid.
VOLMET Meteorological information for aircraft in flight.
Voltage The pressure of the electrical power supply. The unit of pressure of the electricity supply is the Volt, or V. For example household electricity is supplied at 230 V.
Volunteer A person who: (a) does not expect to be rewarded for work to be performed as a volunteer; and (b) receives no reward for work performed as a volunteer. Does not include a person who is in a place of work for the purpose of receiving on-the-job training or gaining work experience.
Volunteer worker  
Volunteer diver A person present in a place of work who does not expect to receive any gain or reward for the diving activity taking place. Please note: The definition of 'volunteers' does not include those who are receiving training or gaining work experience.
Volunteer fire brigade Any group of persons associated by mutual consent as a fire brigade where: (a) those persons have entered as a group into a binding agreement of service with the NZ Fire Service Commission; and (b) that group of persons is registered as a volunteer fire brigade under the Fire Service Act.
Vote: Labour Money voted to DOL by Parliament in the Budget.
VTA Vertebrate toxic agent.
VTS Vessel Traffic Services.
Vulnerable facility Any of the following facilities: (a) buildings of 4 storeys or more, of curtain wall construction with panels greater than 1 500 mm square: (b) buildings of 4 storeys or more with more than 50% of the wall area glazed: (c) any hospital (as defined in the Hospitals Act 1957), early childhood centre (as defined in section 308 of the Education Act 1989), or school (as defined in section 145 of the Education Act 1989): (d) public buildings or structures of historic value: (e) major traffic terminals such as railway stations and air ports handling more than 1 800 people in 24 hours: (f) major public utilities whose service could be disrupted by a blast of 5 kPa: (g) any similar facilities.
V/V A measure of content of a liquid in a liquid (in solution) (volume per volume).
W/V A measure of content of a solid in a solution (weight per volume).
WSMP Workplace Safety Management Practices.
W/W A measure of content of a solid in a solid (weight per weight).
Wahi tapu Sites of significance to Maori, including those of sacred and cultural significance.
Waka ama Outrigger canoe. A waka ama consists of a hull with one or more outrigger pontoons (ama), rigged out to the side for stability and lashed to the hull with cross beam members (kiato). The hull has sealed bow (ihu) bulkheads and stern (kei) bulkheads.
Waka taurua Double-hulled canoe. A waka taurua is a vessel with two hulls lashed together with kiato for stability.
Waka tere Sailing canoe. A tere is a waka ama fitted/rigged with a mast, a sail and appropriate sailing kiato. The waka tere also has a special sailing ama for the purpose of sailing.
Waling A horizontal beam supporting vertical timbers, runners or sheeting.
Warm location A location in New Zealand where the degree-day total is less than 920.
Warning Applied in the context of safety signs to a situation which is likely to be hazardous but but not likely to be life-threatening if the message is ignored.
Warrant Documentation specifying the functions that the enforcement officer may carry out.
Warrant of fitness (WoF) Evidence of vehicle inspection issued to a vehicle under the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Standards Compliance.
Waste Any material, solid, liquid or gas that is unwanted and/or unvalued, discarded or discharged (as defined in the New Zealand Waste Strategy).
Waste audit A systematic, documented, periodic and objective evaluation of an organisation's performance in managing waste.
Wastewater services Sewerage, treatment and disposal of sewage, and stormwater drainage.
Water capacity The volume of water at 15°C that fills a compressed gas container that is fitted for use with any valve, dip tube, float, or other necessary fittings.
Water dew point Temperature above which no condensation of water occurs at a specified pressure. NOTE: For any pressure lower than the specified pressure there is no condensation at this dew point temperature.
Water reactive Substances that react violently when in contact with water. They may be either be flammable solids or corrosives.
Water safety sector A general term used to cover all the individuals, groups, agencies and organisations with interest in or responsibility for water safety issues.
Water supply The provision of drinking water to communities by network reticulation to the point of supply of each dwellinghouse and commercial premise to which drinking water is supplied.
Water trap A fitting designed to retain a depth of water that prevents foul air and gases escaping from the plumbing system or foul water drainage system and entering a building.
Watt The unit of power, usually expressed as Watt or W. The appropriate power supply is marked on the nameplate, eg, a heater may be labelled 2,300 W, a light bulb may be labelled 60 W.
Weapons system Any ammunition, explosive, or propellant; and includes any platform designed to carry any combination thereof.
Weather deck A ship's deck that is exposed to the weather and sea.
Web part A modular unit of information that has a single purpose and that forms the basic building block of a Web Part Page. A web part consists of a bar, a frame and content.
Wedge A tapered plastic, steel, or aluminium alloy tool which is driven into a back cut by a hammer to prevent the tree from sitting back on the back cut, or to force it towards the desired direction of fall.
Welder, certified A welder who holds current welding certification approved to NZS 4711 (or equivalent) in the position(s) appropriate to the welding task.
Welding Connection of two solids by the liquefaction, followed by solidification, of material which joins them.
Well A fully or partially lined hole in the ground.
Well (petroleum) (a) A borehole that is intended to intersect petroleum-bearing strata; and (b includes any borehole for re-injection purposes.
Well-drilling operation (petroleum) Any operation in connection with the drilling of, or in, a well; and includes: (a) the making, completion, suspension, or abandonment of a well; and (b) the deepening, repair, or re-drilling of a well; and (c) any operation that renders any part of the primary pressure containment system of the well inactive or inoperable; and (d) any on-site operation ancillary to the making, completion, suspension, or abandonment of a well, whether or not before, during, or after the actual making, completion, suspension, or abandonment takes place.
Well point system A system of pipes, jetted or driven at close centres into the ground and connected to suction main for the purpose of lowering ground water, particularly in granular soil.
Wellhead A set of valves and other pressure-rated components, connected to the top of the geothermal well and used to contain the well fluids.
Wellness A dimension of health beyond the absence of disease or infirmity, including social, emotional and spiritual aspects of health.
WES Workplace Exposure Standard.
Wettable powder A powder formulation to be applied as a suspension after dispersion in water.
Whanau Extended family, family group.
Wheel A rotating load-carrying member between the tyre and the hub, which usually consists of two major parts, the rim and the wheel disc, which may be manufactured as one part, or permanently attached to each other, or detachable from each other; and includes the tyre fitted to the rim.
Wheel centre-disc That part of the wheel that is the supporting member between the hub and the rim.
Wheeled loader A four-wheeled, articulated machine equipped with loading forks.
Wheel offset Distance from the rim centreline to the inner (hub contact) face of the wheel disk, measured in millimetres. A wheel with a positive offset will have the centreline inboard of the contact face, whereas a wheel with negative offset will have the wheel centreline outboard of the contact face.
Wheel spacer An additional component used for the purpose of positioning the wheel centre-disc relative to the hub, or in multiple wheel sets, for the purpose of positioning the wheel centre-disc relative to another wheel.
Wheelbase The distance from a vehicle's rear axis to its front axis.
WHO World Health Organisation.
WHO guideline values An indication of the concentrations of a substance to which people may be exposed without adverse health effects; set by the WHO.
Wholesome In relation to water, means complying with the standards in the Ministry of Health document Drinking Water Standards for New Zealand 1995.
Whorl Ring of branches emerging from a tree stem.
Winch A powered drum used to reel in or pay out rope.
Wind chill The effect of wind speed in increasing the cooling effect of air temperature. It is expressed as the still air temperature giving the same cooling effect.
Wind wrenched Trees blown over by the wind, but still standing. Stems may be severely bent
Windfall An individual tree blown down by the wind.
Window trough That part of the window sill below both the upper and lower vertical sliding sashes of sash windows, or the area of the sill or frame covered by a closed casement or top hung window.
Windrowing Moving the slash on the cutover into long parallel piles.
Windscreen All glazing extending across the front of the vehicle that is not parallel to the vehicle's longitudinal centre-line; but does not include a wind deflector.
Windthrow Trees blown down by the wind. Stems have been snapped or the rootplate has rotated out of the ground.
Wing cuts Cuts made into the wood of the stump area to minimise side slabbing. They are made on each side, beneath the base of the scarf and at an angle greater than 60°.
Wing nut A nut formed with two projections or 'wings' for tightening by hand.
Wire glass Glass that incorporates reinforcing wire mesh.
WLL Working load limit. Normally relates to SWL and is the same, however, refer to manufacturers' specifications.
WMA World Medical Association.
Woodworking machine (a) A band re-saw, borer, chipper, circular saw, profile copying machine, debarker, edger,frame saw, log band saw, log carriage, mortising machine, moulder, narrow blade band saw, planing machine, router, sander, tenoning machine, trencher, or wood turning machine; (b) Any machine designed to be fitted with a cutter and used either for:
  • Breaking down a log to boards; or
  • The further processing of sawn timber, wood, wood products, fibre board, or any other material, including aluminium, used in the place of wood in the building, construction, joinery or furniture manufacturing industry.
Work Physical or mental effort directed towards doing or making something. Paid employment at a job or trade, occupation or profession.
Work-conditioned pauses Those interruptions that arise either from the operation of the machine or the organisation of the work, eg, waiting for the machine to complete a phase of its operation, or for a tool to cool down, etc. Work-conditioned pauses are breaks in work caused by system or process, eg, waiting to fill boxes on a conveyor belt.
Work involving asbestos (a) Work involving the cleaning, disposal, handling, processing, storage, use, or working of asbestos; or (b) work involving the demolition or maintenance of any thing, including a building or a part of a building, containing asbestos; or (c) cleaning work carried out as a consequence of, or in connection with, work specified in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b).
Work lamp A high-intensity lamp, which is not necessary for the operation of the vehicle but is designed to illuminate a work area or scene; and includes: (a) a scene lamp; and (b) a spot lamp; and (c) an alley lamp.
Work organisation factors The way in which work is structured, supervised and processed. It deals with the institutional features of work such as the nature of the organisational chart, who is the boss, power, authority, responsibilities, how work gets done, the nature of tasks including such features as workload and content. It is the objective nature of the work process.
Work platform A platform intended to provide safe working conditions and designed to be mounted on a high lift fork truck or other elevating device, providing an areas for person(s) elevated by and working from the platform safety work surface.
Work practice controls Controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure to hazards by altering the manner in which a task is performed (eg, , prohibiting the two-handed technique for the recapping of needles after use, or prohibiting the drop starting of chainsaws).
Worker A worker is an individual who carries out work in any capacity for a PCBU. A worker may be an employee, a contractor or sub-contractor, an employee of a contractor or sub-contractor, an employee of a labour hire company, an outworker (including a homeworker), an apprentice or a trainee, a person gaining work experience or on a work trial, or a volunteer worker. Workers can be at any level (eg managers are workers too).
Workers Memorial Day Day started by American and Canadian workers in 1989 in order to commemorate dead and injured workers annually on 28 April.
Working alone Work carried out in an area where normal means of contact (eg, verbal, sight) with other staff are not available, so that the potential risk of existing hazards is increased to the extent that extra precautions are needed. This may include working in isolated areas on- or off-site, either during or outside normal working hours.
Work-related homicide Death due to fatal injury deliberately caused by another person and sustained in the course of work.
Work-related non-fatal assault A non-fatal injury deliberately caused by another person and sustained in the course of work.
Work-related personal injury A work-related personal injury is a personal injury that a person suffers: (a) while he or she is at any place for the purposes of his or her employment, including, for example, a place that itself moves or a place to or through which the claimant moves; or (b) while he or she is having a break from work for a meal or rest or refreshment at his or her place of employment; or (c) while he or she is travelling to or from his or her place of employment at the start or finish of his or her day's work, if he or she is an employee and if the transport (i) is provided by the employer; and (ii) is provided for the purpose of transporting employees; and (iii) is driven by the employer or, at the direction of the employer, by another employee of the employer or of a related or associated employer; or (d) while he or she is travelling, by the most direct practicable route, between his or her place of employment and another place for the purposes of getting treatment for a work-related personal injury, if the treatment (i) is necessary for the injury; and (ii) is treatment of a type that the claimant is entitled to under Part 1 of Schedule 1. Work-related personal injury includes:
  • a cardio-vascular or cerebro-vascular episode suffered by a person, if the episode is caused by physical effort or physical strain, in performing his or her employment, that is abnormal in application or excessive in intensity for the person;
  • personal injury caused by a work-related gradual process, disease, or infection;
  • personal injury suffered by a person resulting from treatment for a work-related personal injury. [IPRC Act]
Work-related suicide Intentional self-harm, which intentionally results in death, resulting from work-related exposures or effects. It is a controversial concept because of debate over the extent and nature of connections that demonstrate a link to work.
Working cargo Means: (a) loading cargo on to or unloading cargo from a ship; or (b) handling cargo on a ship; or (c) handling cargo on a wharf or in a transit shed within the limits of a harbour.
Workplace A place at which a person works. Includes mobile workplaces such as road vehicles, aircraft and ships.
Workplace accident register Book for recording serious and non-serious harm in the workplace.
Worplace bullying

Bullying is a psychosocial health risk which may increase the potential for workplace safety risks. Work has potential to harm a person’s health and their health can affect safety at work. WorkSafe defines workplace bullying as repeated and unreasonable behaviour directed towards a worker or group of workers that can lead to physical or psychological harm.

Worksite assessment A comprehensive analysis of an individual's job, work technique, workload, workstation, equipment, etc. The written report of the worksite assessment should include a summary of main findings and a recommended action plan.
Workstation (1) The desk, chair and so on at which a VDU is used. (2) The entire area accessed by a worker when performing a specific task or job cycle.
Working cargo Means: (a) Loading cargo on to or unloading cargo from a ship; or (b) Handling cargo on a ship; or (c) Handling cargo on a wharf or in a transit shed within the limits of a harbour.
Working channel or frequency The channel (for VHF) or frequency (for MF/HF) on which marine radio communications are carried out after initial contact has been established on the calling frequency or channel.
Working day Any day except: (a) a Saturday, a Sunday, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Anzac Day, Labour Day, the Sovereign's birthday, and Waitangi Day; and (b) a day in the period commencing on the 20th day of December in any year and ending with the 15th day of January in the foillowing year.
Working drum A drum that can reel a rope in or out during a hauling cycle.
Working height Generally the height at which the hands are positioned, eg, , the working height for a supermarket checkout operator would probably be somewhere between 5-20cm above the height of the checkout bench. The most favourable working height for handwork while standing is 50-100mm below elbow level. Working height will vary depending on the stature of the worker and the nature of the work. Delicate work is generally done higher than heavier work.
Working platform That part of a scaffolding on which workers and/or materials are supported for the purpose of carrying out construction work.
Working pressure In relation to gas cylinders, a non-preferred term whose definition may vary with each example. Unless otherwise defined, to be taken as the filling pressure for permanent gases.
Working technique The way a person uses their body (parts) to do their work. Having a good posture, keeping joints straight, using momentum to help get the work done, and using smooth actions are a few examples of good technique.
Workplace Exposure Standard (WES) The maximum concentration of a substance in a worker's breathing zone that, on the basis of present knowledge, will not cause adverse health effects. Three categories of Threshold Limit Value (TLV) exist: (a) The Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) - the time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour work day and a 40-hour work week, to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect. (b) Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) - the concentration to which workers can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without suffering from (l) irritation; (2) chronic or irreversible tissue damage; or (3) narcosis of sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury, impair self-rescue or materially reduce work efficiency, and provided that the daily TLV-TWA is not exceeded. It is not a separate independent exposure limit; rather it supplements the time- weighted average (TWA) limit where there are recognised acute effects from a substance whose toxic effects are primarily of a chronic nature. STELs are recommended only where toxic effects have been reported from high short-term exposures in either humans or animals. A STEL is defined as a 15-minute time-weighted average exposure which should not be exceeded at any time during a workday even if the 8-hour time-weighted average is within the TLV. Exposures at the STEL should not be longer than 15 minutes and should not be repeated more than once per day. An averaging period other than 15 minutes may be recommended when this is warranted by observed biological effects. (c) Threshold Limit Value - Ceiling (TLV-C) - the concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure.
Workplace monitoring Assessing the amount of physical, chemical or biological agent in the workplace, eg, the concentration of fumes in the air.
Workplace productivity How firms can utilise labour and skills, innovation, technology and workplace organisation to improve the quantity and quality of their output.
Workspace envelope The limit to functional reach in 3D space. How far someone can reach from a certain position, eg, , the area controls can be placed in a car that the driver can reach.
World Day for Safety and Health at Work The day chosen by the ILO to promote the concept of creating and sustaining a safety and health culture at work. It is held on 28 April.
Worm and wheel A type of gearing system used when very large reduction in speed is required. The worm is a small gear resembling a course screw thread, which meshes with the teeth on the rim of the wheel, which is of larger diameter. The shaft carrying the worm gear is perpendicular to the shaft carrying the 'wheel' and off-set from it. The 'worm' is rotated thus turning the wheel around at a slower rate.
Wrap To turn a rope around a drum, log or stump.
Wrapping The action of two moving ropes winding around each other.
Wrist extension Posture where hand and wrist are bent up from a horizontal plane. Movement of hand towards back. Painting provides a good example.
Wrist flexion Posture where hand and wrist are bent down from a horizontal plane. Movement of hand towards palm. Painting provides a good example. In both postures, tendons are forced to curve around structures in the wrist. Resultant friction can lead to early fatigue and injury.
Wrist-rest A support for the heel of the hand placed adjacent to the keyboard at about spacebar .
Written authority A document which permits entry to or work in a confined space. Note: the written authority is sometimes known by other names, for example as an entry permit, an access authority, or a permit to work.
WSE Programme Workplace Safety Evaluation programme (ACC), designed to help employers with much higher than average injury statistics improve the safety of their workplaces.
WSNZ Water Safety New Zealand Inc.
X-rays X-rays produced by radioactive materials are photons radiated during a nuclear transformation after an orbital electron has been removed and another orbital electron falls down into the vacancy, emitting the difference in binding energy as a photon.
XRF X-ray fluorescence.
Yarder (Synonym: Hauler) A machine equipped with winch or winches which operates from a set position to haul logs or drags from the stump to landing.
Years of life lost (YLL) An indicator of the social burden of fatal health outcomes, calculated by subtracting the age at death from the life expectancy remaining at that age (as determined from a suitable standard or reference life table).
Yellow tipping Incomplete gas combustion where excess hydrocarbons can possibly result in unacceptable levels of carbon monoxide being produced. NOTE: This may result in soot deposition and continual deterioration of combustion.
Yield strength A property of a material that corresponds with the maximum stress that a material can withstand before permanent deformation (dimensional change) occurs.
Yoke The heavy U-shaped part of a block by which the block is attached to a fixed point.
Zero energy The state where all sources of energy including electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical and stored energy are isolated so that they pose no danger.
Zero regulator A gas pressure regulator that operates at an outlet pressure of zero or near-zero gauge or (atmospheric) pressure, usually in conjunction with an air-gas proportioning device.
Zipper (effect) The splitting of the sidewall of a tyre under inflation. The tyre bursts with a long narrow opening, ejecting wire and rubber shrapnel.
Zoonosis A disease of animals that may be transmitted to humans under natural conditions (eg, TB, leptospirosis). Zoonoses include infection caused by viruses, fungi, parasites and bacteria.